Bavaria Free State
Commanders and leaders
Adolf Hitler (WIA)
Hermann Göring (WIA)
Gustav von Kahr
Eugen von Knilling
Hans von Seisser
Otto von Lossow
Casualties and losses
About a dozen injured
Many captured and imprisoned
The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the
Munich Putsch, and, in
German, as the Hitlerputsch, Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch,
Bürgerbräu-Putsch or mostly Marsch auf die Feldherrnhalle, was a
failed coup attempt by the
Nazi Party (NSDAP) leader Adolf
Hitler—along with Generalquartiermeister
Erich Ludendorff and other
Kampfbund leaders—to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during 8–9
November 1923. About two thousand Nazis marched to the centre of
Munich, where they confronted the police, which resulted in the death
of 16 Nazis and four police officers.
Hitler was not wounded during
the clash, although he locked his left arm with the right arm of Max
Erwin von Scheubner-Richter who, when he was shot and killed, pulled
Hitler to the pavement with him.
Hitler escaped immediate arrest and
was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, Hitler
was arrested and charged with treason.
From Hitler's perspective, there were three positive benefits from
this attempt to seize power unlawfully. First, the putsch brought
Hitler to the attention of the German nation and generated front page
headlines in newspapers around the world. His arrest was followed by a
24-day trial, which was widely publicized and gave
Hitler a platform
to publicize his nationalist sentiment to the nation.
Hitler was found
guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg Prison.
The second benefit to
Hitler was that he used his time in prison to
produce Mein Kampf, which was dictated to his fellow prisoners Emil
Maurice and Rudolf Hess. On 20 December 1924, having served only nine
Hitler was released. The final benefit to
Hitler was the
insight that the path to power was through legitimate means rather
than revolution or force. Accordingly, the most significant outcome of
the putsch was a decision by
Hitler to change NSDAP tactics, which
would demand an increasing reliance on the development and furthering
of Nazi propaganda.
2 The Putsch
3 Trial and prison
4.1 Bavarian police
4.2 National Socialists
6 Supporters of the Putsch
6.1 Key supporters
6.2 Other notable supporters
6.3 At the front of the march
6.4 Chief defendants in the "Ludendorff–Hitler" trial
7 See also
11 External links
In the early 20th century, many of the larger cities of southern
Germany had beer halls where hundreds or even thousands of people
would socialize in the evenings, drink beer and participate in
political and social debates. Such beer halls also became the host of
occasional political rallies. One of Munich's largest beer halls was
the "Bürgerbräukeller". This was the location of the famous Beer
The Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, sounded the death
knell of German power and prestige. Like many Germans of the period,
Hitler believed that the treaty was a betrayal, with the country
having been "stabbed in the back" by its own government, particularly
as the German Army was popularly thought to have been undefeated in
the field. Germany, it was felt, had been betrayed by civilian leaders
and Marxists, who were later called the "November Criminals".
Hitler remained in the army, in Munich, after World War I. He
participated in various "national thinking" courses. These had been
organized by the Education and
Propaganda Department of the Bavarian
Army, under Captain Karl Mayr, of which
Hitler became an agent.
Captain Mayr ordered Hitler, then an army lance corporal, to
infiltrate the tiny Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated DAP (German
Hitler joined the DAP on 12 September 1919. He
soon realized that he was in agreement with many of the underlying
tenets of the DAP, and he rose to its top post in the ensuing chaotic
political atmosphere of postwar Munich. By agreement, Hitler
assumed the political leadership of a number of Bavarian "patriotic
associations" (revanchist), called the Kampfbund. This political
base extended to include about 15,000
Sturmabteilung (SA, lit. "Storm
Detachment"), the paramilitary wing of the NSDAP.
