BEIJING, formerly romanized as PEKING, is the capital of the
People\'s Republic of
China and the world's third most populous city
proper . It is also one of the world's most populous capital cities.
The city, located in northern
China , is governed as a
direct-controlled municipality under the national government with 16
urban, suburban, and rural districts .
Beijing Municipality is
Hebei Province with the exception of neighbouring
Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions
Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region
As a city combining both modern and traditional architecture ,
Beijing is an ever-changing megacity rich in history but also truly
modern, exemplified in its global influence in politics , business ">
, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the
world , after Shanghai\'s subway system .
The city\'s history dates back three millennia . As the last of the
Four Great Ancient Capitals of
Beijing has been the political
center of the country for much of the past eight centuries. With
mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to
the old inner and outer city walls ,
Beijing was strategically poised
and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the
perfect location for the imperial capital.
Beijing was the largest
city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A.D.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, parks,
gardens, tombs, walls and gates . Its art treasures and universities
have made it center of culture and art in China. Encyclopædia
Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long
as the political headquarters and cultural centre of an area as
immense as China."
Beijing has seven
UNESCO World Heritage Sites –
Forbidden City ,
Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven ,
Summer Palace ,
Ming Tombs ,
Zhoukoudian , as well as parts of the
Great Wall and the Grand Canal ,
all popular locations for tourism. Siheyuans , the city's traditional
housing style, and hutongs , the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are
major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. The city
2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics and was chosen to host the 2022 Winter
Olympics , making it the first city to ever host both Winter and
Many of Beijing\'s 91 universities consistently rank among the best
in China, of which
Peking University and
Tsinghua University are
ranked in the top 60 universities of the world. In 2015, 52 companies
Fortune Global 500 company headquarters were located in
Beijing, more than any other city in the world, including state-owned
State Grid ,
China National Petroleum , and Sinopec Group
, ranked 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, respectively.
Beijing CBD is quickly
becoming the center for Beijing\'s economic expansion , rapid
modernization, and radically changing skyline, with the ongoing or
recently completed construction of multiple skyscrapers . Beijing's
Zhongguancun area is also known as China's
Silicon Valley and China's
center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. According to
the 2016 InterNations Expat Insider Survey,
Beijing ranked first in
Asia in the subcategory "Personal Finance Index," a measure of
expats\' salaries versus cost of living in the city. Expats live
primarily in urban districts such as Dongcheng and Chaoyang in the
east, or in suburban districts such as Shunyi .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history
* 2.2 Early Imperial
* 2.4 Qing dynasty
* 2.5 Republic of
* 2.6 People\'s Republic of
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 3.2.1 Air quality
* 220.127.116.11 Readings
* 3.2.2 Dust storms
* 4 Politics and government
* 4.1 Administrative divisions
* 4.1.1 Towns
* 4.1.2 Neighborhoods
* 4.2 Judiciary and procuracy
* 4.3 Diplomatic missions
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Sector composition
* 5.2 Economic zones
* 6 Demographics
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Places of interest
* 7.2 Architecture
* 7.3 Religion
Chinese folk religion and
* 18.104.22.168 Catholicism
* 22.214.171.124 Protestantism
* 126.96.36.199 Eastern Orthodox
* 8 Media
* 8.1 Television and radio
* 8.2 Press
* 9 Sports
* 9.1 Events
* 9.2 Venues
* 9.3 Clubs
* 10 Transportation
* 10.1 Rail and high-speed rail
* 10.2 Roads and expressways
* 10.3 Air
* 10.4 Public transit
* 10.5 Taxi
* 10.6 Bicycles
* 11 Defense and aerospace
* 12 Nature and wildlife
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes and references
* 15 Further reading
* 16 External links
Names of Beijing
Over the past 3,000 years, the city of
Beijing has had numerous other
names . The name BEIJING, which means "Northern Capital" (from the
Chinese characters 北 for north and 京 for capital), was applied to
the city in 1403 during the
Ming Dynasty to distinguish the city from
Nanjing (the "Southern Capital"). The English spelling is based on
the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced
Standard Mandarin . An older English spelling, PEKING, is the
postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced
in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by
European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle
Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in
the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is
no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older
locations and facilities, such as
Beijing Capital International
Airport , with
IATA Code PEK, and
Peking University , still used the
formerly romanized name.
The single Chinese character abbreviation for
Beijing is 京, which
appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin
alphabet abbreviation for
Beijing is "BJ".
History of Beijing
History of Beijing
The earliest traces of human habitation in the
were found in the caves of
Dragon Bone Hill near the village of
Fangshan District , where
Peking Man lived. Homo
erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Homo sapiens also lived there more recently, about 27,000
years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout
the municipality, including in
Wangfujing , located in downtown
The first walled city in
Beijing was JI , a city from the 11th to 7th
century BC. Within modern Beijing, Ji was located south of the present
Beijing West Railway Station
Beijing West Railway Station . This settlement was later conquered by
the state of Yan and made its capital under the name YANJING .
EARLY IMPERIAL CHINA
The Tianning Pagoda , built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty
After the First Emperor unified
Beijing became a prefectural
capital for the region. During the
Three Kingdoms period , it was
Gongsun Zan and
Yuan Shao before falling to
Cao Cao 's Wei
Kingdom . The AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the
prefectural seat in neighbouring Zhuozhou.
Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern
China was conquered
and divided by the Wu Hu , Beijing, as JICHENG , was briefly the
capital of the
Former Yan Kingdom.
China was reunified during the
Sui Dynasty , Beijing, known as
ZHUOJUN, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal . Under the
Tang Dynasty ,
Beijing as FANYANG , served as a military frontier
command center. During the
An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the
turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own
short-lived Yan Dynasties and called the city YANJING , or the "Yan
Capital." In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the
entire northern frontier to the Khitan
Liao Dynasty , which renamed
Nanjing , or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary
capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital", Shangjing (modern Baarin
Left Banner in
Inner Mongolia ). Some of the oldest surviving
Beijing date to the Liao period, including the Tianning
Longevity Hill in
Kublai Khan wrote his
The Liao fell to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1122, which gave the city
Song Dynasty and then retook it in 1125 during its conquest of
China . In 1153, the Jurchen Jin made
Beijing their "Central
Capital", called ZHONGDU. The city was besieged by
Genghis Khan 's
invading Mongolian army in 1213 and razed to the ground two years
later. Two generations later,
Kublai Khan ordered the construction of
DADU (or Daidu to the Mongols, commonly known as Khanbaliq), a new
capital for his
Yuan dynasty to be located adjacent to the Jurchen Jin
ruins. The construction took from 1264 to 1293, but greatly
enhanced the status of a city on the northern fringe of
China proper .
The city was centered on the Drum Tower slightly to the north of
Beijing and stretched from the present-day Chang\'an Avenue to
the Line 10 subway . Remnants of the Yuan rammed earth wall still
stand and are known as the Tucheng.
One of the corner towers of the
Forbidden City .
In 1368, soon after declaring the new Hongwu era of the Ming dynasty
, the rebel leader
Zhu Yuanzhang sent an army to
conquered it. Since the Yuan continued to occupy Shangdu and
Mongolia, however, a new town was established to supply the military
garrisons in the area. This was called BEIPING and under the Hongwu
Emperor's feudal policies it was given to
Zhu Di , one of his sons,
who was created "
Prince of Yan ".
The early death of
Zhu Yuanzhang 's heir led to a succession struggle
on his death, one that ended with the victory of
Zhu Di and the
declaration of the new Yongle era . Since his harsh treatment of the
Ming capital Yingtian (modern
Nanjing ) alienated many there, he
established his fief as a new co-capital. The city of
Shuntian in 1403. The construction of the new imperial residence,
Forbidden City , took from 1406 to 1420; this period was also
responsible for several other of the modern city's major attractions,
such as the
Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven and Tian\'anmen (although the square
facing it was not cleared until 1651 ). On 28 October 1420, the city
was officially designated the capital of the
Ming Dynasty in the same
year that the
Forbidden City was completed.
