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The BEIJING DIALECT (simplified Chinese : 北京话; traditional Chinese : 北京話; pinyin : Běijīnghuà), also known as PEKINGESE, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
. It is the phonological basis of Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
, which is the official language in the People\'s Republic of China
China
and Republic of China
China
and one of the official languages in Singapore
Singapore
.

Although the Beijing
Beijing
dialect and Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
are similar, various differences generally make clear to Chinese speakers whether an individual is a native of Beijing
Beijing
speaking the local Beijing variant or is an individual speaking Standard Chinese.

CONTENTS

* 1 Beijing
Beijing
Mandarin * 2 Mutual intelligibility with other Mandarin dialects

* 3 Phonology
Phonology

* 3.1 Influence of Beijing
Beijing
dialect phonology on Manchu

* 4 Vocabulary * 5 Grammar
Grammar
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

BEIJING MANDARIN

In the classification used by the Language Atlas of China
China
, the Beijing
Beijing
dialect is included in a dialect group called BEIJING MANDARIN (simplified Chinese : 北京官话; traditional Chinese : 北京官話; pinyin : Běijīng Guānhuà), distinguished from other Mandarin subgroups by the tonal reflexes of syllables that had Middle Chinese stop codas (the so-called entering tone category). In the Atlas, Beijing
Beijing
Mandarin is divided into four subgroups:

* Jīngshī (京师), covering the urban area of the capital. * Huái–Chéng (怀承), on the southeast edge of Beijing
Beijing
around Langfang , Huairou District and other northern districts of the municipality, and the northern part of Hebei
Hebei
, including the city of Chengde . * Cháo–Fēng (朝峰), spoken in a strip between the Huai–Cheng dialects and the Northeast Mandarin area, and including the cities of Chaoyang and Chifeng . * Shí–Kè (石克) or northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
, including the cities of Shihezi and Karamay
Karamay
.

In the second edition of the Atlas published in 2012, the Shí–Kè dialects are re-allocated to the Northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
subgroup of Lanyin Mandarin , and the Jīngshī and Huái–Chéng subgroups are demoted to clusters of a new Jīng–Chéng (京承) subgroup.

MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY WITH OTHER MANDARIN DIALECTS

Dungan language speakers like Iasyr Shivaza and others have reported that Chinese who speak Beijing
Beijing
dialect can understand Dungan, but Dungans could not understand the Beijing
Beijing
Mandarin.

PHONOLOGY

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .

In fundamental structure, the phonology of the Beijing
Beijing
dialect and Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
are almost identical. In part, this is because the pronunciation of Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
was based on Beijing
Beijing
pronunciation. (See Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
for its phonology charts; the same basic structure applies to the Beijing
Beijing
dialect.)

However, some striking differences exist. Most prominent is the proliferation of rhotic vowels . All rhotic vowels are the result of the use of the -儿 /-ɚ/, a noun suffix , except for a few words pronounced that do not have this suffix. In Standard Chinese, these also occur but much less often than they appear in Beijing
Beijing
dialect. This phenomenon is known as érhuà (儿化) or rhotacization , as is considered one of the iconic characteristics of Beijing
Beijing
Mandarin.

When /w/ occurs in syllable-initial position, many speakers use before vowels other than as in 我 wǒ, and as in 五 wu, e.g. 尾巴 wěiba .

Moreover, Beijing
Beijing
dialect has a few phonetic reductions that are usually considered too "colloquial" for use in Standard Chinese. For example, in fast speech, initial consonants go through lenition if they are in an unstressed syllable : pinyin ⟨zh ch sh⟩ /tʂ tʂʰ ʂ/ become ⟨r⟩ /ɻ/, so 不知道 bùzhīdào "don't know" can sound like bùrdào; ⟨j q x⟩ /tɕ tɕʰ ɕ/ become ⟨y⟩ /j/, so 赶紧去 gǎnjǐnqù "go quickly" can sound like gǎnyǐnqù; pinyin ⟨b d g⟩ /p t k/ go through voicing to become ; similar changes also occur on other consonants.

Some of these changes yield syllables that violate the syllable structure of Standard Chinese, such as 大柵欄 Dà Zhàlán Street, which locals pronounce as Dàshlàr.