On 26 September 1923, following a period of turmoil and political
violence, Bavarian Prime Minister
Eugen von Knilling declared a state
of emergency, and Gustav von Kahr was appointed Staatskomissar, or
state commissioner, with dictatorial powers to govern the state. In
addition to von Kahr, Bavarian state police chief Colonel Hans Ritter
von Seisser and
Otto von Lossow
Otto von Lossow formed a ruling
Hitler announced that he would hold 14 mass meetings
beginning on 27 September 1923. Afraid of the potential disruption,
one of Kahr's first actions was to ban the announced meetings.
Hitler was under pressure to act. The Nazis, with other leaders in the
Kampfbund, felt they had to march upon Berlin and seize power or their
followers would turn to the Communists.
Hitler enlisted the help
World War I
World War I general
Erich Ludendorff in an attempt to gain the
support of Kahr and his triumvirate. However, Kahr had his own plan
with Seisser and Lossow to install a nationalist dictatorship without
Hitler. November 1923 was the height of hyperinflation in the
The attempted putsch was inspired by Benito Mussolini's successful
March on Rome, from 22 to 29 October 1922.
Hitler and his associates
planned to use
Munich as a base for a march against Germany's Weimar
Republic government. But the circumstances were different from those
Hitler came to the realization that Kahr sought to control
him and was not ready to act against the government in Berlin. Hitler
wanted to seize a critical moment for successful popular agitation and
support. He decided to take matters into his own hands. Hitler,
along with a large detachment of SA, marched on the
Bürgerbräukeller, where Kahr was making a speech in front of 3,000
In the cold, dark evening, 603 SA surrounded the beer hall and a
machine gun was set up in the auditorium. Hitler, surrounded by his
associates Hermann Göring, Alfred Rosenberg, Rudolf Hess, Ernst
Hanfstaengl, Ulrich Graf, Johann Aigner, Adolf Lenk, Max Amann, Max
Erwin von Scheubner-Richter, Wilhelm Adam, and others (some 20 in
all), advanced through the crowded auditorium. Unable to be heard
above the crowd,
Hitler fired a shot into the ceiling and jumped on a
chair yelling: "The national revolution has broken out! The hall is
filled with six hundred men. Nobody is allowed to leave." He went on
to state the Bavarian government was deposed and declared the
formation of a new government with Ludendorff.
Hitler, accompanied by Hess, Lenk and Graf, ordered the triumvirate of
Kahr, Seisser, and Lossow into an adjoining room at gunpoint and
demanded they support the putsch.
Hitler demanded they accept
government positions he assigned them.
Hitler had promised Lossow
a few days earlier that he would not attempt a coup, but now
thought that he would get an immediate response of affirmation from
them, imploring Kahr to accept the position of Regent of Bavaria. Kahr
replied that he could not be expected to collaborate, especially as he
had been taken out of the auditorium under heavy guard.
Heinz Pernet, Johann Aigne and Scheubner-Richter were dispatched to
pick up Ludendorff, whose personal prestige was being harnessed to
give the Nazis credibility. A telephone call was made from the kitchen
Hermann Kriebel to Ernst Röhm, who was waiting with his Bund
Reichskriegsflagge in the Löwenbräukeller, another beer hall, and he
was ordered to seize key buildings throughout the city. At the same
time, co-conspirators under Gerhard Rossbach mobilized the students of
a nearby Officers Infantry school to seize other objectives.
Hitler became irritated by Kahr and summoned Ernst Pöhner, Friedrich
Hermann Kriebel to stand in for him while he returned to the
auditorium flanked by
Rudolf Hess and Adolf Lenk. He followed up on
Göring's speech and stated that the action was not directed at the
police and Reichswehr, but against "...the Berlin Jew government and
the November criminals of 1918". Dr. Karl Alexander von Mueller, a
professor of modern history and political science at the University of
Munich and a supporter of Kahr, was an eyewitness. He reported:
I cannot remember in my entire life such a change in the attitude of a
crowd in a few minutes, almost a few seconds ...
Hitler had turned
them inside out, as one turns a glove inside out, with a few
sentences. It had almost something of hocus-pocus, or magic about it.
Hitler ended his speech with: "Outside are Kahr, Lossow and Seisser.