Beijing became the
empire's primary capital (JINGSHI) and Yingtian – or called Nanjing
– became the co-capital. (A 1425 order by Zhu Di's son, the Hongxi
Emperor , to return the capital to
Nanjing was never carried out: he
died, probably of a heart attack, the next month. He was buried, like
almost every Ming emperor to follow him, in an elaborate necropolis to
By the 15th century,
Beijing had essentially taken its current shape.
The Ming city wall continued to serve until modern times, when it was
pulled down and the
2nd Ring Road was built in its place. It is
generally believed that
Beijing was the largest city in the world for
most of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. The first known
church was constructed by Catholics in 1652 at the former site of
Matteo Ricci 's chapel; the modern Nantang Cathedral was later built
upon the same site.
The capture of
Li Zicheng 's peasant army in 1644 ended
the dynasty, but he and his Shun court abandoned the city without a
fight when the Manchu army of Prince
Dorgon arrived 40 days later.
A Pekingese chiropodist. John Thomson. China,1869. The Wellcome
Chongwenmen , a gate to the inner walled
city, c. 1906
Dorgon established the
Qing Dynasty as a direct successor of the Ming
Li Zicheng and his followers) and
China's sole capital. The Qing emperors made some modifications to
the Imperial residence but, in large part, the Ming buildings and the
general layout remained unchanged. Facilities for Manchu worship were
introduced, but the Qing also continued the traditional state rituals.
Signage was bilingual or Chinese. This early Qing
Beijing later formed
the setting for the Chinese novel
Dream of the Red Chamber
Dream of the Red Chamber .
Second Opium War , Anglo-French forces captured the city,
looting and burning the Old
Summer Palace in 1860. Under the
Convention of Peking ending that war, Western powers for the first
time secured the right to establish permanent diplomatic presences
within the city. In 1900, the attempt by the "Boxers " to eradicate
this presence, as well as Chinese Christian converts, led to Beijing's
reoccupation by foreign powers . During the fighting, several
important structures were destroyed, including the
Hanlin Academy and
Summer Palace .
REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Beijing filmed in 1937
The fomenters of the
Xinhai Revolution of 1911 sought to replace Qing
rule with a republic and leaders like
Sun Yat-sen originally intended
to return the capital to Nanjing. After the Qing general Yuan Shikai
forced the abdication of the last Qing emperor and ensured the success
of the revolution, the revolutionaries accepted him as president of
the new Republic of
China . Yuan maintained his capital at
quickly consolidated power, declaring himself emperor in 1915. His
death less than a year later left
China under the control of the
warlords commanding the regional armies. Following the success of the
Nationalists ' Northern Expedition , the capital was formally removed
Nanjing in 1928. On 28 June the same year, Beijing's name was
Beiping (written at the time as "Peiping").
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War ,
Beiping fell to
Japan on 29
July 1937 and was made the seat of the Provisional Government of the
China , a puppet state that ruled the ethnic-Chinese
portions of Japanese-occupied northern
China . This government was
later merged into the larger Wang Jingwei government based in Nanjing.
PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's
China in 1949
In the final phases of the
Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War , the People\'s
Liberation Army seized control of the city peacefully on 31 January
1949 in the course of the
Pingjin Campaign . On 1 October that year,
Mao Zedong announced the creation of the People\'s Republic of China
from atop Tian\'anmen . He restored the name of the city, as the new
capital, to Beijing, a decision that had been reached by the Chinese
People\'s Political Consultative Conference just a few days earlier.
In the 1950s, the city began to expand beyond the old walled city and
its surrounding neighborhoods, with heavy industries in the west and
residential neighborhoods in the north . Many areas of the Beijing
city wall were torn down in the 1960s to make way for the construction
Beijing Subway and the
2nd Ring Road . A scene from the
opening ceremonies of the
2008 Summer Olympic Games .
Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, the Red Guard
movement began in
Beijing and the city's government fell victim to one
of the first purges. By the fall of 1966, all city schools were shut
down and over a million Red Guards from across the country gathered in
Beijing for eight rallies in
Tian'anmen Square with Mao. In April
1976, a large public gathering of
Beijing residents against the Gang
of Four and the
Cultural Revolution in
Tiananmen Square was forcefully
suppressed . In October 1976, the Gang was arrested in
Cultural Revolution came to an end. In December 1978, the Third
Plenum of the 11th Party Congress in
Beijing under the leadership of
Deng Xiaoping reversed the verdicts against victims of the Cultural
Revolution and instituted the "policy of reform and opening up."
Since the early 1980s, the urban area of
Beijing has expanded greatly
with the completion of the
2nd Ring Road in 1981 and the subsequent
addition of the 3rd , 4th , 5th and 6th Ring Roads . According to
one 2005 newspaper report, the size of newly developed
one-and-a-half times larger than before.
developed into flourishing shopping districts, while
become a major center of electronics in China. In recent years, the
Beijing has also brought to the forefront some problems
of urbanization, such as heavy traffic , poor air quality , the loss
of historic neighborhoods, and a significant influx of migrant workers
from less-developed rural areas of the country.
Beijing has also been
the location of many significant events in recent Chinese history,
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 and the 2008
Summer Olympics . This city was awarded to host the 2015 World
Championships in Athletics .
Geography of Beijing
Landsat 7 Satellite image of
Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
Beijing is situated at the northern tip of the roughly triangular
China Plain , which opens to the south and east of the city.
Mountains to the north, northwest and west shield the city and
northern China's agricultural heartland from the encroaching desert
steppes. The northwestern part of the municipality, especially Yanqing
Huairou District , are dominated by the
Jundu Mountains ,
while the western part is framed by Xishan or the
Western Hills . The
Great Wall of
China across the northern part of
was built on the rugged topography to defend against nomadic
incursions from the steppes. Mount Dongling , in the
Western Hills and
on the border with
Hebei , is the municipality's highest point, with
an altitude of 2,303 metres (7,556 ft). Remnants of the Great
China in the mountains north of the city.
Major rivers flowing through the municipality, including the Chaobai
, Yongding , Juma , are all tributaries in the
Hai River system, and
flow in a southeasterly direction. The
Miyun Reservoir, on the upper
reaches of the Chaobai River, is the largest reservoir within the
Beijing is also the northern terminus of the Grand Canal
Hangzhou , which was built over 1,400 years ago as a transportation
route, and the
South–North Water Transfer Project , constructed in
the past decade to bring water from the
Yangtze River basin.
The urban area of Beijing, on the plains in the south-central of the
municipality with elevation of 40 to 60 metres (130–200 feet),
occupies a relatively small but expanding portion of the
municipality's area. The city spreads out in concentric ring roads .
The Second Ring Road traces the old city walls and the Sixth Ring Road
connects satellite towns in the surrounding suburbs. Tian\'anmen and
Tian\'anmen Square are at the center of Beijing, directly to the south
Forbidden City , the former residence of the emperors of China.
To the west of
Zhongnanhai , the residence of China's
current leaders. Chang\'an Avenue , which cuts between
the Square, forms the city's main east-west axis.
Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen
climate classification Dwa), characterized by higher humidity in the
summers due to the East Asian monsoon , and colder, windier, drier
winters that reflect the influence of the vast
Siberian anticyclone .
Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert
across the Mongolian steppe , accompanied by rapidly warming, but
generally dry, conditions. Autumn, like Spring, is a season of
transition and minimal precipitation. The monthly daily average
temperature in January is −3.7 °C (25.3 °F), while in July it is
26.2 °C (79.2 °F).
