HOME
The Info List - Bedouin


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The BEDOUIN (/ˈbɛdu.ɪn/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: بَدَوِي _badawī_) is a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant
Levant
. The English word _bedouin_ comes from the Arabic
Arabic
_badawī_, which means "desert dweller" and is traditionally contrasted with _ḥāḍir_, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin
Bedouin
territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa
North Africa
to the rocky sands of the Middle East
Middle East
. They are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans (known in Arabic
Arabic
as _ʿašāʾir_; عَشَائِر) and share a common culture of herding camels and goats.

Bedouins have been referred to by various names throughout history, including Qedarites in the Old Testament and _Arabaa_ by the Assyrians (_ar-ba-a-a_ being a nisba of the noun _Arab_, a name still used for Bedouins today). They are referred to as the _ʾAʿrāb_ (أعراب) in the Quran
Quran
. A Bedouin
Bedouin
girl in Nuweiba - Egypt
Egypt
2015

While many Bedouins have abandoned their nomadic and tribal traditions for modern urban lifestyle , they retain traditional Bedouin
Bedouin
culture with concepts of belonging to _ʿašāʾir_, traditional music , poetry, dances (like Saas), and many other cultural practices . Urbanised Bedouins also organise cultural festivals, usually held several times a year, in which they gather with other Bedouins to partake in, and learn about, various Bedouin traditions—from poetry recitation and traditional sword dances, to classes teaching traditional tent knitting and playing traditional Bedouin
Bedouin
musical instruments. Traditions like camel riding and camping in the deserts are also popular leisure activities for urbanised Bedouins who live within close proximity to deserts or other wilderness areas.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Society * 3 Traditions

* 4 History

* 4.1 Early history * 4.2 Ottoman period * 4.3 In the 20th century

* 5 In different countries

* 5.1 Arabian Peninsula

* 5.1.1 In Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia

* 5.2 Levant
Levant

* 5.2.1 In Syria
Syria
* 5.2.2 In Israel
Israel
* 5.2.3 In Jordan
Jordan

* 5.3 North Africa
North Africa

* 5.3.1 In Egypt
Egypt

* 6 Tribes and populations * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading

ETYMOLOGY

The term "Bedouin" derives from a plural form of the Arabic
Arabic
word _badu_. The Arabic
Arabic
term _badu_ (بدو) literally translates in Arabic as "Badiyah dwellers." The word _bādiyah_ (بَادِية) means visible land such as "plain" or "desert". The term "Bedouin" therefore means "those in _bādiyah_" or "those in the desert". In English usage, however, the form "Bedouin" is commonly used for the singular term, the plural being "Bedouins", as indicated by the _Oxford English Dictionary_, second edition.

The term "Bedouin" also uses the same root word as the Arabic
Arabic
noun for "the beginning"; "بداية"; "Bedaya." The Arabs
Arabs
believe the Bedouins to be the predecessors to the settled Arabs,{{Refngroup=notesAccording to Hadith, Caliph Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab said of the Bedouin, "hey are the origin of the Arabs
Arabs
and the substance of Islam." and the word for the ethnicity itself may be influenced by that.

SOCIETY

A widely quoted Bedouin
Bedouin
saying is "I am against my brother, my brother and I are against my cousin, my cousin and I are against the stranger" sometimes quoted as "I and my brother are against my cousin, I and my cousin are against the stranger." This saying signifies a hierarchy of loyalties based on proximity of kinship that runs from the nuclear family through the lineage, the tribe, and, in principle at least, to an entire genetic or linguistic group (which is perceived to have a kinship basis). Disputes are settled, interests are pursued, and justice and order are maintained by means of this frame, according to an ethic of self-help and collective responsibility (Andersen 14). The individual family unit (known as a tent or gio _bayt_) typically consisted of three or four adults (a married couple plus siblings or parents) and any number of children.

When resources were plentiful, several tents would travel together as a _goum_. These groups were sometimes linked by patriarchal lineage, but were just as likely linked by marriage (new wives were especially likely to have close male relatives join them), acquaintance, or no clearly defined relation but a simple shared membership in the tribe.

The next scale of interaction within groups was the _ibn ʿamm_ (cousin, or literally "son of an uncle") or descent group, commonly of three to five generations. These were often linked to goums, but where a goum would generally consist of people all with the same herd type, descent groups were frequently split up over several economic activities, thus allowing a degree of 'risk management'; should one group of members of a descent group suffer economically, the other members of the descent group would be able to support them. Whilst the phrase "descent group" suggests purely a lineage-based arrangement, in reality these groups were fluid and adapted their genealogies to take in new members.