They are struggling hard to reach a decision. May I say to them that
you will stand behind them?"
Munich on 9 November.
The crowd in the hall backed
Hitler with a roar of approval. He
You can see that what motivates us is neither self-conceit or
self-interest, but only a burning desire to join the battle in this
grave eleventh hour for our German Fatherland ... One last thing I can
tell you. Either the German revolution begins tonight or we will all
be dead by dawn!
Hitler returned to the anteroom, where the triumvirs remained, to
ear-shattering acclaim, which the triumvirs could not have failed to
notice. On his way back,
Hitler ordered Göring and Hess to take Eugen
von Knilling and seven other members of the Bavarian government into
During Hitler's speech, Pöhner, Weber, and Kriebel had been trying in
a conciliatory fashion to bring the triumvirate round to their point
of view. The atmosphere in the room had become lighter but Kahr
continued to dig in his heels. Ludendorff showed up a little before 9
p.m. and, being shown into the ante-room, concentrated on Lossow and
Seisser, appealing to their sense of duty. Eventually the triumvirate
reluctantly gave in.
Hitler, Ludendorff et al. returned to the main hall's podium, where
they gave speeches and shook hands. The crowd was then allowed to
leave the hall. In a tactical mistake,
Hitler decided to leave the
Bürgerbräukeller shortly thereafter to deal with a crisis elsewhere.
Around 10:30 p.m., Ludendorff released Kahr and his associates.
The night was marked by confusion and unrest among government
officials, armed forces, police units, and individuals deciding where
their loyalties lay. Units of the
Kampfbund were scurrying around to
arm themselves from secret caches, and seizing buildings. At around 3
am, the first casualties of the putsch occurred when the local
garrison of the
Reichswehr spotted Röhm's men coming out of the beer
hall. They were ambushed while trying to reach the
by soldiers and state police; shots were fired, but there were no
fatalities on either side. Encountering heavy resistance, Röhm and
his men were forced to fall back. In the meantime, the Reichswehr
officers put the whole garrison on alert and called for
reinforcements. Foreign attachés were seized in their hotel rooms and
put under house arrest.
Early Nazis who participated in the attempt to seize power during the
In the early morning,
Hitler ordered the seizure of the
council as hostages. He further sent the communications officer of the
Kampfbund, Max Neunzert, to enlist the aid of Crown Prince Rupprecht
Bavaria to mediate between Kahr and the putschists. Neunzert failed
in the mission.
By midmorning on 9 November,
Hitler realized that the putsch was going
nowhere. The Putschists did not know what to do and were about to give
up. At this moment, Ludendorff cried out, "Wir marschieren!" (We will
march!). Röhm's force together with Hitler's (a total of
approximately 2000 men) marched out—but with no specific plan of
where to go. On the spur of the moment, Ludendorff led them to the
Bavarian Defence Ministry. However, at the
Odeonsplatz in front of the
Feldherrnhalle, they met a force of 130 soldiers blocking the way
under the command of State Police Senior Lieutenant Baron Michael von
Godin. The two groups exchanged fire, killing four state police
officers and 16 Nazis.
This was the origin of the
Blutfahne (blood-flag), which became
stained with the blood of two SA members who were shot: the flagbearer
Heinrich Trambauer, who was badly wounded, and Andreas Bauriedl, who
fell dead onto the fallen flag. A bullet killed
Scheubner-Richter. Göring was shot in the leg, but escaped.
The rest of the Nazis scattered or were arrested.
Hitler was arrested
two days later.
In a description of Ludendorff's funeral at the
Feldherrnhalle in 1937
Hitler attended but without speaking)
William L. Shirer
William L. Shirer wrote:
"The World War [One] hero [Ludendorff] had refused to have anything to
do with him [Hitler] ever since he had fled from in front of the
Feldherrnhalle after the volley of bullets during the Beer Hall
Putsch." However, when a consignment of papers relating to Landsberg
prison (including the visitor book) were later sold at auction, it was
noted that Ludendorff had visited
Hitler a number of times. The case
of the resurfacing papers was reported in
Der Spiegel ("The Mirror",
German news magazine) on 23 June 2006; the new information (which came
out more than 30 years after Shirer wrote his book, and which Shirer
did not have access to) nullifies Shirer's statement.
