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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Nazi Party
Nazi Party

* Sturmabteilung

Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic

* Bavaria
Bavaria
Free State * Reichswehr
Reichswehr

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(WIA ) * Erich Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff
* Ernst Röhm * Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
* Scheubner-Richter † * Hermann Göring (WIA )

* Gustav von Kahr * Eugen von Knilling * Hans von Seisser * Otto von Lossow

MILITARY SUPPORT

2,000+ 130

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

16 killed About a dozen injured Many captured and imprisoned 4 killed Several wounded

The BEER HALL PUTSCH, also known as the MUNICH PUTSCH, and, in German , as the HITLERPUTSCH or HITLER-LUDENDORFF-PUTSCH, was a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leader Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
— along with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff
and other Kampfbund leaders — to seize power in Munich
Munich
, Bavaria
Bavaria
, during 8–9 November 1923. About two thousand Nazis marched to the centre of Munich, where they confronted the police, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazis and four police officers. Hitler
Hitler
himself was not wounded during the clash, although he locked his left arm with the right arm of Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter who, when he was shot and killed, pulled Hitler to the pavement with him. Hitler
Hitler
escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, Hitler
Hitler
was arrested and charged with treason.

From Hitler's perspective, there were three positive benefits from this attempt to seize power unlawfully. First, the putsch brought Hitler
Hitler
to the attention of the German nation and generated front page headlines in newspapers around the world. His arrest was followed by a 24-day trial, which was widely publicized and gave Hitler
Hitler
a platform to publicize his nationalist sentiment to the nation. Hitler
Hitler
was found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg Prison . The second benefit to Hitler
Hitler
was that he used his time in prison to produce Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
, which was dictated to his fellow prisoners Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
. On 20 December 1924, having served only nine months, Hitler
Hitler
was released. The final benefit that Hitler
Hitler
accrued was the insight that the path to power was through legitimate means rather than revolution or force. Accordingly, the most significant outcome of the putsch was a decision by Hitler
Hitler
to change NSDAP tactics, which would demand an increasing reliance on the development and furthering of Nazi propaganda .

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 2 The Putsch

* 2.1 Counterattack

* 3 Trial and prison

* 4 Fatalities

* 4.1 Bavarian police * 4.2 Nazis

* 5 Martyrdom

* 6 Supporters of the Putsch

* 6.1 Key supporters * 6.2 Other notable supporters * 6.3 At the front of the march * 6.4 Chief defendants in the \'Ludendorff–Hitler\' trial

* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links

BACKGROUND

In the early 20th century, many of the larger cities of southern Germany had beer halls where hundreds or even thousands of people would socialize in the evenings, drink beer and participate in political and social debates. Such beer halls also became the host of occasional political rallies. One of Munich's largest beer halls was the " Bürgerbräukeller ." This was the location of the famous Beer Hall Putsch.

The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
, which ended World War I, sounded the death knell of German power and prestige. Like many Germans of the period, Hitler
Hitler
believed that the treaty was a betrayal, with the country having been "stabbed in the back" by its own government, particularly as the German Army was popularly thought to have been undefeated in the field. Germany, it was felt, had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists , who were later called the "November Criminals."

Hitler
Hitler
remained in the army, in Munich, after World War I. He participated in various "national thinking" courses. These had been organized by the Education and Propaganda
Propaganda
Department of the Bavarian army , under Captain Karl Mayr , of which Hitler
Hitler
became an agent. Captain Mayr ordered Hitler, then an army lance corporal, to infiltrate the tiny Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated DAP (German Workers\' Party ). Hitler
Hitler
joined the DAP on 12 September 1919. He soon realized that he was in agreement with many of the underlying tenets of the DAP, and he rose to its top post in the ensuing chaotic political atmosphere of postwar Munich. By agreement, Hitler
Hitler
assumed the political leadership of a number of Bavarian "patriotic associations" (revanchist ), called the Kampfbund . This political base extended to include about 15,000 brawlers , most of whom were ex-soldiers.