Precipitation averages around 570 mm (22 in)
annually, with close to three-fourths of that total falling from June
to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47% in
July to 65% in January and February, the city receives 2,671 hours of
bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −27.4
°C (−17.3 °F) on 22 February 1966 to 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 24
July 1999 (unofficial record of 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) was set on 15
CLIMATE DATA FOR BEIJING (NORMALS 1971–2000, EXTREMES
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
China Meteorological Administration ,
Data Sharing Service System , all-time record high , May record high
Beijing has a long history of environmental problems . Between 2000
and 2009 Beijing's urban extent quadrupled, which not only strongly
increased the extent of anthropogenic emissions, but also changed the
meteorological situation fundamentally, even if emissions of human
society are not included. For example, surface albedo , wind speed and
humidity near the surface were decreased, whereas ground and
near-surface air temperatures , vertical air dilution and ozone levels
were increased. Because of the combined factors of urbanization and
pollution caused by burning of fossil fuel ,
Beijing is often affected
by serious environmental problems, which lead to health issues of many
inhabitants. In 2013 heavy smog struck
Beijing and most parts of
northern China, in total 600 million people. After this "pollution
shock" air pollution became an important economic and social concern
in China. After that the government of
Beijing announced measures to
reduce air pollution, for example by lowering the share of coal from
24% in 2012 to 10% in 2017, while the national government ordered
heavily polluting vehicles to be removed from 2015 to 2017 and
increased its efforts to transition the energy system to clean
Joint research between American and Chinese researchers in 2006
concluded that much of the city's pollution comes from surrounding
cities and provinces. On average 35–60% of the ozone can be traced
to sources outside the city.
Shandong Province and Tianjin
Municipality have a "significant influence on Beijing's air quality",
partly due to the prevailing south/southeasterly flow during the
summer and the mountains to the north and northwest. Heavy air
pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in
August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
In preparation for the
2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics and to fulfill promises
to clean up the city's air, nearly 17 billion USD was spent. Beijing
implemented a number of air improvement schemes for the duration of
the Games, including halting work at all construction sites, closing
many factories in
Beijing permanently, temporarily shutting industry
in neighbouring regions, closing some gas stations, and cutting motor
traffic by half by limiting drivers to odd or even days (based on
their license plate numbers) , reducing bus and subway fares, opening
new subway lines, and banning high-emission vehicles. The city
further assembled 3,800 natural gas -powered buses, one of the largest
fleets in the world.
Beijing became the first city in
require the Chinese equivalent to the Euro 4 emission standard .
Coal burning accounts for about 40% of the PM 2.5 in
Beijing and is
also the chief source of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide. Since 2012,
the city has been converting coal-fired power stations to burn natural
gas and aims to cap annual coal consumption at 20 million tons. In
2011, the city burned 26.3 million tons of coal, 73% of which for
heating and power generation and the remainder for industry. Much of
the city's air pollutants are emitted by neighbouring regions. Coal
consumption in neighbouring
Tianjin is expected to increase from 48 to
63 million tons from 2011 to 2015.
Hebei Province burned over 300
million tons of coal in 2011, more than all of Germany, of which only
30% were used for power generation and a considerable portion for
steel and cement making. Power plants in the coal-mining regions of
Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi, where coal consumption has tripled
since 2000, and
Shandong also contribute to air pollution in Beijing.
Hebei and Inner Mongolia, respectively rank from
first to fourth, among Chinese provinces by coal consumption. There
were four major coal-fired power plants in the city to provide
electricity as well as heating during the winter. The first one
(Gaojing Thermal Power Plant) was shut down in 2014. Another two
were shut in March 2015. The last one (Huaneng Thermal Power Plant)
would be shut in 2016. Between 2013 and 2017, the city planned to
reduce 13 million tons of coal consumption and cap coal consumption to
15 million tons in 2015.
The government sometimes uses cloud-seeding measures to increase the
likelihood of rain showers in the region to clear the air prior to
large events, such as prior to the 60th anniversary parade in 2009 as
well as to combat drought conditions in the area. More recently,
however, the government has increased its usage of such measures as
closing factories temporarily and implementing greater restrictions
for cars on the road, as in the case of "
APEC blue " and "parade
blue," short periods during and immediately preceding the APEC China
2014 and the 2015
China Victory Day Parade , respectively. During and
prior to these events, Beijing's air quality improved dramatically,
only to fall back to unhealthy levels shortly after.
Beijing air quality is often poor, especially in winter. In
mid-January 2013, Beijing's air quality was measured on top of the
city\'s US embassy at a PM2.5 density of 755 micrograms per cubic
meter, which went off the US Environmental Protection Agency's air
quality index. It was widely reported, originally through a Twitter
account, that the category was "crazy bad". This was later changed to
On 8 and 9 December 2015
Beijing had its first smog alert which shut
down a majority of the industry and other commercial businesses in the
city. Later in the month another smog "red alert" was issued.
According to Beijing's environmental protection bureau's announcement
in November 2016, starting from 2017 highly polluting old cars wil be
banned from being driven whenever
Smog "red alerts" are issued in the
city or neighboring regions.
Due to Beijing's high-level of air pollution, there are various
readings by different sources on the subject. Daily pollution readings
at 27 monitoring stations around the city are reported on the website
Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB). The American
Beijing also reports hourly fine particulate (PM2.5) and
ozone levels on Twitter. Since the BJEPB and US Embassy measure
different pollutants according to different criteria, the pollution
levels and the impact to human health reported by the BJEPB are often
lower than that reported by the US Embassy.
Air pollution in
Beijing in 2016, measured by
Air Quality Index
Air Quality Index Severely Polluted
Heavily Polluted Moderately Polluted Lightly Polluted Good
Dust from the erosion of deserts in northern and northwestern China
results in seasonal dust storms that plague the city; the Beijing
Weather Modification Office sometimes artificially induces rainfall to
fight such storms and mitigate their effects. In the first four
months of 2006 alone, there were no fewer than eight such storms. In
April 2002, one dust storm alone dumped nearly 50,000 tons of dust
onto the city before moving on to
Japan and Korea.
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT
Politics of Beijing
Municipal government is regulated by the local Communist Party of
China (CPC), led by the
CPC Secretary (Chinese :
北京市委书记). The local CPC issues administrative orders,
collects taxes, manages the economy, and directs a standing committee
of the Municipal People's Congress in making policy decisions and
overseeing the local government.
Government officials include the mayor (Chinese : 市长) and
vice-mayor. Numerous bureaus focus on law, public security, and other
affairs. Additionally, as the capital of China,
Beijing houses all of
the important national governmental and political institutions,
including the National People\'s Congress .
List of administrative divisions of Beijing and List
of township-level divisions of
Beijing Municipality currently comprises 16 administrative
county-level subdivisions including 16 urban, suburban, and rural
districts . On 1 July 2010, Chongwen and Xuanwu were merged into
Dongcheng and Xicheng, respectively. On 13 November 2015
Yanqing were upgraded to districts.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF BEIJING
DONGCHENG XICHENG CHAOYANG HAIDIAN FENGTAI SHIJINGSHAN
MENTOUGOU FANGSHAN TONGZHOU SHUNYI CHANGPING DAXING PINGGU
HUAIROU YANQING MIYUN
Inner city inside the
2nd Ring Road (former city walls)
Urban area between the 2nd and
5th Ring Road
* Inner suburbs linked by the
6th Ring Road
* Outer suburbs areas within city limits .
AREA IN KM2
Dongcheng / Tongzhou
Jinrong Street Subdistrict
DIVISIONS IN CHINESE AND VARIETIES OF ROMANIZATIONS
* ^ Including "area" (地区).
* ^ Including other township related subdivisions.
Shichahai , in the
Xicheng District , is traditionally
considered one of Beijing's most beautiful and charming scenic areas.
List of township-level divisions of Beijing
Beijing's 16 county-level divisions (districts) are further
subdivided into 273 lower third-level administrative units at the
township level : 119 towns , 24 townships , 5 ethnic townships and 125
subdistricts . Towns within
Beijing Municipality but outside the urban
area include (but are not limited to):
* Changping 昌平
* Liangxiang 良乡
* Tongzhou 通州
* Yizhuang 亦庄
* Beiyuan 北苑
* Xiaotangshan 小汤山
Several place names in
Beijing end with mén (门), meaning "gate",
as they were the locations of gates in the former
Beijing city wall .
Other place names end in cūn (村), meaning "village", as they were
originally villages outside the city wall.