The largest scale of tribal interactions is the tribe as a whole, led by a _ Sheikh
Sheikh
_ ( Arabic
Arabic
: شيخ‎‎ _šayḫ_, literally, "old man"). The tribe often claims descent from one common ancestor—as mentioned above. The tribal level is the level that mediated between the Bedouin
Bedouin
and the outside governments and organizations. Distinct structure of the Bedouin
Bedouin
society leads to long lasting rivalries between different clans.

Bedouin
Bedouin
traditionally had strong honor codes, and traditional systems of justice dispensation in Bedouin
Bedouin
society typically revolved around such codes. The _bisha\'a ,_ or ordeal by fire, is a well-known Bedouin
Bedouin
practice of lie detection . See also: Honor codes of the Bedouin
Bedouin
, Bedouin systems of justice . Weaving lengths of fabric for tent making using ground loom. Palestine, circa 1900

TRADITIONS

Livestock and herding, principally of goats and dromedary camels comprised the traditional livelihoods of Bedouins. These two animals were used for meat, dairy products and wool. Most of the staple foods that made up the Bedouins' diet were dairy products.

Camels, in particular, had numerous cultural and functional uses. Having been regarded as a "gift from God", they were the main food source and method of transportation for many Bedouins. In addition to their extraordinary milking potentials under harsh desert conditions, their meat was occasionally consumed by Bedouins. As a cultural tradition, camel races were organized during celebratory occasions, such as weddings or religious festivals .

Oral poetry was the most popular art form among Bedouins. Having a poet in one's tribe was highly regarded in society. In addition to serving as a form of art, poetry was used as a means of conveying information and social control .

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY

Murder of Ma'sum Beg, the envoy of the Safavid Shah Tahmasp , by Beduins in the Hejaz
Hejaz
, 16th century

Historically, the Bedouin
Bedouin
engaged in nomadic herding, agriculture and sometimes fishing. A major source of income was the taxation of caravans, and tributes collected from non- Bedouin
Bedouin
settlements. They also earned income by transporting goods and people in caravans across the desert. Scarcity of water and of permanent pastoral land required them to move constantly.

The Moroccan traveller, Ibn Battuta , reported that in 1326 on the route to Gaza , the Egyptian authorities had a customs post at Qatya on the north coast of Sinai
Sinai
. Here Bedouin
Bedouin
were being used to guard the road and track down those trying to cross the border without permission.

The Early Medieval grammarians and scholars seeking to develop a system of standardizing the contemporary Classical Arabic
Arabic
for maximal intelligibility across the Arabophone areas, believed that the Bedouin spoke the purest, most conservative variety of the language. To solve irregularities of pronunciation, the Bedouin
Bedouin
were asked to recite certain poems, whereafter consensus was relied on to decide the pronunciation and spelling of a given word.

OTTOMAN PERIOD

Bedouin
Bedouin
woman 1898–1914

Under the Tanzimat reforms in 1858 a new Ottoman Land Law was issued, which offered legal grounds for the displacement of the Bedouin. As the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
gradually lost power, this law instituted an unprecedented land registration process that was also meant to boost the empire's tax base. Few Bedouin
Bedouin
opted to register their lands with the Ottoman Tapu , due to lack of enforcement by the Ottomans, illiteracy, refusal to pay taxes and lack of relevance of written documentation of ownership to the Bedouin
Bedouin
way of life at that time.

At the end of the 19th century Sultan Abdülhamid II settled loyal Muslim
Muslim
populations ( Circassians ) from the Balkan
Balkan
and Caucasus
Caucasus
among areas predominantly populated by the nomads in the regions of modern Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel
Israel
and Palestine, and also created several permanent Bedouin
Bedouin
settlements, although the majority of them did not remain.

Ottoman authorities also initiated private acquisition of large plots of state land offered by the sultan to the absentee landowners (effendis ). Numerous tenants were brought in order to cultivate the newly acquired lands. Often it came at the expense of the Bedouin lands.

In the late 19th century, many Bedouin
Bedouin
began transition to a semi-nomadic lifestyle. One of the factors was the influence of the Ottoman empire
Ottoman empire
authorities who started a forced sedentarization of the Bedouin
Bedouin
living on its territory. The Ottoman authorities viewed the Bedouin
Bedouin
as a threat to the state's control and worked hard on establishing law and order in the Negev
Negev
. During World War I
World War I
, the Negev
Negev
Bedouin
Bedouin
fought with the Turks against the British , but later, under T. E. Lawrence 's assist, the Bedouins switched side and fought the Turks. Hamad Pasha al-Sufi (died 1923), Sheikh
Sheikh
of the Nijmat sub-tribe of the Tarabin , led a force of 1,500 men who joined the Turkish offensive against the Suez Canal.