On 26 September 1923, following a period of turmoil and political violence, Bavarian Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling declared a state of emergency, and Gustav von Kahr was appointed Staatskomissar, or state commissioner, with dictatorial powers to govern the state. In addition to von Kahr, Bavarian state police chief Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser and Reichswehr
Reichswehr
General Otto von Lossow formed a ruling triumvirate. Hitler
Hitler
announced that he would hold 14 mass meetings beginning on 27 September 1923. Afraid of the potential disruption, one of Kahr's first actions was to ban the announced meetings. Hitler was under pressure to act. The Nazis, with other leaders in the Kampfbund, felt they had to march upon Berlin and seize power or their followers would turn to the Communists. Hitler
Hitler
enlisted the help of World War I
World War I
general Erich Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff
in an attempt to gain the support of Kahr and his triumvirate. However, Kahr had his own plan with Seisser and Lossow to install a nationalist dictatorship without Hitler. November 1923 was the height of hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic .

THE PUTSCH

The attempted putsch was inspired by Benito Mussolini 's successful March on Rome
March on Rome
, from 22 to 29 October 1922. Hitler
Hitler
and his associates planned to use Munich
Munich
as a base for a march against Germany's Weimar Republic government. But the circumstances were different from those in Italy. Hitler
Hitler
came to the realization that Kahr sought to control him and was not ready to act against the government in Berlin. Hitler wanted to seize a critical moment for successful popular agitation and support. He decided to take matters into his own hands. Hitler, along with a large detachment of SA , marched on the Bürgerbräukeller , where Kahr was making a speech in front of 3,000 people.

In the cold, dark evening, 603 SA surrounded the beer hall and a machine gun was set up in the auditorium. Hitler, surrounded by his associates Hermann Göring , Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
, Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
, Ernst Hanfstaengl , Ulrich Graf , Johann Aigner , Adolf Lenk , Max Amann , Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter , Wilhelm Adam , and others (some 20 in all), advanced through the crowded auditorium. Unable to be heard above the crowd, Hitler
Hitler
fired a shot into the ceiling and jumped on a chair yelling: "The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with six hundred men. Nobody is allowed to leave." He went on to state the Bavarian government was deposed and declared the formation of a new government with Ludendorff.

Hitler, accompanied by Hess, Lenk and Graf, ordered the triumvirate of Kahr, Seisser, and Lossow into an adjoining room at gunpoint and demanded they support the putsch. Hitler
Hitler
had promised Lossow a few days earlier that he would not attempt a coup, but now thought that he would get an immediate response of affirmation from them, imploring Kahr to accept the position of Regent of Bavaria. Kahr replied that he could not be expected to collaborate, especially as he had been taken out of the auditorium under heavy guard.

Heinz Pernet , Johann Aigne and Scheubner-Richter were dispatched to pick up Ludendorff, whose personal prestige was being harnessed to give the Nazis credibility. A telephone call was made from the kitchen by Hermann Kriebel to Ernst Röhm , who was waiting with his Bund Reichskriegsflagge in the Löwenbräukeller , another beer hall, and he was ordered to seize key buildings throughout the city. At the same time, co-conspirators under Gerhard Rossbach mobilized the students of a nearby Officers Infantry school to seize other objectives.

Hitler
Hitler
became irritated by Kahr and summoned Ernst Pöhner , Friedrich Weber and Hermann Kriebel to stand in for him while he returned to the auditorium flanked by Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
and Adolf Lenk. He followed up on Göring's speech and stated that the action was not directed at the police and Reichswehr, but against "...the Berlin Jew government and the November criminals of 1918". Dr. Karl Alexander von Mueller, a professor of modern history and political science at the University of Munich
Munich
and a supporter of Kahr, was an eyewitness. He reported:

I cannot remember in my entire life such a change in the attitude of a crowd in a few minutes, almost a few seconds ... Hitler
Hitler
had turned them inside out, as one turns a glove inside out, with a few sentences. It had almost something of hocus-pocus, or magic about it.

Hitler
Hitler
ended his speech with: "Outside are Kahr, Lossow and Seisser. They are struggling hard to reach a decision. May I say to them that you will stand behind them?" Odeonsplatz
Odeonsplatz
in Munich
Munich
on 9 November.

The crowd in the hall backed Hitler
Hitler
with a roar of approval. He finished triumphantly:

You can see that what motivates us is neither self-conceit or self-interest, but only a burning desire to join the battle in this grave eleventh hour for our German Fatherland ... One last thing I can tell you. Either the German revolution begins tonight or we will all be dead by dawn!