Niujie Mosque is an important historical attraction Main
Neighborhoods in Beijing
Neighborhoods may extend across multiple districts. Major
neighborhoods in urban
* Tian\'anmen 天安门
* Di\'anmen 地安门
* Xuanwumen 宣武门
* Zuo\'anmen 左安门
* You\'anmen 右安门
* Guangqumen 广渠门
* Guang\'anmen 广安门
* Huashi 花市
* Xibianmen 西便门
* Guomao 国贸
* Hepingli 和平里
* Ping\'anli 平安里
* Beixinqiao 北新桥
* Jiaodaokou 交道口
* Kuanjie 宽街
* Wangjing 望京
* Dongdan 东单
* Panjiayuan 潘家园
Beijing CBD 北京商务中心区
JUDICIARY AND PROCURACY
The judicial system in
Beijing consists of the Supreme People\'s
Court , the highest court in the country, the
Beijing Municipal High
People's Court, the high people\'s court of the municipality, three
intermediate people\'s courts , one intermediate railway transport
court , 14 basic people\'s court (one for each of the municipality's
districts and counties), and one basic railway transport court. The
Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People's Court in
Shijingshan oversees the
basic courts of Haidian, Shijingshan, Mentougou, Changping and
Beijing No. 2 Intermediate People's Court in Fengtai
oversees the basic courts of Dongcheng, Xicheng, Fengtai, Fangshan and
Beijing No. 3 Intermediate People's Court in
Laiguangying, is the newest of the three intermediate people's courts
and opened on 21 August 2013. It oversees the district courts of
Chaoyang, Tongzhou, Shunyi, Huairou, Pinggu and Miyun. Each court in
Beijing has a corresponding people\'s procuratorate .
Main article: List of diplomatic missions in
About 163 countries have embassies in
Beijing , which are
concentrated in Jiangguomenwai,
Liangmaqiao in Chaoyang
Economy of Beijing
Wangfujing Street is one of
the oldest and busiest shopping streets in
Beijing with nearly 100,000
visitors daily (August 2008). The sale of consumer goods both retail
and wholesale accounted for about ⅛ of Beijing's economic output in
Beijing's economy ranks among the most developed and prosperous in
China. In 2013, the municipality's nominal gross domestic product
(GDP) was CN￥ 1.95 trillion (US$314 billion), about 3.43% of the
country\'s total output , and ranked 13th among province-level
administrative units .
Per capita GDP
Per capita GDP , at CN￥93,213 (US$15,051) in
nominal terms and Int$ 21,948 at purchasing power parity , was 2.2
times the national average and ranked second among province-level
administrative units. The economy tripled in size from 2004 to 2012,
and grew at an annual rate of 7.7% in 2013.
Due to the concentration of state owned enterprises in the national
Beijing in 2013 had more
Fortune Global 500 Company
headquarters than any other city in the world.
The Taikoo Li
Sanlitun shopping arcade is a popular destination
among locals and visitors
The city has a post-industrial economy that is dominated by the
tertiary sector (services), which generated 76.9% of output, followed
by the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction) at 22.2% and the
primary sector (agriculture, mining) at 0.8%.
The services sector is broadly diversified with professional
services, wholesale and retail, information technology, commercial
real estate, scientific research, and residential real estate each
contributing at least 6% to the city's economy in 2013.
The single largest sub-sector remains industry, whose share of
overall output has shrunk to 18.1% in 2013. The mix of industrial
output has changed significantly since 2010 when the city announced
that 140 highly-polluting, energy and water resource intensive
enterprises would be relocated from the city in five years. The
relocation of Capital Steel to neighbouring
Hebei province had begun
in 2005. In 2013, output of automobiles, aerospace products,
semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food processing all increased.
In the farmland around Beijing, vegetables and fruits have displaced
grain as the primary crops under cultivation. In 2013, the tonnage of
vegetable, edible fungus and fruit harvested was over three times that
of grain. In 2013, overall acreage under cultivation shrank along
with most categories of produce as more land was reforested for
Main article: List of economic and technological development zones in
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in
In 2006, the city government identified six high-end economic output
Beijing as the primary engines for local economic growth.
In 2012, the six zones produced 43.3% of the city's GDP, up from 36.5%
in 2007. The six zones are:
Zhongguancun , China's silicon village in Haidian District
northwest of the city, is home to both established and start-up tech
companies. As of the second quarter of 2014, of the 9,895 companies
registered in one of the six zones, 6,150 were based in Zhongguancun.
Beijing Financial Street , in
Xicheng District on the west side of
the city between
Fuxingmen and Fuchengmen, is lined with headquarters
of large state banks and insurance companies. The country's financial
regulatory agencies including the central bank , bank regulator ,
securities regulator , and foreign exchange authority are located in
Beijing Central Business District (CBD) , is actually located to
the east of downtown, near the embassies along the eastern Third Ring
Road between Jianguomenwai and Chaoyangmenwai. The CBD is home to most
of the city\'s skyscraper office buildings . Most of the city's
foreign companies and professional service firms are based in the CBD.
Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area , better known
as Yizhuang , is an industrial park the straddles the southern Fifth
Ring Road in Daxing District. It has attracted pharmaceutical,
information technology, and materials engineering companies.
Beijing Airport Economic Zone was created in 1993 and surrounds
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport in
Shunyi District northwest
of the city. In addition to logistics, airline services, and trading
firms, this zone is also home to Beijing's automobile assembly plants.
Beijing Olympic Center Zone surrounds the
Olympic Green due north
of downtown and is developing into an entertainment, sports, tourism
and business convention center.
Shijingshan , on the western outskirts of the city, is a traditional
heavy industrial base for steel-making. Chemical plants are
concentrated in the far eastern suburbs.
Less legitimate enterprises also exist. Urban
Beijing is known for
being a center of infringed goods; anything from the latest designer
clothing to DVDs can be found in markets all over the city, often
marketed to expatriates and international visitors.
Demographics of Beijing
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative
Beijing had a total population of 21.148 million within the
municipality, of which 18.251 million resided in urban districts or
suburban townships and 2.897 million lived in rural villages. Within
China, the city ranked second in urban population after
the third in municipal population after
Shanghai and Chongqing.
Beijing also ranks among the most populous cities in the world, a
distinction the city has held for much of the past 800 years ,
especially during the 15th to early 19th centuries when it was the
largest city in the world .
About 13 million of the city's residents in 2013 had local hukou
permits , which entitles them to permanent residence in Beijing. The
remaining 8 million residents had hukou permits elsewhere and were not
eligible to receive some social benefits provided by the Beijing
The population increased in 2013 by 455,000 or about 7% from the
previous year and continued a decade-long trend of rapid growth. The
total population in 2004 was 14.213 million. The population gains are
driven largely by migration. The population's rate of natural increase
in 2013 was a mere 0.441%, based on a birth rate of 8.93 and a
mortality rate of 4.52. The gender balance was 51.6% males and 48.4%
Working age people account for nearly 80% of the population. Compared
to 2004, residents age 0–14 as a proportion of the population
dropped from 9.96% to 9.5% in 2013 and residents over the age of 65
declined from 11.12% to 9.2%.
According to the 2010 census, nearly 96% of Beijing's population are
Han Chinese . Of the 800,000 ethnic minorities living in the
capital, Manchu (336,000), Hui (249,000), Korean (77,000), Mongol
(37,000) and Tujia (24,000) constitute the five largest groups. In
addition, there were 8,045
Hong Kong residents, 500
Taiwan residents along with 91,128 registered foreigners
living in Beijing. A study by the
Beijing Academy of Sciences
estimates that in 2010 there were on average 200,000 foreigners living
Beijing on any given day including students, business travellers
and tourists are not counted as registered residents.