The tones of Beijing
Beijing
dialect tend to be more exaggerated than Standard Chinese. In Standard Chinese, the four tones are high flat, high rising, low dipping, and falling; in Beijing
Beijing
dialect, the first two tones are higher, the third one dips more prominently, and the fourth one falls more.

INFLUENCE OF BEIJING DIALECT PHONOLOGY ON MANCHU

Many of the Manchu words are now pronounced with some Chinese peculiarities of pronunciation, so k before i and e=ch', g before i and e=ch, h and s before i=hs, etc. H before a, o, u, ū, is the guttural Scotch or German ch. A Manchu Grammar: With Analysed Texts, Paul Georg von Möllendorff , p. 1.

The Chinese Northern Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing
Beijing
had a major impact on the phonology of the dialect of Manchu spoken in Beijing
Beijing
, and since Manchu phonology was transcribed into Chinese and European sources based on the sinified pronunciation of Manchus from Beijing, the original authentic Manchu pronunciation is unknown to scholars.

The Manchus that lived in Peking (Beijing) were influenced by the Chinese dialect spoken in the area to the point where pronouncing Manchu sounds was hard for them, and they pronounced Manchu according to Chinese phonetics, while in contrast, the Manchus of Aigun
Aigun
(in Heilongjiang) could both pronounce Manchu sounds properly and mimick the sinified pronunciation of Manchus in Peking (Beijing), since they learned the Pekinese (Beijing) pronunciation from either studying in Peking or from officials sent to Aigun
Aigun
from Beijing, and they could tell them apart, using the Chinese influenced Pekinese pronunciation when demonstrating that they were better educated or their superior stature in society.

VOCABULARY

Beijing
Beijing
dialect typically uses many words that are considered slang, and therefore occur much less or not at all in Standard Chinese. Speakers not native to Beijing
Beijing
may have trouble understanding many or most of these. Many of such slang words employ the rhotic suffix "-r", which is known as erhua . Examples include:

* 倍儿 bèir – very, especially (referring to manner or attribute) * 别价 biéjie – do not; usually followed by 呀 if used as an imperative (usually used when rejecting a favor or politeness from close friends) * 搓火儿 cuōhuǒr – to be angry * 颠儿了 diārle – to leave; to run away * 二把刀 èrbǎdāo – a person with limited abilities, klutz * 撒丫子 sayazi – to let go on feet, to go, leave. * 怂 sóng / 蔫儿 niār – no backbone, spiritless * 消停 xiāoting – to finally and thankfully become quiet and calm * 辙 zhé – way (to do something); equivalent to Standard Chinese 办法 * 褶子了 zhezile – ruined (especially things to do) * 上 shang - often used in place of 去, meaning "to go". * 搁 ge - often used in place of 放, meaning "to place".

Some Beijing
Beijing
phrases may be somewhat disseminated outside Beijing:

* 抠门儿 kōumér – stingy, miserly (may be used even outside Beijing) * 劳驾 láojia – "Excuse me"; heard often on public transportation, from Classical Chinese * 溜达 liūda – to stroll about; equivalent to Standard Chinese 逛街 or 散步

Note that some of the slang are considered to be tuhua (土话), or "base" or "uneducated" language, that are carryovers from an older generation and are no longer used amongst more educated speakers, for example:

* 起小儿 qíxiǎor – since a young age, similar to 打小儿 dǎxiǎor, which is more often used by the younger generation * 晕菜 yūncài – to be disoriented, to be confused, to be bewildered

Others may be viewed as neologistic expressions used among younger speakers and in "trendier" circles:

* 爽 shuǎng – cool (in relation to a matter); cf. 酷 (kù) (describes a person) * 套瓷儿 tàocír – to toss into the hoop; used of basketball * 小蜜 xiǎomì – special female friend (negative connotation)

GRAMMAR

The Beijing
Beijing
dialect has been studied by linguists including Joseph Edkins and Robert Morrison . There are important dissimilarities between Standard Mandarin and Beijing
Beijing
dialect Mandarin even as Beijing Mandarin's phonology is held to be the same as Standard Mandarin's. 2 Both southern and Mandarin features of syntax were mixed into Standard Mandarin while northern Mandarin is the main basis of Beijing
Beijing
Mandarin and this sets the syntax of Standard Mandarin and Beijing
Beijing
Mandarin apart.