Hitler
Hitler
returned to the anteroom , where the triumvirs remained, to ear-shattering acclaim, which the triumvirs could not have failed to notice. On his way back, Hitler
Hitler
ordered Göring and Hess to take Eugen von Knilling and seven other members of the Bavarian government into custody.

During Hitler's speech, Pöhner, Weber, and Kriebel had been trying in a conciliatory fashion to bring the triumvirate round to their point of view. The atmosphere in the room had become lighter but Kahr continued to dig in his heels. Ludendorff showed up a little before 9 p.m. and, being shown into the ante-room, concentrated on Lossow and Seisser, appealing to their sense of duty. Eventually the triumvirate reluctantly gave in.

Hitler, Ludendorff et al. returned to the main hall's podium, where they gave speeches and shook hands. The crowd was then allowed to leave the hall. In a tactical mistake, Hitler
Hitler
decided to leave the Bürgerbräukeller shortly thereafter to deal with a crisis elsewhere. Around 10:30 p.m., Ludendorff released Kahr and his associates.

The night was marked by confusion and unrest among government officials, armed forces, police units, and individuals deciding where their loyalties lay. Units of the Kampfbund were scurrying around to arm themselves from secret caches, and seizing buildings. At around 3 am, the first casualties of the putsch occurred when the local garrison of the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
spotted Röhm's men coming out of the beer hall. They were ambushed while trying to reach the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
barracks by soldiers and state police; shots were fired, but there were no fatalities on either side. Encountering heavy resistance, Röhm and his men were forced to fall back. In the meantime, the Reichswehr officers put the whole garrison on alert and called for reinforcements. Foreign attachés were seized in their hotel rooms and put under house arrest. Early Nazis who participated in the attempt to seize power during the 1923 Putsch

In the early morning, Hitler
Hitler
ordered the seizure of the Munich
Munich
city council as hostages . He further sent the communications officer of the Kampfbund, Max Neunzert , to enlist the aid of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria
Bavaria
to mediate between Kahr and the putschists. Neunzert failed in the mission.

By midmorning on 9 November, Hitler
Hitler
realized that the putsch was going nowhere. The Putschists did not know what to do and were about to give up. At this moment, Ludendorff cried out, "Wir marschieren!" (We will march!). Röhm's force together with Hitler's (a total of approximately 2000 men) marched out—but with no specific plan of where to go. On the spur of the moment, Ludendorff led them to the Bavarian Defence Ministry. However, at the Odeonsplatz
Odeonsplatz
in front of the Feldherrnhalle , they met a force of 130 soldiers blocking the way under the command of State Police Senior Lieutenant Baron Michael von Godin . The two groups exchanged fire, killing four state police officers and 16 Nazis.

This was the origin of the Blutfahne
Blutfahne
(blood-flag), which became stained with the blood of two SA members who were shot: the flagbearer Heinrich Trambauer, who was badly wounded, and Andreas Bauriedl, who fell dead onto the fallen flag. A bullet killed Scheubner-Richter. Göring was shot in the leg, but escaped. The rest of the Nazis scattered or were arrested. Hitler
Hitler
was arrested two days later.

In a description of Ludendorff's funeral at the Feldherrnhalle in 1937 (which Hitler
Hitler
attended but without speaking) William L. Shirer wrote: "The World War hero had refused to have anything to do with him ever since he had fled from in front of the Feldherrnhalle after the volley of bullets during the Beer Hall Putsch." However, when a consignment of papers relating to Landsberg prison (including the visitor book) were later sold at auction, it was noted that Ludendorff had visited Hitler
Hitler
a number of times. The case of the resurfacing papers was reported in Der Spiegel ("The Mirror", German news magazine) on 23 June 2006; the new information (which came out more than 30 years after Shirer wrote his book, and which Shirer did not have access to) nullifies Shirer's statement.

COUNTERATTACK

State Police and Police units were first notified of trouble by three police detectives stationed at the Löwenbräukeller. These reports reached Major Sigmund von Imhoff of the State police. He immediately called all his green police units and had them seize the central telegraph office and the telephone exchange, although his most important act was to notify Major-General Jakob von Danner , the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
city commandant of Munich. As a staunch aristocrat, Danner loathed the "little corporal" and those " Freikorps bands of rowdies". He also did not much like his commanding officer, Generalleutnant Otto von Lossow , "a sorry figure of a man". He was determined to put down the putsch with or without Lossow. Danner set up a command post at the 19th Infantry Regiment barracks and alerted all military units.