From 2000 to 2010, the percentage of city residents with at least
some college education nearly doubled from 16.8% to 31.5%. About
22.2% have some high school education and 31% had reached middle
Beijing Observatory A scene from a
A Chinese cloisonné dish from the Qing dynasty
People native to urban
Beijing speak the
Beijing dialect , which
belongs to the Mandarin subdivision of spoken Chinese . This speech is
the basis for putonghua , the standard spoken language used in
Taiwan , and one of the four official languages of
Singapore . Rural areas of
Beijing Municipality have their own
dialects akin to those of
Hebei province, which surrounds Beijing
Peking opera (京剧, Jīngjù) is a traditional form of
Chinese theater well known throughout the nation. Commonly lauded as
one of the highest achievements of
Chinese culture ,
Beijing opera is
performed through a combination of song, spoken dialogue, and codified
action sequences involving gestures, movement, fighting and
acrobatics. Much of
Beijing opera is carried out in an archaic stage
dialect quite different from Modern
Standard Chinese and from the
Beijing cuisine is the local style of cooking.
Peking Roast Duck is
perhaps the best known dish.
Fuling Jiabing , a traditional Beijing
snack food, is a pancake (bing) resembling a flat disk with a filling
made from fu ling , a fungus used in traditional
Chinese medicine .
Teahouses are common in Beijing.
The cloisonné (or Jingtailan, literally "Blue of Jingtai ")
metalworking technique and tradition is a
Beijing art speciality, and
is one of the most revered traditional crafts in China. Cloisonné
making requires elaborate and complicated processes which include
base-hammering, copper-strip inlay, soldering, enamel-filling,
enamel-firing, surface polishing and gilding. Beijing's lacquerware
is also well known for its sophisticated and intrinsic patterns and
images carved into its surface, and the various decoration techniques
of lacquer include "carved lacquer" and "engraved gold".
Younger residents of
Beijing have become more attracted to the
nightlife, which has flourished in recent decades, breaking prior
cultural traditions that had practically restricted it to the upper
Wudaokou are Beijing's nightlife
PLACES OF INTEREST
Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Beijing) and
List of Beijing landmarks
...the city remains an epicenter of tradition with the treasures of
nearly 2,000 years as the imperial capital still on view—in the
Forbidden City and in the city's lush pavilions and gardens...
— National Geographic
Qianmen Avenue , a traditional
commercial street in
At the historical heart of
Beijing lies the
Forbidden City , the
enormous palace compound that was the home of the emperors of the Ming
and Qing dynasties; the
Forbidden City hosts the Palace Museum, which
contains imperial collections of Chinese art. Surrounding the
Forbidden City are several former imperial gardens, parks and scenic
Zhongnanhai , Jingshan and
Zhongshan . These places, particularly
Beihai Park, are described as
masterpieces of Chinese gardening art, and are popular tourist
destinations with tremendous historical importance; in the modern
Zhongnanhai has also been the political heart of various Chinese
governments and regimes and is now the headquarters of the Communist
China and the State Council. From
Tiananmen Square, right
across from the Forbidden City, there are several notable sites, such
as the Tiananmen,
Qianmen , the
Great Hall of the People
Great Hall of the People , the
National Museum of
China , the Monument to the People\'s Heroes , and
the Mausoleum of
Mao Zedong . The
Summer Palace and the Old Summer
Palace both lie at the western part of the city; the former, a UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site , contains a comprehensive collection of imperial
gardens and palaces that served as the summer retreats for the Qing
imperial family. Beijing's
Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven as photographed in
the early 20th century
Among the best known religious sites in the city is the Temple of
Heaven (Tiantan), located in southeastern Beijing, also a
Heritage Site, where emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties made
visits for annual ceremonies of prayers to Heaven for good harvest. In
the north of the city is the
Temple of Earth (Ditan), while the Temple
of the Sun (Ritan) and the Temple of the Moon (Yuetan) lie in the
eastern and western urban areas respectively. Other well-known temple
sites include the Dongyue Temple ,
Tanzhe Temple ,
Miaoying Temple ,
White Cloud Temple ,
Yonghe Temple ,
Fayuan Temple , Wanshou Temple
Big Bell Temple . The city also has its own Confucius Temple , and
a Guozijian or Imperial Academy. The Cathedral of the Immaculate
Conception , built in 1605, is the oldest Catholic church in Beijing.
Niujie Mosque is the oldest mosque in Beijing, with a history
stretching back over a thousand years. Inside the
Beijing contains several well-preserved pagodas and stone pagodas,
such as the towering Pagoda of Tianning Temple , which was built
Liao Dynasty from 1100 to 1120, and the Pagoda of Cishou
Temple , which was built in 1576 during the Ming Dynasty. Historically
noteworthy stone bridges include the 12th-century
Lugou Bridge , the
Baliqiao bridge, and the 18th-century
Jade Belt Bridge .
Beijing Ancient Observatory displays pre-telescopic spheres dating
back to the Ming and Qing dynasties. The
Fragrant Hills (Xiangshan) is
a popular scenic public park that consists of natural landscaped areas
as well as traditional and cultural relics. The
Garden exhibits over 6,000 species of plants, including a variety of
trees, bushes and flowers, and an extensive peony garden. The
Taoranting , Longtan , Chaoyang , Haidian ,
Milu Yuan and Zizhu Yuan
parks are some of the notable recreational parks in the city. The
Beijing Zoo is a center of zoological research that also contains rare
animals from various continents, including the Chinese giant panda .
There are 144 museums and galleries (as of June 2008) in the city.
In addition to the Palace Museum in the
Forbidden City and the
National Museum of China, other major museums include the National Art
China , the
Capital Museum , the
Beijing Art Museum , the
Military Museum of the Chinese People\'s Revolution , the Geological
China , the
Beijing Museum of Natural History and the
Paleozoological Museum of
Located at the outskirts of urban Beijing, but within its
municipality are the Thirteen Tombs of the
Ming Dynasty , the lavish
and elaborate burial sites of thirteen Ming emperors, which have been
designated as part of the
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site Imperial Tombs of
the Ming and Qing Dynasties . The archaeological
Peking Man site at
Zhoukoudian is another
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site within the municipality,
containing a wealth of discoveries, among them one of the first
Homo erectus and an assemblage of bones of the gigantic
Pachycrocuta brevirostris. There are several sections of the
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Great Wall of
China , most notably
List of tallest buildings in Beijing City skyline
Three styles of architecture are predominant in urban Beijing. First,
there is the traditional architecture of imperial China, perhaps best
exemplified by the massive Tian\'anmen (Gate of Heavenly Peace), which
remains the People's Republic of China's trademark edifice, the
Forbidden City , the
Imperial Ancestral Temple and the Temple of
Heaven . Next, there is what is sometimes referred to as the
"Sino-Sov" style, with structures tending to be boxy and sometimes
poorly constructed, which were built between the 1950s and the 1970s.
Finally, there are much more modern architectural forms, most
noticeably in the area of the
Beijing CBD in east
Beijing such as the
CCTV Headquarters , in addition to buildings in other locations
around the city such as the
Beijing National Stadium
Beijing National Stadium and National
Center for the Performing Arts .
Since 2007, buildings in
Beijing have received the CTBUH Skyscraper
Award for best overall tall building twice, for the Linked Hybrid
building in 2009 and the
CCTV Headquarters in 2013. The CTBUH
Skyscraper award for best tall overall building is given to only one
building around the world every year.
In the early 21st century,
Beijing has witnessed tremendous growth of
new building constructions, exhibiting various modern styles from
international designers, most pronounced in the CBD region. A mixture
of both 1950s design and neofuturistic style of architecture can be
seen at the
798 Art Zone , which mixes the old with the new. Beijing's
current completed tallest building is the 330-meter
China World Trade
Center Tower III , but will be surpassed by the 528-meter
China Zun in
2018 when it is completed. Both buildings are in the
Beijing CBD .
Beijing is famous for its siheyuans , a type of residence where a
common courtyard is shared by the surrounding buildings. Among the
more grand examples are the
Prince Gong Mansion and Residence of Soong
Ching-ling . These courtyards are usually connected by alleys called
hutongs . The hutongs are generally straight and run east to west so
that doorways face north and south for good
Feng Shui . They vary in
width; some are so narrow only a few pedestrians can pass through at a
time. Once ubiquitous in Beijing, siheyuans and hutongs are rapidly
disappearing, as entire city blocks of hutongs are replaced by
high-rise buildings. Residents of the hutongs are entitled to live in
the new buildings in apartments of at least the same size as their
former residences. Many complain, however, that the traditional sense
of community and street life of the hutongs cannot be replaced, and
these properties are often government owned.
