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Behavior change, in context of public health, refers to efforts put in place to change people's personal habits and attitudes, to prevent disease.[1] Behavior change in public health is also known as social and behavior change communication (SBCC).[2] More and more, efforts focus on prevention of disease to save healthcare care costs.[3] This is particularly important in low and middle income countries, such as Ghana, where health interventions have come under increased scrutiny because of the cost.[4]

Background

The 3-4-50 concept[5] outlines that there are 3 behaviors (poor diet, little to no physical activity, and smoking), that lead to four diseases (heart disease/stroke, diabetes, cancer, pulmonary disease), that account for 50% of deaths worldwide.This is why so much emphasis in public health interventions have been on changing behaviors or intervening early on to decrease the negative impacts that come with these behaviors. With successful intervention, there is the possibility of decreasing healthcare costs by a drastic amount, as well as general costs to society (morbidity and mortality). A good public health intervention is not only defined by the results they create, but also the number of levels it hits on the socioecological model[6] (individual, interpersonal, community and/or environment). The challenge that public health interventions face is generalizability: what may work in one community may not work in others. However, there is the development of Healthy People 2020 that has national objectives aimed to accomplish in 10 years to improve the health of all Americans.

Health conditions and infections are associated with risky behaviors. Tobacco use, alcoholism, multiple sex partners, substance use, reckless driving, obesity, or unprotected sexual intercourse are some examples. Human beings have, in principle, control over their conduct. Behavior modification can contribute to the success of self-control, and health-enhancing behaviors. Risky behaviors can be eliminated including physical exercise, weight control, preventive nutrition, dental hygiene, condom use, or accident prevention. Health behavior change refers to the motivational, volitional, and action based processes of abandoning such health-compromising behaviors in favor of adopting and maintaining health-enhancing behaviors.[7][8][9] Addiction that is associated with risky behavior may have a genetic component.[10]

Theories

Behavior change programs tend to focus on a few behavioral change theories which gained ground in the 1980s. These theories share a major commonality in defining individual actions as the locus of change. Behavior change programs that are usually focused on activities that help a person or a community to reflect upon their risk behaviors and change them to reduce their risk and vulne

The 3-4-50 concept[5] outlines that there are 3 behaviors (poor diet, little to no physical activity, and smoking), that lead to four diseases (heart disease/stroke, diabetes, cancer, pulmonary disease), that account for 50% of deaths worldwide.This is why so much emphasis in public health interventions have been on changing behaviors or intervening early on to decrease the negative impacts that come with these behaviors. With successful intervention, there is the possibility of decreasing healthcare costs by a drastic amount, as well as general costs to society (morbidity and mortality). A good public health intervention is not only defined by the results they create, but also the number of levels it hits on the socioecological model[6] (individual, interpersonal, community and/or environment). The challenge that public health interventions face is generalizability: what may work in one community may not work in others. However, there is the development of Healthy People 2020 that has national objectives aimed to accomplish in 10 years to improve the health of all Americans.

Health conditions and infections are associated with risky behaviors. Tobacco use, alcoholism, multiple sex partners, substance use, reckless driving, obesity, or unprotected sexual intercourse are some examples. Human beings have, in principle, control over their conduct. Behavior modification can contribute to the success of self-control, and health-enhancing behaviors. Risky behaviors can be eliminated including physical exercise, weight control, preventive nutrition, dental hygiene, condom use, or accident prevention. Health behavior change refers to the motivational, volitional, and action based processes of abandoning such health-compromising behaviors in favor of adopting and maintaining health-enhancing behaviors.[7][8][9] Addiction that is associated with risky behavior may have a genetic component.[10]

Theories

Behavior change programs tend to focus on a few behavioral change theories which gained ground in the 1980s. These theories share a major commonality in defining individual actions as the locus of change. Behavior change programs that are usually focused on activities that help a person or a community to reflect upon their risk behaviors and change them to reduce their risk and vulnerability are known as interventions. Examples include: "Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model of Behavior Change", "theory of reasoned action", "risky behaviors. Tobacco use, alcoholism, multiple sex partners, substance use, reckless driving, obesity, or unprotected sexual intercourse are some examples. Human beings have, in principle, control over their conduct. Behavior modification can contribute to the success of self-control, and health-enhancing behaviors. Risky behaviors can be eliminated including physical exercise, weight control, preventive nutrition, dental hygiene, condom use, or accident prevention. Health behavior change refers to the motivational, volitional, and action based processes of abandoning such health-compromising behaviors in favor of adopting and maintaining health-enhancing behaviors.[7][8][9] Addiction that is associated with risky behavior may have a genetic component.[10]

Behavior change programs tend to focus on a few behavioral change theories which gained ground in the 1980s. These theories share a major commonality in defining individual actions as the locus of change. Behavior change programs that are usually focused on activities that help a person or a community to reflect upon their risk behaviors and change them to reduce their risk and vulnerability are known as interventions. Examples include: "Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model of Behavior Change", "theory of reasoned action", "health belief model", "theory of planned behavior",[11] diffusion of innovation",[12] and the health action process approach.[13] Developments in health behavior change theories since the late 1990s have focused on incorporating disparate theories of health behavior change into a single unified theory.[14][15]

Individual and interpersonal

Organizations, foundations and programs

  • Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs specializes in health-related BCC (behavior change communication) programs, primarily in developing countries. It includes programs in reproductive health and family planning, malaria, and HIV/AIDS.[20]
  • Development Media International uses mass media to promote healthy behaviors in Burkina Faso, DRC and Mozambique.[21]
  • Young 1ove provides information to youth to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in Botswana.[22]
  • Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) aims to promote basic research on the initiation, personalization, and maintenance of behavior change.[23]
  • Chocolate Moose Media, founded by Firdaus Kharas in 1995, creates animated public service announcement content for health-and-social-justice behaviour change communications.[24]

Physical activity and diet

  • Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes)[25]
  • Shape-up Somerville[26]
  • Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)[27]

Quitting smoking

  • The Truth Initiative[28]
  • Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids[29]
  • Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control 2009[30]

See also

References

  1. ^ WHO 2002: "World Health Report 2002 – Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life". Retrieved February 2015.
  2. ^ "Why Social and Behavior Change Communication? – Health Communication Capacity Collaborative – Social and Behavior Change Communication". Health Communication Capacity Collaborative – Social and Behavior Change Communication. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
  3. ^ US Center for Disease Control and Prevention. "National Prevention Strategy". Retrieved February 2015.
  4. ^ Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., (eds) (2006) Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition Chapter 2: Intervention Cost-Effectiveness Retrieved February 2015.
  5. ^