Meanwhile, Captain Karl Wild , learning of the putsch from marchers, mobilized his command to guard Kahr's government building, the Commissariat, with orders to shoot.

Around 11:00 p.m., Major-General von Danner, along with fellow generals Adolf Ritter von Ruith and Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein , compelled Lossow to repudiate the putsch.

There was one member of the cabinet who was not at the Bürgerbräukeller: Franz Matt , the vice-premier and minister of education and culture. A staunchly conservative Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, he was having dinner with the Archbishop of Munich
Munich
, Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber and with the Nuncio to Bavaria
Bavaria
, Archbishop Eugenio Pacelli (who would later become Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
), when he learned of the putsch. He immediately telephoned Kahr. When he found the man vacillating and unsure, Matt decisively began plans to set up a rump government-in-exile in Regensburg
Regensburg
and composed a proclamation calling upon all police officers, members of the armed forces, and civil servants to remain loyal to the government. The action of these few men spelled doom for those attempting the putsch.

On Wednesday, 3,000 students from Munich
Munich
University rioted and marched to the Feldherrnhalle to lay wreaths. They continued to riot until Friday, when they learned of Hitler's arrest. Kahr and Lossow were called Judases and traitors.

TRIAL AND PRISON

Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
trial. From left to right: Pernet, Weber, Frick, Kiebel, Ludendorff, Hitler, Bruckner, Röhm, and Wagner. Note that only two of the defendants ( Hitler
Hitler
and Frick) were wearing civilian clothes

Two days after the putsch, Hitler
Hitler
was arrested and charged with high treason in the special People\'s Court . Some of his fellow conspirators, including Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
, were also arrested, while others, including Hermann Göring and Ernst Hanfstaengl, escaped to Austria
Austria
. The Nazi Party's headquarters was raided, and its newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter
Völkischer Beobachter
("The People's Observer"), was banned. In January 1924, the Emminger Reform , an emergency decree, abolished the jury as trier of fact and replaced it with a mixed system of judges and lay judges in Germany\'s judiciary , which still exists today.

This was not the first time Hitler
Hitler
had been in trouble with the law. In an incident in September 1921, he and some men of the SA had disrupted a meeting of the Bayernbund (" Bavaria
Bavaria
Union") which Otto Ballerstedt , a Bavarian federalist, was to have addressed, and the Nazis who had gone there to cause trouble were arrested as a result. Hitler
Hitler
ended up serving a little over a month of a three-month jail sentence. Judge
Judge
Georg Neithardt was the presiding judge at both of Hitler's trials.

Hitler's trial began on 26 February 1924 and lasted until 1 April 1924. Lossow acted as chief witness for the prosecution. Hitler moderated his tone for the trial, centering his defense on his selfless devotion to the good of the people and the need for bold action to save them; dropping his usual anti-Semitism. He claimed the putsch had been his sole responsibility, inspiring the title "Führer ," or "Leader." The lay judges were fanatically pro-Nazi and had to be dissuaded by the presiding Judge, Georg Neithardt, from acquitting Hitler. Hitler
Hitler
and Hess were both sentenced to five years in Festungshaft (literally fortress confinement) for treason. Festungshaft was the mildest of the three types of jail sentence available in German law at the time; it excluded forced labour, provided reasonably comfortable cells, and allowed the prisoner to receive visitors almost daily for many hours. This was the customary sentence for those whom the judge believed to have had honourable but misguided motives, and it did not carry the stigma of a sentence of Gefängnis or Zuchthaus. In the end, Hitler
Hitler
served only a little over eight months of this sentence before his early release for good behaviour.

However, Hitler
Hitler
used the trial as an opportunity to spread his ideas. The event was extensively covered in the newspapers the next day. The judges were impressed (Presiding Judge
Judge
Neithardt was inclined to favouritism towards the defendants prior to the trial), and as a result Hitler
Hitler
served a little over eight months and was fined 500 Reichmarks . Due to his story that he was present by accident, an explanation he had also used in the Kapp Putsch , along with his war service and connections, Ludendorff was acquitted . Both Röhm and Wilhelm Frick , though found guilty, were released. Göring, meanwhile, had fled after suffering a bullet wound to his leg, which led him to become increasingly dependent on morphine and other painkilling drugs. This addiction continued throughout his life.