State Police and Police units were first notified of trouble by three
police detectives stationed at the Löwenbräukeller. These reports
Sigmund von Imhoff of the State police. He immediately
called all his green police units and had them seize the central
telegraph office and the telephone exchange, although his most
important act was to notify Major-General Jakob von Danner, the
Reichswehr city commandant of Munich. As a staunch aristocrat, Danner
loathed the "little corporal" and those "
Freikorps bands of rowdies".
He also did not much like his commanding officer, Generalleutnant Otto
von Lossow, "a sorry figure of a man". He was determined to put down
the putsch with or without Lossow. Danner set up a command post at the
19th Infantry Regiment barracks and alerted all military units.
Meanwhile, Captain Karl Wild, learning of the putsch from marchers,
mobilized his command to guard Kahr's government building, the
Commissariat, with orders to shoot.
Around 11 p.m., Major-General von Danner, along with fellow
generals Adolf Ritter von Ruith and Friedrich Freiherr Kress von
Kressenstein, compelled Lossow to repudiate the putsch.
There was one member of the cabinet who was not at the
Bürgerbräukeller: Franz Matt, the vice-premier and minister of
education and culture. A staunchly conservative Roman Catholic, he was
having dinner with the Archbishop of Munich, Cardinal Michael von
Faulhaber and with the Nuncio to Bavaria, Archbishop Eugenio Pacelli
(who would later become Pope Pius XII), when he learned of the putsch.
He immediately telephoned Kahr. When he found the man vacillating and
unsure, Matt decisively began plans to set up a rump
Regensburg and composed a proclamation calling
upon all police officers, members of the armed forces, and civil
servants to remain loyal to the government. The action of these few
men spelled doom for those attempting the putsch.
On Wednesday, 3,000 students from the University of
Munich rioted and
marched to the
Feldherrnhalle to lay wreaths. They continued to riot
until Friday, when they learned of Hitler's arrest. Kahr and Lossow
were called Judases and traitors.
Trial and prison
Defendants in the
Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch trial. From left to right: Pernet,
Weber, Frick, Kriebel, Ludendorff, Hitler, Bruckner, Röhm, and
Wagner. Note that only two of the defendants (
Hitler and Frick) were
wearing civilian clothes. All those in uniform are carrying swords,
indicating officer and/or aristocratic status
Two days after the putsch,
Hitler was arrested and charged with high
treason in the special People's Court. Some of his fellow
conspirators, including Rudolf Hess, were also arrested, while others,
Hermann Göring and Ernst Hanfstaengl, escaped to
Austria. The Nazi Party's headquarters was raided, and its
Völkischer Beobachter ("The People's Observer"), was
banned. In January 1924, the Emminger Reform, an emergency decree,
abolished the jury as trier of fact and replaced it with a mixed
system of judges and lay judges in Germany's judiciary, which still
This was not the first time
Hitler had been in trouble with the law.
In an incident in September 1921, he and some men of the SA had
disrupted a meeting of the Bayernbund ("
Bavaria Union") which Otto
Ballerstedt, a Bavarian federalist, was to have addressed, and the
Nazis who had gone there to cause trouble were arrested as a result.
Hitler ended up serving a little over a month of a three-month jail
Judge Georg Neithardt (de) was the presiding judge at
both of Hitler's trials.
Hitler's trial began on 26 February 1924 and lasted until 1 April
1924. Lossow acted as chief witness for the prosecution. Hitler
moderated his tone for the trial, centering his defense on his
selfless devotion to the good of the people and the need for bold
action to save them; dropping his usual anti-Semitism. He claimed
the putsch had been his sole responsibility, inspiring the title
"Führer" or "Leader". The lay judges were fanatically pro-Nazi
and had to be dissuaded by the presiding Judge, Georg Neithardt (de),
from acquitting Hitler.