Chinese religion or not religious and
Islam (1.76%) Christianity
(0.78%) A Temple of the Goddess in
Gubeikou . Fire God
Temple in Di'anmen.
The religious heritage of
Beijing is rich and diverse as Chinese folk
Islam and Christianity
all have significant historical presence in the city. As the national
capital, the city also hosts the State Administration for Religious
Affairs and various state-sponsored institutions of the leading
religions. In recent decades, foreign residents have brought other
religions to the city. According to Wang Zhiyun of the Chinese
Academy of Social Sciences in 2010 there were 2.2 million Buddhists in
the city, equal to 11.2% of the total population. According to the
Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christians constitute 0.78% of
the city's population. According to a 2010 survey, Muslims constitute
1.76% of the population of Beijing. Rear hall of the Capital
City God Temple of Beijing.
Chinese Folk Religion And Taoism
Beijing has many temples dedicated to folk religious and communal
deities , many of which are being reconstructed or refurbished in the
2000s and 2010s. Yearly sacrifices to the God of Heaven (祭天
jìtiān) at the
Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven have been resumed by Confucian
groups in the 2010s.
There are temples dedicated to the worship of the Goddess (娘娘
Niángniáng) in the city, one of them near the Olympic Village , and
they revolve around a major cult center at
Mount Miaofeng . There are
also many temples consecrated to the Dragon God (龙神 Lóngshén),
to the Medicine Master (药王 Yàowáng), to Divus Guan (关帝
Guāndì), to the Fire God (火神 Huǒshén), to the Wealth God
(财神 Cáishén), temples of the City God (城隍神
Chénghuángshén), and at least one temple consecrated to the Yellow
Deity of the Chariot Shaft (轩辕黄帝 Xuānyuán Huángdì) in
Pinggu District . Many of these temples are governed by the Beijing
Taoist Association, such as the Fire God Temple of the Shicha Lake ,
while many others are not and are governed by popular committees and
locals. A great Temple of Xuanyuan Huangdi will be built in Pinggu
(possibly as an expansion of the already existing shrine) within 2020,
and the temple will feature a statue of the deity which will be
amongst the tallest in the world .
Chinese Taoist Association and Chinese Taoist College
have their headquarters at the
White Cloud Temple of Quanzhen
which was founded in 741 and rebuilt numerous times. The Beijing
Dongyue Temple outside
Chaoyangmen is the largest temple of Zhengyi
Taoism in the city. The local
Beijing Taoist Association has its
headquarters at the
Lüzu Temple near Fuxingmen.
Beijing's Tianning Temple , in
Xicheng District . Altar
Tsongkhapa of the Hall of the Wheel of the Law of the Yonghe Temple
11% of the population of
Beijing practices Buddhism. The Buddhist
China , the state's supervisory organ overseeing all
Buddhist institutions in mainland China, is headquartered in the
Guangji Temple , a temple founded over 800 years ago during the Jin
dynasty (1115–1234) in what is now Fuchengmennei. The Beijing
Buddhist Association along with the
Buddhist Choir and Orchestra are
based in the Guanghua Temple , which dates to the Yuan Dynasty over
700 years ago. The
Buddhist Academy of
China and its library are
housed in the
Fayuan Temple near Caishikou. The Fayuan Temple, which
dates to the
Tang Dynasty 1300 years ago, is the oldest temple in
urban Beijing. The Tongjiao Temple inside
Dongzhimen is the city's
The West Yellow Temple originally dates to the Liao Dynasty. In 1651,
the temple was commissioned by the Qing Emperor Shunzhi to host the
visit of the Fifth Dalai Lama to Beijing. Since then, this temple has
13th Dalai Lama as well as the Sixth , Ninth and Tenth
Panchen Lamas . The largest Tibetan
Buddhist Temple in
Beijing is the
Yonghe Temple, which was decreed by the Qing Emperor Qianlong in 1744
to serve as the residence and research facility for his Buddhist
preceptor of Rölpé Dorjé the third Changkya (or living Buddha of
Inner Mongolia). The
Yonghe Temple is so-named because it was the
childhood residence of the
Yongzheng Emperor , and retains the glazed
tiles reserved for imperial palaces.
The Lingguang Temple of
Badachu in the
Western Hills also dates to
the Tang Dynasty. The temple's Zhaoxian Pagoda was first built in 1071
Liao Dynasty to hold a tooth relic of the Buddha . The
pagoda was destroyed during the
Boxer Rebellion and the tooth was
discovered from its foundation. A new pagoda was built in 1964. The
six aforementioned temples: Guangji, Guanghua, Tongjiao, West Yellow,
Yonghe and Lingguang have been designated National Key Buddhist
Han Chinese Area .
In addition, other notable temples in
Beijing include the Tanzhe
Temple (founded in the
Jin dynasty (265–420) is the oldest in the
municipality), Tianning Temple (oldest pagoda in the city), Miaoying
Temple (famed for Yuan-era white dagoba), the
Wanshou Temple (home to
Beijing Art Museum) and
Big Bell Temple .
Buddhist temples in
* Bailin Temple
Big Bell Temple
* Cheng\'en Temple
* Guanghua Temple
Temple of Azure Clouds
* Tianning Temple
The headquarters of the Islamic Association of
China near Niujie
in Xicheng District.
Beijing has about 70 mosques recognized by the Islamic Association of
China , whose headquarters are located next to the
Niujie Mosque , the
oldest and most famous mosque in the city. The
Niujie Mosque was
founded in 996 during the
Liao Dynasty and is frequently visited by
Muslim dignitaries. Other notable mosques in the old city include the
Dongsi Mosque , founded in 1346; the Huashi Mosque, founded in 1415;
Nan Douya Mosque, near Chaoyangmen; Jinshifang Street Mosque, in
Xicheng District; and the
Dongzhimen Mosque. There are large mosques
in outlying Muslim communities in Haidian, Madian , Tongzhou,
Changping, Changying ,
Shijingshan and Miyun. The
Institute is located in the Niujie neighborhood in Xicheng District.
Church of the Saviour , also known as the Xishiku Church,
founded in 1703.
John of Montecorvino came to
Beijing as a Franciscan
missionary with the order from the Pope. After meeting and receiving
the support of
Kublai Khan in 1293, he built the first Catholic church
Beijing in 1305. The
Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (CPCA),
Houhai is the government oversight body for Catholics in
mainland China. Notable Catholic churches in
* the Nantang or Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception also known
as the Xuanwumen Church, which was founded in 1605 and whose current
Joseph Li Shan is one of the few bishops in
China to have
the support of both the Vatican and the CPCA.
* the Dongtang or St. Joseph\'s Church , better known as the
Wangfujing Church, founded in 1653.
* the Beitang or Church of the Saviour , also known as the Xishiku
Church, founded in 1703.
* the Xitang or Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel also known as the
Xizhimen Church, founded in 1723.
The National Seminary of Catholic Church in
China is located in
The earliest Protestant churches in
Beijing were founded by British
and American missionaries in the second half of the 19th century.
Protestant missionaries also opened schools, universities and
hospitals which have become important civic institutions. Most of
Beijing's Protestant churches were destroyed during the Boxer
Rebellion and rebuilt. In 1958, the 64 Protestant churches in the city
were reorganized into four and overseen by the state through the
Three-Self Patriotic Movement .
There were a significant amount of Orthodox Christian in Beijing.
Orthodox has come to
Beijing along with Russian prisoners from
Albazino conflicts in the 17th century. In 1956, Viktor, the bishop
Beijing returned to the Soviet Union, and the Soviet embassy took
over the old cathedral and demolished it. In 2007, Russian embassy has
rebuilt a new church in its garden to serve the Russian Orthodox
Christian in Beijing.