One of Hitler's greatest worries at the trial was that he was at risk of being deported back to his native Austria
Austria
by the Bavarian government. The trial judge, Neithardt, was very sympathetic towards Hitler
Hitler
and held that the relevant laws of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
could not be applied to a man "who thinks and feels like a German, as Hitler does." The result was that the Nazi leader remained in Germany.

Though Hitler
Hitler
failed to achieve his immediate stated goal, the putsch did give the Nazis their first exposure to national attention and a propaganda victory. While serving their "fortress confinement" sentences at Landsberg am Lech , Hitler, Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess wrote Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
. Also, the putsch changed Hitler's outlook on violent revolution to effect change. From then on he thought that, in order to win the German heart, he must do everything by the book, strictly legal. Later on, the German people would call him Hitler Legalité or " Hitler
Hitler
the Lawful."

The process of combination, where the conservative-nationalist-monarchist group thought that its members could piggyback onto, and control, the National Socialist movement to garner the seats of power, was to repeat itself ten years later in 1933 when Franz von Papen would legally ask Hitler
Hitler
to form a coalition government.

FATALITIES

BAVARIAN POLICE

* Friedrich Fink * Nikolaus Hollweg * Max Schobert * Rudolf Schraut

NAZIS

* Felix Alfarth, merchant, born 5 July 1901 in Leipzig
Leipzig
. Alfarth had studied merchandising at the Siemens-Schuckert Works and moved to Munich
Munich
in 1923 to begin his career. * Andreas Bauriedl, hatter, born 4 May 1879 in Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg
. Bauriedl was hit in the abdomen, killing him and causing him to fall on the Nazi flag, which had fallen to the ground when its flagbearer, Heinrich Trambauer, was severely wounded. Bauriedl's blood soaked the flag, which later became the Nazi relic known as the Blutfahne
Blutfahne
. * Theodor Casella, bank clerk, born 8 August 1900. * William Ehrlich, bank clerk, born 8 August 1894. * Martin Faust, bank clerk, born 4 January 1901. * Anton Hechenberger, locksmith, born 28 September 1902. * Oskar Körner, businessman, born 4 January 1875 in Ober-Peilau * Karl Kuhn, head waiter in a restaurant, born 7 July 1875. * Karl Laforce, engineering student, born 28 October 1904; the youngest to die in the putsch. * Kurt Neubauer, valet, born 27 March 1899 in Hopfengarten, Kreis Bernberg. * Klaus von Pape, businessman, born 16 August 1904 in Oschatz . * Theodor von der Pfordten, county court counsel, who had fought in World War I
World War I
; born 14 May 1873 in Bayreuth
Bayreuth
; the eldest to die in the putsch. * Johann "Hans" Rickmers, retired cavalry captain who had fought in World War I; born 7 May 1881 in Bremen
Bremen
. * Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter , Nazi leader, born 21 January 1884 in Riga
Riga
. * Lorenz Ritter von Stransky, engineer, born 14 March 1889. * Wilhelm Wolf, businessman, born 19 October 1898.

Scheubner-Richter was walking arm-in-arm with Hitler
Hitler
during the putsch; he was shot in the lungs and died instantly. He brought Hitler
Hitler
down and dislocated Hitler's shoulder when he fell. He was the only first-tier Nazi leader to die during the Putsch. Of all the party members who died in the Putsch, Hitler
Hitler
claimed Scheubner-Richter to be the only "irreplaceable loss".

According to Ernst Röhm , Martin Faust and Theodor Casella, both members of the armed militia organisation Reichskriegsflagge, were shot down accidentally in a burst of machine gun fire during the occupation of the War Ministry as the result of a misunderstanding with II/Inf.Regt 19.

MARTYRDOM

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One of the Munich
Munich
Ehrentempels (Honour Temples), 1936

The 16 fallen were regarded as the first "blood martyrs" of the NSDAP and were remembered by Hitler
Hitler
in the foreword of Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
. The Nazi flag they carried, which in the course of events had been stained with blood, came to be known as the Blutfahne
Blutfahne
(blood flag) and was brought out for the swearing-in of new recruits in front of the Feldherrnhalle when Hitler
Hitler
was in power.