Hitler and Hess were both sentenced to
five years in Festungshaft (literally fortress confinement) for
treason. Festungshaft was the mildest of the three types of jail
sentence available in German law at the time; it excluded forced
labour, provided reasonably comfortable cells, and allowed the
prisoner to receive visitors almost daily for many hours. This was the
customary sentence for those whom the judge believed to have had
honourable but misguided motives, and it did not carry the stigma of a
sentence of Gefängnis or Zuchthaus. In the end,
Hitler served only a
little over eight months of this sentence before his early release for
Hitler used the trial as an opportunity to spread his ideas.
The event was extensively covered in the newspapers the next day. The
judges were impressed (Presiding
Judge Neithardt was inclined to
favouritism towards the defendants prior to the trial), and as a
Hitler served a little over eight months and was fined 500
Reichsmark. Due to his story that he was present by accident, an
explanation he had also used in the Kapp Putsch, along with his war
service and connections, Ludendorff was acquitted. Both Röhm and
Wilhelm Frick, though found guilty, were released. Göring, meanwhile,
had fled after suffering a bullet wound to his leg, which led him
to become increasingly dependent on morphine and other painkilling
drugs. This addiction continued throughout his life.
One of Hitler's greatest worries at the trial was that he was at risk
of being deported back to his native
Austria by the Bavarian
government. The trial judge, Neithardt, was very sympathetic
Hitler and held that the relevant laws of the Weimar Republic
could not be applied to a man "who thinks and feels like a German, as
Hitler does." The result was that the Nazi leader remained in
Hitler failed to achieve his immediate stated goal, the putsch
did give the Nazis their first exposure to national attention and a
propaganda victory. While serving their "fortress confinement"
sentences at Landsberg am Lech, Hitler,
Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess
wrote Mein Kampf. Also, the putsch changed Hitler's outlook on violent
revolution to effect change. From then on he thought that, in order to
win the German heart, he must do everything by the book, "strictly
The process of combination, where the
conservative-nationalist-monarchist group thought that its members
could piggyback onto, and control, the National Socialist movement to
garner the seats of power, was to repeat itself ten years later in
Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen would legally ask
Hitler to form a coalition
Felix Allfarth, merchant, born 5 July 1901 in Leipzig. Alfarth had
studied merchandising at the
Siemens-Schuckert Works and moved to
Munich in 1923 to begin his career.
Andreas Bauriedl, hatter, born 4 May 1879 in Aschaffenburg. Bauriedl
was hit in the abdomen, killing him and causing him to fall on the
Nazi flag, which had fallen to the ground when its flagbearer,
Heinrich Trambauer, was severely wounded. Bauriedl's blood soaked the
flag, which later became the Nazi relic known as the Blutfahne.
Theodor Casella, bank clerk, born 8 August 1900.
Wilhelm Ehrlich, bank clerk, born 8 August 1894.
Martin Faust, bank clerk, born 4 January 1901.
Anton Hechenberger, locksmith, born 28 September 1902.
Oskar Körner, businessman, born 4 January 1875 in Ober-Peilau
Karl Kuhn, head waiter in a restaurant, born 7 July 1875.
Karl Laforce, engineering student, born 28 October 1904; the youngest
to die in the putsch.
Kurt Neubauer, valet, born 27 March 1899 in Hopfengarten, Kreis
Klaus von Pape, businessman, born 16 August 1904 in Oschatz.
Theodor von der Pfordten, county court counsel, who had fought in
World War I; born 14 May 1873 in Bayreuth; the eldest to die in the
Johann Rickmers, retired cavalry captain who had fought in World War
I; born 7 May 1881 in Bremen.
Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter, Nazi leader, born 21 January 1884 in
Lorenz Ritter von Stransky-Griffenfeld, engineer, born 14 March 1889.