TELEVISION AND RADIO
China Central Television Headquarters building
Beijing Television broadcasts on channels 1 through 10, and China
Central Television , China's largest television network, maintains its
headquarters in Beijing. Three radio stations feature programmes in
English: Hit FM on FM 88.7, Easy FM by
China Radio International on FM
91.5, and the newly launched Radio 774 on AM 774.
Stations is the family of radio stations serving the city.
Beijing Evening News (
Beijing Wanbao, 北京晚报),
covering news about
Beijing in Chinese, is distributed every
afternoon. Other newspapers include
Beijing Daily , The
(Xin Jing Bao, 新京报), the
Beijing Star Daily, the
News, and the
Beijing Youth Daily (
Beijing Qingnian Bao), as well as
Beijing Weekend and
Beijing Today . The
People\'s Daily ,
Global Times and the
China Daily (English) are
Beijing as well.
Publications primarily aimed at international visitors and the
expatriate community include the English-language periodicals Time Out
City Weekend ,
Beijing This Month ,
Beijing Talk, That\'s
Beijing , and
The Beijinger .
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of
the 2008 Summer Games Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the
Fragrant Hills Park
Beijing has hosted numerous international and national sporting
events, the most notable was the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic
Games. Other multi-sport international events held in
Universiade and the
1990 Asian Games . Single-sport
international competitions include the
Beijing Marathon (annually
China Open of Tennis (1993–97, annually since 2004),
ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating Cup of
China (2003 , 2004 , 2005 ,
2008 , 2009 and 2010 ), WPBSA
China Open for Snooker (annually since
Union Cycliste Internationale
Union Cycliste Internationale
Tour of Beijing (since 2011 ),
World Table Tennis Championships , 1987 IBF Badminton World
Championships , the
2004 AFC Asian Cup (football), and 2009 Barclays
Asia Trophy (football).
Beijing hosted the 2015 IAAF World
Championships in Athletics .
LeSports Center will be one of the main venues for the 2019
FIBA Basketball World Cup .
The city hosted the second Chinese National Games in 1914 and the
first four National Games of
China in 1959, 1965, 1975, 1979,
respectively, and co-hosted the 1993 National Games with
Beijing also hosted the inaugural National Peasants\' Games
in 1988 and the sixth National Minority Games in 1999.
In November 2013,
Beijing made a bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics
. On 31 July 2015, the International Olympic Committee awarded the
2022 Winter Olympics
2022 Winter Olympics to the city.
Major sporting venues in the city include the National Stadium , also
known as the "Birds' Nest", National Aquatics Center , also known as
the "Water Cube", National Indoor Stadium , all in the Olympic Green
to the north of downtown; the
MasterCard Center at Wukesong west of
downtown; the Workers\' Stadium and Workers\' Arena in
east of downtown and the Capital Arena in Baishiqiao, northeast of
downtown. In addition, many universities in the city have their own
Professional sports teams based in
China Baseball League
Chinese Basketball Association
Beikong Fly Dragons
Chinese Basketball Association
Chinese Super League
Kontinental Hockey League
HC Kunlun Red Star
China League One
China League Two
* Chinese Women\'s National League
Beijing Olympians of the American Basketball Association ,
Chinese Basketball Association team, kept their name and
maintained a roster of primarily Chinese players after moving to
Maywood, California in 2005.
Bandy Federation is based in Beijing, one of several cities in
which the potential for bandy development is explored.
Transport in Beijing
Transport in Beijing
Beijing Railway Station
Beijing Railway Station ,
one of several rail stations in the city Traffic jam in the
Beijing CBD Terminal 3 of the
Beijing Capital International
Airport A Line 1 train on the
Beijing Subway , which is among
the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world. An
Beijing bus . Bicyclists during rush hour at the
Chang'an Avenue. Typical
Beijing traffic signage found at
Beijing is an important transport hub in North
China with five ring
roads , nine expressways, eleven National Highways, nine conventional
railways, and two high-speed railways converging on the city.
RAIL AND HIGH-SPEED RAIL
Beijing serves as a large rail hub in China\'s railway network . Ten
conventional rail lines radiate from the city to:
Guangzhou (Jingguang Line) , Kowloon (Jingjiu Line) , Harbin
(Jingha Line) ,
Baotou (Jingbao Line) ,
Qinhuangdao (Jingqin Line) ,
Chengde (Jingcheng Line) , Tongliao,
Inner Mongolia (Jingtong Line) ,
Shanxi (Jingyuan Line) and Shacheng,
Hebei (Fengsha Line) .
In addition, the
Datong–Qinhuangdao Railway passes through the
municipality to the north of the city.
Beijing also has three high-speed rail lines: the Beijing-Tianjin
Intercity Railway , which opened in 2008; the Beijing-Shanghai
High-Speed Railway , which opened in 2011; and the Beijing–Guangzhou
High-Speed Railway , which opened in 2012.
The city's main railway stations are the
Beijing Railway Station
Beijing Railway Station ,
which opened in 1959; the
Beijing West Railway Station
Beijing West Railway Station , which opened
in 1996; and the
Beijing South Railway Station
Beijing South Railway Station , which was rebuilt
into the city's high-speed railway station in 2008. As of 1 July 2010,
Beijing Railway Station
Beijing Railway Station had 173 trains arriving daily,
had 232 trains and
Beijing South had 163. The
Beijing North Railway
Station , first built in 1909 and expanded in 2009, had 22 trains.
Smaller stations in the city including
Beijing East Railway Station
Qinghuayuan Railway Station handle mainly commuter passenger
Fengtai Railway Station has been closed for renovation.
In outlying suburbs and counties of Beijing, there are over 40 railway
From Beijing, direct passenger train service is available to most
large cities in China. International train service is available to
Mongolia , Russia,
North Korea . Passenger trains in China
are numbered according to their direction in relation to Beijing.
ROADS AND EXPRESSWAYS
Expressways of Beijing and
Beijing is connected by road links to all parts of
China as part of
the National Trunk Road Network. Nine expressways of
Beijing, as do eleven
China National Highways . Beijing's urban
transport is dependent upon the five "ring roads " that concentrically
surround the city, with the
Forbidden City area marked as the
geographical centre for the ring roads. The ring roads appear more
rectangular than ring-shaped. There is no official "1st Ring Road".
2nd Ring Road is located in the inner city. Ring roads tend to
resemble expressways progressively as they extend outwards, with the
5th and 6th Ring Roads being full-standard national expressways,
linked to other roads only by interchanges. Expressways to other
China are generally accessible from the 3rd Ring Road
outward. A final outer orbital, the Capital Ring Expressway (G95) , is
being built and will extend into neighbouring
Within the urban core, city streets generally follow the checkerboard
pattern of the ancient capital. Many of Beijing's boulevards and
streets with "inner" and "outer" are still named in relation to gates
in the city wall, though most gates no longer stand. Traffic jams are
a major concern. Even outside of rush hour, several roads still remain
clogged with traffic.
Beijing's urban design layout further exacerbates transportation
problems. The authorities have introduced several bus lanes, which
only public buses can use during rush hour. In the beginning of 2010,
Beijing had 4 million registered automobiles. By the end of 2010, the
government forecast 5 million. In 2010, new car registrations in
Beijing averaged 15,500 per week.
Towards the end of 2010, the city government announced a series of
drastic measures to tackle traffic jams, including limiting the number
of new license plates issued to passenger cars to 20,000 a month and
barring cars with non-
Beijing plates from entering areas within the
Fifth Ring Road during rush hour. More restrictive measures are also
reserved during major events or heavily polluted weather.
Beijing's primary airport is the
Beijing Capital International
IATA : PEK) about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city
centre. The airport is the second busiest airport in the world after
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport . After renovations
for the 2008 Olympics, the airport now boasts three terminals, with
Terminal 3 being one of the largest in the world. Most domestic and
nearly all international flights arrive at and depart from Capital
Airport. It is the main hub for Air
China and a hub for
Hainan Airlines . The airport links
Beijing with almost every
other Chinese city with regular air passenger service.