Shortly after he came to power, a memorial was placed at the south side of the Feldherrnhalle crowned with a swastika. The back of the memorial read Und ihr habt doch gesiegt! (And you triumphed nevertheless!). Behind it flowers were laid, and either policemen or the SS stood guard in between a lower plaque. Passers-by were required to give the Hitler
Hitler
salute. The putsch was also commemorated on three sets of stamps. Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
was dedicated to the fallen and, in the book Ich Kämpfe (given to those joining the party circa 1943), they are listed first even though the book lists hundreds of other dead. The header text in the book read "Though they are dead for their acts they will live on forever." The army had a division named the Feldherrnhalle regiment, and there was also an SA Feldherrnhalle division.

Der neunte Elfte (11/9, literally the Ninth of the Eleventh) became one of the most important dates on the Nazi calendar, especially following the seizure of power in 1933. Annually until the fall of Nazi Germany, the putsch would be commemorated nationwide, with the major events taking place in Munich. On the night of 8 November, Hitler
Hitler
would address the Alte Kämpfer (Old Fighters) in the Bürgerbräukeller (after 1939, the Löwenbräu , in 1944, the Circus Krone Building ), followed the next day by a re-enactment of the march through the streets of Munich. The event would climax with a ceremony recalling the 16 dead marchers on the Königsplatz .

The anniversary could be a time of tension in Nazi Germany. The ceremony was cancelled in 1934, coming as it did after the so-called Night of the Long Knives . In 1938, it coincided with the Kristallnacht , and in 1939 with the attempted assassination of Hitler by Johann Georg Elser . With the outbreak of war in 1939, security concerns caused the re-enactment of the march to be suspended, never to be resumed. However, Hitler
Hitler
continued to deliver his 8 November speech through 1943. In 1944, Hitler
Hitler
skipped the event and Heinrich Himmler spoke in his place. As the war went on, residents of Munich came increasingly to dread the approach of the anniversary, concerned that the presence of the top Nazi leaders in their city would act as a magnet for Allied bombers.

Every Gau (administrative region of Germany) was also expected to hold a small remembrance ceremony. As material given to propagandists said, the 16 fallen were the first losses and the ceremony was an occasion to commemorate everyone who had died for the movement.

On 9 November 1935, the dead were taken from their graves and to the Feldherrnhalle. The SA and SS carried them down to the Königplatz, where two Ehrentempel (Honour Temples) had been constructed. In each of the structures eight of the martyrs were interred in a sarcophagus bearing their name. Plaque commemorating policemen

In June 1945 the Allied Control Commission removed the bodies from the Ehrentempels and contacted their families. They were given the option of having their loved ones buried in Munich
Munich
cemeteries in unmarked graves or having them cremated , common practice in Germany for unclaimed bodies. On 9 January 1947, the upper parts of the structures were blown up.

Since 1994, a commemorative plaque in the pavement in front of the Feldherrnhalle contains the names of the four Bavarian policemen who died in the fight against the Nazis. The plaque reads:

“ Den Mitgliedern der Bayerischen Landespolizei, die beim Einsatz gegen die Nationalsozialistischen Putschisten am 9.11.1923 Ihr Leben ließen. ("To the members of the Bavarian Police, who gave their lives opposing the National Socialist coup on 9 November 1923") ”

SUPPORTERS OF THE PUTSCH

KEY SUPPORTERS

* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
* Hermann Göring * Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Erich Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff
* Ernst Röhm * Julius Streicher

* Hermann Kriebel * Friedrich Weber * Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter * Ulrich Graf * Hermann Esser * Ernst Hanfstaengl * Gottfried Feder

* Joseph Berchtold * Ernst Pöhner * Emil Maurice * Max Amann * Heinz Pernet * Wilhelm Brückner * Lt. Robert Wagner

OTHER NOTABLE SUPPORTERS

* Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Edmund Heines * Gerhard Roßbach * Hans Frank * Julius Schaub * Walther Hewel
Walther Hewel
* Dietrich Eckart * Wilhelm Frick * Julius Schreck * Josef \'Sepp\' Dietrich * Philipp Bouhler * Franz Pfeffer von Salomon