Wilhelm Wolf, businessman, born 19 October 1898.
Scheubner-Richter was walking arm-in-arm with
Hitler during the
putsch; he was shot in the lungs and died instantly. He brought
Hitler down and dislocated Hitler's shoulder when he fell. He was the
only first-tier Nazi leader to die during the Putsch. Of all the party
members who died in the Putsch,
Hitler claimed Scheubner-Richter to be
the only "irreplaceable loss".
According to Ernst Röhm, Martin Faust and Theodor Casella, both
members of the armed militia organisation Reichskriegsflagge, were
shot down accidentally in a burst of machine gun fire during the
occupation of the War Ministry as the result of a misunderstanding
with II/Inf.Regt 19.
One of the
Munich Ehrentempels (Honour Temples), 1936
The 16 fallen were regarded as the first "blood martyrs" of the NSDAP
and were remembered by
Hitler in the foreword of Mein Kampf. The Nazi
flag they carried, which in the course of events had been stained with
blood, came to be known as the
Blutfahne (blood flag) and was brought
out for the swearing-in of new recruits in front of the Feldherrnhalle
Hitler was in power.
Shortly after he came to power, a memorial was placed at the south
side of the
Feldherrnhalle crowned with a swastika. The back of the
memorial read Und ihr habt doch gesiegt! (And you triumphed
nevertheless!). Behind it flowers were laid, and either policemen or
the SS stood guard in between a lower plaque. Passers-by were required
to give the
Hitler salute. The putsch was also commemorated on three
sets of stamps.
Mein Kampf was dedicated to the fallen and, in the
book Ich Kämpfe (given to those joining the party circa 1943), they
are listed first even though the book lists hundreds of other dead.
The header text in the book read "Though they are dead for their acts
they will live on forever." The army had a division named the
Feldherrnhalle regiment, and there was also an SA Feldherrnhalle
Der neunte Elfte (9/11, literally the Ninth of the Eleventh) became
one of the most important dates on the Nazi calendar, especially
following the seizure of power in 1933. Annually until the fall of
Nazi Germany, the putsch would be commemorated nationwide, with the
major events taking place in Munich. On the night of 8 November,
Hitler would address the Alte Kämpfer (Old Fighters) in the
Bürgerbräukeller (after 1939, the Löwenbräu, in 1944, the Circus
Krone Building), followed the next day by a re-enactment of the march
through the streets of Munich. The event would climax with a ceremony
recalling the 16 dead marchers on the Königsplatz.
The anniversary could be a time of tension in Nazi Germany. The
ceremony was cancelled in 1934, coming as it did after the so-called
Night of the Long Knives. In 1938, it coincided with the
Kristallnacht, and in 1939 with the attempted assassination of Hitler
by Johann Georg Elser. With the outbreak of war in 1939, security
concerns caused the re-enactment of the march to be suspended, never
to be resumed. However,
Hitler continued to deliver his 8 November
speech through 1943. In 1944,
Hitler skipped the event and Heinrich
Himmler spoke in his place. As the war went on, residents of Munich
came increasingly to dread the approach of the anniversary, concerned
that the presence of the top Nazi leaders in their city would act as a
magnet for Allied bombers.
Every Gau (administrative region of Germany) was also expected to hold
a small remembrance ceremony. As material given to propagandists said,
the 16 fallen were the first losses and the ceremony was an occasion
to commemorate everyone who had died for the movement.
On 9 November 1935, the dead were taken from their graves and to the
Feldherrnhalle. The SA and SS carried them down to the Königplatz,
Ehrentempel (Honour Temples) had been constructed. In each
of the structures eight of the martyrs were interred in a sarcophagus
bearing their name.
Plaque commemorating policemen
In June 1945 the
Allied Commission removed the bodies from the
Ehrentempels and contacted their families. They were given the option
of having their loved ones buried in
Munich cemeteries in unmarked
graves or having them cremated, common practice in Germany for
unclaimed bodies. On 9 January 1947, the upper parts of the structures
were blown up.