The grammar of the Beijing
Beijing
dialect utilizes colloquial expressions differently from Standard Chinese. In general, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is influenced by Classical Chinese , which makes it more condensed and concise; Beijing
Beijing
dialect can therefore seem more longwinded (though note the generally faster speaking rate and phonetic reductions of colloquial Beijing
Beijing
speech).

An example:

* Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
:

* 今天会下雨,所以出门的时候要记得带雨伞。 * Jīntiān huì xiàyǔ, suǒyǐ chūmén de shíhou yào jìde dài yǔsan. * Translation: It is going to rain today, so remember to bring an umbrella when you go out.

* Beijing
Beijing
dialect:

* 今儿得下雨,(所以)出门儿时候记着带雨伞! * Jīnr děi xiàyǔ, (suǒyǐ) chūménr shíhòu jìzhe dài yǔsan!

* Under the influence of the Beijing
Beijing
dialect's phonetic reductions:

* Jīr děi xiàyǔ, (suǒyǐ) chūmér ríhòu jìr dài yǔsan!

SEE ALSO

* China
China
portal * Journalism portal

* List of Chinese dialects

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Huabei Guanhua". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Beijing
Beijing
dialect. WordNet 3.0, 2006 by Princeton University. * ^ Yan, Margaret Mian (2006). Introduction to Chinese Dialectology. LINCOM Europa. p. 61. ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6 . * ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects". Walter de Gruyter . pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2 . * ^ Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Li, Rong ; Baumann, Theo; Lee, Mei W. (1987). Language Atlas of China. Longman. Maps B2 and B5. ISBN 978-962-359-085-3 . * ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012). Zhōngguó yǔyán dìtú jí (dì 2 bǎn): Hànyǔ fāngyán juǎn 中国语言地图集(第2版):汉语方言卷 . BEIJING: THE COMMERCIAL PRESS. P. 11. * ^ Fu ren da xue (Beijing, China); S.V.D. Research Institute; Society of the Divine Word; Monumenta Serica Institute (1977). Monumenta serica, Volume 33. H. Vetch. p. 351. Retrieved 2011-02-15. * ^ Seth Wiener ">(PDF). * ^ Language Log * ^ Möllendorff, Paul Georg von (1892). A Manchu Grammar: With Analysed Texts (reprint ed.). Shanghai: Printed at the American Presbyterian mission Press. p. 1. Archived from the original on Oct 26, 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2013. * ^ Gorelova, Liliya M., ed. (2002). Manchu Grammar, Part 8. Volume 7 of Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 8 Uralic and Central Asian Studies. Brill. p. 77. ISBN 9004123075 . Retrieved 25 August 2014. * ^ Cahiers de linguistique: Asie orientale, Volumes 31-32. Contributor Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales. Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale. Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales, Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale. 2002. p. 208. Retrieved 25 August 2014. * ^ Shirokogoroff, S. M. (1934) . "Reading and Transliteration of Manchu Lit.". Archives polonaises d\'etudes orientales, Volumes 8-10. Contributors Polskie Towarzystwo Orientalistyczne, Polska Akademia Nauk. Komitet Nauk Orientalistycznych. Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. p. 122. Retrieved 25 August 2014. * ^ Missionary recorder: a repository of intelligence from eastern missions, and a medium of general information, Volume 1. FOOCHOW: American M.E. Mission Press. 1867. p. 40. Retrieved 23 September 2011.

* ^ Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya. "Běijīng Mandarin, the language of Běijīng". In Sybesma, Rint. Encyclopedia of Chinese Linguistics (PDF). Leiden: Brill. p. 11.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Balfour, Frederic Henry (1883). Idiomatic Dialogues in the Peking Colloquial for the Use of Students. SHANGHAI, HANKOW ROAD: Printed at the "North- China
China
Herald" office. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * George Carter Stent; Donald MacGillivray (1898). A Chinese and English vocabulary in the Pekinese dialect (3rd ed.). American Presbyterian Mission Press. Retrieved 2011