The Airport Expressway links the airport to central Beijing; it is a
roughly 40-minute drive from the city centre during good traffic
conditions. Prior to the 2008 Olympics, the
2nd Airport Expressway was
built to the airport, as well as a light rail system, which now
connects to the
Beijing Subway .
Other airports in the city include Liangxiang, Nanyuan , Xijiao,
Shahe and Badaling. These airports are primarily for military use and
are less well known to the public. Nanyuan serves as the hub for only
one passenger airline. A second international airport, to be called
Beijing Daxing International Airport , is currently being built in
Daxing District , and is expected to be open by 2017.
As of 1 January 2013 , tourists from 45 countries are permitted a
72-hour visa-free stay in Beijing. The 45 countries include Singapore,
Japan, the United States, Canada, all EU and EEA countries (except
Norway and Liechtenstein), Switzerland, Brazil,
Australia. The programme benefits transit and business travellers
with the 72 hours calculated starting from the moment visitors receive
their transit stay permits rather than the time of their plane's
arrival. Foreign visitors are not permitted to leave
Beijing for other
Chinese cities during the 72 hours.
Beijing Subway , which began operating in 1969, now has 18 lines,
334 stations , and 554 km (344 mi) of track and is the second longest
subway system in the world and first in annual ridership with 3.41
billion rides delivered in 2014. In 2013, with a flat fare of ¥
2.00(0.31 USD ) per ride with unlimited transfers on all lines except
the Airport Express , the subway was also the most affordable rapid
China . The subway is undergoing rapid expansion and is
expected to reach 30 lines, 450 stations, 1,050 kilometres (650 mi) in
length by 2020. When fully implemented, 95% residents inside the
Fourth Ring Road will be able walk to a station in 15 minutes. The
Beijing Suburban Railway provides commuter rail service to outlying
suburbs of the municipality.
On December 28, 2014, the
Beijing Subway switched to a distance-based
fare system from a fixed fare for all lines except the Airport Express
. Under the new system a trip under 6 km will cost ¥ 3.00(0.49 USD),
an additional ¥ 1.00 will be added for the next 6 kilometres (3.7
miles) and the next 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) until the distance for
the trip reaches 32 kilometres (20 miles). For every 20 kilometres
(12 miles) after the original 32 kilometres (20 miles) an additional
¥ 1.00 is added. For example, a 50 kilometres (31 miles) trip would
cost ¥ 8.00.
There are nearly 1,000 public bus and trolleybus lines in the city,
including four bus rapid transit lines. Standard bus fares are as low
as ¥1.00 when purchased with the
Metered taxi in
Beijing start at ¥13 for the first 3 kilometres (1.9
Renminbi per additional 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) and ¥1 per
ride fuel surcharge, not counting idling fees which are ¥2.3 (¥4.6
during rush hours of 7–9 am and 5–7 pm) per 5 minutes of standing
or running at speeds lower than 12 kilometres per hour (7.5 mph) .
Most taxis are Hyundai Elantras , Hyundai Sonatas , Peugeots ,
Citroëns and Volkswagen Jettas . After 15 kilometres (9.3 mi), the
base fare increases by 50% (but is only applied to the portion over
that distance). Different companies have special colours combinations
painted on their vehicles. Usually registered taxis have yellowish
brown as basic hue, with another color of Prussian blue, hunter green,
white, umber, tyrian purple, rufous, or sea green. Between 11 pm and 5
am, there is also a 20% fee increase. Rides over 15 km (9 mi) and
between 23:00 and 06:00 incur both charges, for a total increase of
80%. Tolls during trip should be covered by customers and the costs of
Beijing city limits should be negotiated with the driver.
The cost of unregistered taxis is also subject to negotiation with the
Beijing has long been well known for the number of bicycles on its
streets. Although the rise of motor traffic has created a great deal
of congestion and bicycle use has declined, bicycles are still an
important form of local transportation. Large numbers of cyclists can
be seen on most roads in the city, and most of the main roads have
dedicated bicycle lanes .
Beijing is relatively flat, which makes
cycling convenient. The rise of electric bicycles and electric
scooters , which have similar speeds and use the same cycle lanes, may
have brought about a revival in bicycle-speed two-wheeled transport.
It is possible to cycle to most parts of the city. Because of the
growing traffic congestion, the authorities have indicated more than
once that they wish to encourage cycling, but it is not clear whether
there is sufficient will to translate that into action on a
DEFENSE AND AEROSPACE
Xi Jinping and a military honor guard welcomes
South Korean president
Park Geun-hye in June 2013.
The command headquarters of China's military forces are based in
Beijing. The Central Military Commission , the political organ in
charge of the military, is housed inside the Ministry of National
Defense , located next to the Military Museum of the Chinese People\'s
Revolution in western Beijing. The
Second Artillery Corps , which
controls the country's strategic missile and nuclear weapons, has its
command in Qinghe , Haidian District. The headquarters of the Beijing
Military Region , one of seven nationally, is based further west in
Beijing Military Region oversees the
Beijing Garrisons as
well as the 27th , 38th and 65th Armies , which are based in Hebei.
Military institutions in
Beijing also include academies and
thinktanks such as the
PLA National Defence University and Academy of
Military Science , military hospitals such as the 301 , 307 and the
Academy of Military Medical Sciences, and army-affiliated cultural
entities such as the 1 August Film Studios and the PLA Song and Dance
China National Space Administration , which oversees country's
space program , and several space-related state owned companies such
as CASTC and CASIC are all based in Beijing. The
Command and Control Center , in
Haidian District tracks the country's
manned and unmanned flight and other space exploration initiatives.
NATURE AND WILDLIFE
Beijing Municipality has 20 nature reserves that have a total area of
1,339.7 km2 (517.3 sq mi). The mountains to the west and north of the
city are home to a number of protected wildlife species including
leopard , leopard cat , wolf , red fox , wild boar , masked palm civet
, raccoon dog , hog badger ,
Siberian weasel ,
Amur hedgehog , roe
deer , and mandarin rat snake . The
Beijing Aquatic Wildlife Rescue
and Conservation Center protects the
Chinese giant salamander , Amur
stickleback and mandarin duck on the Huaijiu and Huaisha Rivers in
Huairou District . The
Beijing Milu Park south of the city is home to
one of the largest herds of Père David\'s deer , now extinct in the
Beijing barbastelle , a species of vesper bat discovered in
Fangshan District in 2001 and identified as a distinct
species in 2007, is endemic to Beijing. The mountains of Fangshan are
also habitat for the more common
Beijing mouse-eared bat , large
myotis , greater horseshoe bat and Rickett\'s big-footed bat .
Beijing hosts 200-300 species of migratory birds including
the common crane , black-headed gull , swan , mallard , common cuckoo
and the endangered yellow-breasted bunting . In May 2016, Common
cuckoos nesting in the wetlands of Cuihu (Haidian), Hanshiqiao
(Shunyi), Yeyahu (Yanqing) were tagged and have been traced to far as
Mozambique . In the fall of 2016, the Beijing
Forest Police undertook a month-long campaign to crack down on illegal
hunting and trapping of migratory birds for sale in local bird
markets. Over 1,000 rescued birds of protected species including
Eurasian siskin , crested myna , coal tit and great tit
were handed to the
Beijing Wildlife Protection and Rescue Center for
repatriation to the wild.
The city flowers are the Chinese rose and chrysanthemum . The city
trees are the
Chinese arborvitae , an evergreen in the cypress family
Pagoda Tree , also called the Chinese scholar tree, a
deciduous tree of the
Fabaceae family. The oldest scholar tree in the
city was planted in what is now
Beihai Park during the
Tang Dynasty ,
1,300 years ago.
* 2045 Peking —the name of an asteroid
Beijing city fortifications
* Historical capitals of
Large Cities Climate Leadership Group
List of hospitals in Beijing
List of mayors of Beijing
* List of twin towns and sister cities in
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