Since 1994, a commemorative plaque in the pavement in front of the
Feldherrnhalle contains the names of the four Bavarian policemen who
died in the fight against the Nazis. The plaque reads:
Den Mitgliedern der Bayerischen Landespolizei, die beim Einsatz gegen
die Nationalsozialistischen Putschisten am 9.11.1923 Ihr Leben
ließen. ("To the members of the Bavarian Police, who gave their lives
opposing the National Socialist coup on 9 November 1923")
Supporters of the Putsch
Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter
Lt. Robert Wagner
Other notable supporters
Josef 'Sepp' Dietrich
Franz Pfeffer von Salomon
Gustav Adolf Lenk
Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg
Albrecht von Graefe
Hans Ulrich Klintzsch
Capt. Eduard Dietl
Hans Georg Hofmann
Karl Fischer von Treuenfeld
At the front of the march
In the vanguard were four flag bearers followed by Adolf Lenk and Kurt
Neubauer, Ludendorff's servant. Behind those two came more flag
bearers, then the leadership in two rows.
Hitler was in the centre, slouch hat in hand, the collar of his
trenchcoat turned up against the cold. To his left, in civilian
clothes, a green felt hat, and a loose loden coat, was Ludendorff. To
Hitler's right was Scheubner-Richter. To his right came Alfred
Rosenberg. On either side of these men were Ulrich Graf, Hermann
Kriebel, Friedrich Weber, Julius Streicher, Hermann Göring, and
Behind these came the second string of Heinz Pernet, Johann Aigner
(Scheubner-Richter's servant), Gottfried Feder, Theodor von der
Pfordten, Wilhelm Kolb, Rolf Reiner, Hans Streck, and Heinrich
Bennecke, Brückner's adjutant.
Behind this row marched the Stoßtrupp-Hitler, the SA, the Infantry
School, and the Oberländer.
Chief defendants in the "Ludendorff–Hitler" trial
Lt. Robert Wagner
Weimar Republic portal
Early timeline of Nazism
Timeline of the Weimar Republic
Blood Order An award given to participants
Other people given posthumous fame by the Nazis:
^ The court explained why it rejected the deportation of
the terms of the Protection of the Republic Act: "
Hitler is a
German-Austrian. He considered himself to be a German. In the opinion
of the court, the meaning and the terms of section 9, para II of the
Law for the Protection of the Republic cannot apply to a man who
thinks and feels as German as Hitler, who voluntarily served for four
and a half years in the German army at war, who attained high military
honours through outstanding bravery in the face of the enemy, was
wounded, suffered other damage to his health, and was released from
the military into the control of the district Command
^ a b Dan Moorhouse, ed. The
Munich Putsch. schoolshistory.org.uk,
^ a b Hitler, Adolf (1924). Der Hitler-Prozeß vor dem Volksgericht in
Hitler Trial Before the People's Court in Munich].
Munich: Knorr & Hirth. OCLC 638670803.
^ Hitler's Festungshaft ("fortress-way"). Hitler's sentence was to be
served in the mildest form of incarceration under German law.
^ a b c Harold J. Gordon Jr., The
Hitler Trial Before the People's
Munich (Arlington, VA: University Publications of America
^ a b Fulda, Bernhard (2009). Press and politics in the Weimar
Republic. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–69.
^ a b Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p. 24,
^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 61–63.
^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 72–74.
^ Kershaw 2008, p. 75.
^ Stackelberg, Roderick (2007), The Routledge Companion to Nazi
Germany, New York: Routledge, p. 9,
^ Sayers, Michael and Kahnn, Albert E. (1945), The Plot Against the
Peace. Dial Press.
^ Kershaw 2008, p. 124.
^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 125–126.
^ Kershaw 2008, p. 125.
^ a b Kershaw 2008, p. 126.
^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 125–127.
^ Piers Brendon, The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s, p. 36
^ a b Kershaw 2008, p. 128.
^ Piers Brendon, The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s, pp. 36–37
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