* Gustav Adolf Lenk * Gregor Strasser * Hans Kallenbach * Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg * Adolf Wagner * Jakob Grimminger * Heinrich Trambauer * Karl Beggel * Rudolf Jung * Rudolf Buttmann * Albrecht von Graefe * Hans Ulrich Klintzsch

* Heinrich Hoffmann * Josef Gerum * Capt. Eduard Dietl * Hans Georg Hofmann * Matthaeus Hofmann * Helmut Klotz * Adolf Hühnlein * Max Neunzert * Michael Ried * Karl Fischer von Treuenfeld * Theodor Oberländer * Eleonore Baur

AT THE FRONT OF THE MARCH

In the vanguard were four flag bearers followed by Adolf Lenk and Kurt Neubauer , Ludendorff's servant. Behind those two came more flag bearers, then the leadership in two rows.

Hitler
Hitler
was in the centre, slouch hat in hand, the collar of his trenchcoat turned up against the cold. To his left, in civilian clothes, a green felt hat, and a loose loden coat, was Ludendorff. To Hitler's right was Scheubner-Richter . To his right came Alfred Rosenberg. On either side of these men were Ulrich Graf , Hermann Kriebel , Friedrich Weber , Julius Streicher , Hermann Göring , and Wilhelm Brückner .

Behind these came the second string of Heinz Pernet , Johann Aigner ( Scheubner-Richter 's servant), Gottfried Feder , Theodor von der Pfordten , Wilhelm Kolb , Rolf Reiner , Hans Streck , and Heinrich Bennecke , Brückner's adjutant.

Behind this row marched the Stoßtrupp- Hitler
Hitler
, the SA, the Infantry School, and the Oberländer .

CHIEF DEFENDANTS IN THE \'LUDENDORFF–HITLER\' TRIAL

* Heinz Pernet * Friedrich Weber * Wilhelm Frick

* Hermann Kriebel * Erich Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff
* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler

* Wilhelm Brückner * Ernst Röhm * Lt. Robert Wagner

SEE ALSO

* Early timeline of Nazism * Timeline of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
* Blutfahne
Blutfahne

* Other people given posthumous fame by the Nazis:

* Wilhelm Gustloff * Herbert Norkus * Horst Wessel

NOTES

* ^ The court explained why it rejected the deportation of Hitler under the terms of the Protection of the Republic Act: " Hitler
Hitler
is a German-Austrian. He considered himself to be a German. In the opinion of the court, the meaning and the terms of section 9, para II of the Law for the Protection of the Republic cannot apply to a man who thinks and feels as German as Hitler, who voluntarily served for four and a half years in the German army at war, who attained high military honours through outstanding bravery in the face of the enemy, was wounded, suffered other damage to his health, and was released from the military into the control of the district Command Munich
Munich
I."

REFERENCES

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1871460 . doi :10.1086/236826 . at p. 222. * ^ Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p. 22 * ^ Kershaw 1999 , p. 238. * ^ Revoking the Fuehrer\'s Passport at spiegel.de * ^ Ian Kershaw. Hitler
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bear, Ileen (2016). Adolf Hitler: A Biography. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 978-93-86019-47-9 . * Dornberg, John (1982). Munich
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1923: The Story of Hitler's First Grab for Power. New York: Harper & Row. * Gordon, Harold J., Jr. (1972). Hitler
Hitler
and the Beer Hall Putsch. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. * Gordon, Harold J., Jr. (1976). The Hitler
Hitler
Trial Before the People's Court in Munich. University Publications of America. * Kershaw, Ian (1999) . Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: W. W. Norton & Company . ISBN 978-0-393-04671-7 . * Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06757-2 . * Large, David Clay (1997). Where Ghosts Walked, Munich's Road to the Third Reich. New York: W.W. Norton. * Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich . New York: Simon & Schuster. OCLC
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824193307 . * Shirer, William L. (1961). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich . London: Secker and Warburg. OCLC
OCLC
225383220 . * Snyder, Louis Leo (1961). Hitler
Hitler
and Nazism. New York: Franklin Watts. * The full text of The Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Trial before the People\'s Court in Munich
Munich
Judgment at Wikisource

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