In Orientalist historiography, the Negev
Negev
Bedouin
Bedouin
have been described as remaining largely unaffected by changes in the outside world until recently. Their society was often considered a "world without time." Recent scholars have challenged the notion of the Bedouin
Bedouin
as 'fossilized,' or 'stagnant' reflections of an unchanging desert culture. Emanuel Marx has shown that Bedouin
Bedouin
were engaged in a constantly dynamic reciprocal relation with urban centers. Bedouin scholar Michael Meeker explains that "the city was to be found in their midst."

IN THE 20TH CENTURY

Bedouin
Bedouin
mothers carrying their children on their shoulders. Color photo taken in the late 19th century by the French photographer Félix Bonfils
Félix Bonfils
.

In the 1950s and 1960 large numbers of Bedouin
Bedouin
throughout Midwest Asia started to leave the traditional, nomadic life to settle in the cities of Midwest Asia, especially as hot ranges have shrunk and populations have grown. For example, in Syria
Syria
, the Bedouin
Bedouin
way of life effectively ended during a severe drought from 1958 to 1961, which forced many Bedouin
Bedouin
to abandon herding for standard jobs. Similarly, governmental policies in Egypt
Egypt
, Israel
Israel
, Jordan
Jordan
, Iraq
Iraq
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, oil-producing Arab states of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Libya
Libya
, as well as a desire for improved standards of living, effectively led most Bedouin
Bedouin
to become settled citizens of various nations, rather than stateless nomadic herders.

Governmental policies pressing the Bedouin
Bedouin
have in some cases been executed in an attempt to provide service (schools, health care, law enforcement and so on—see Chatty 1986 for examples), but in others have been based on the desire to seize land traditionally roved and controlled by the Bedouin. In recent years, some Bedouin
Bedouin
have adopted the pastime of raising and breeding white doves , while others have rejuvenated the traditional practice of falconry.

IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

ARABIAN PENINSULA

In Saudi
Saudi
Arabia

Bedouin
Bedouin
man in Riyadh
Riyadh
,1964.

The Arabian Peninsula is the original home of the Bedouin. From here they started to spread out to surrounding deserts, forced out by the lack of water and food. According to tradition, the Saudi
Saudi
Bedouin
Bedouin
are descendants of two groups. One group, the Yemenis, settled in the Southwestern Arabia, in the mountains of Yemen, and claim they descend from a semi-legendary ancestral figure, Qahtan (or Joktan ). The second group, the Qaysis , settled in North-Central Arabia and claimed they were descendants of the Biblical Ishmael
Ishmael
.

A number of additional Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes reside in Saudi
Saudi
Arabia. Among them are the, Enazah , Shammar , al-Murrah , Qara, Mahra , Harasis, Dawasir , Harb , Mutayr , Subaie, \ 'Utayba
'Utayba
, Bani khalid , Qahtan , Rashaida
Rashaida
, Ansar and Yam
Yam
. In Arabia and the adjacent deserts there are around 100 large tribes of 1,000 members or more. Some tribes number up to 20,000 and a few of the larger tribes may have up to 100,000 members.

Inside Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
the Bedouin
Bedouin
remained the majority of the population during the first half of the 20th century. However, due to change of lifestyle their number has decreased dramatically.

LEVANT

In Syria

Syrian bedouin, 1893

Although the Arabian desert was the homeland of the Bedouin, some groups have migrated to the north. It was one of the first lands inhabited by the Bedouin
Bedouin
outside the Arabian desert. Today there are over a million Bedouin
Bedouin
living in Syria, making a living herding sheep and goats. The largest Bedouin
Bedouin
clan in Syria
Syria
is called Ruwallah who are part of the 'Anizzah' tribe. Another famous branch of the Anizzah tribe is the two distinct groups of Hasana and S'baa who largely arrived from the Arabian peninsula in the 18th century.

Herding among the Bedouin
Bedouin
was common until the late 1950s, when it effectively ended during a severe drought from 1958 to 1961. Due to the drought, many Bedouin
Bedouin
were forced to give up herding for standard jobs. Another factor was the formal annulling of the Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes' legal status in Syrian law in 1958, along with attempts of the ruling Ba\'ath Party regime to wipe out tribalism. Preferences for customary law (‘urf) in contrast to state law (qanun) have been informally acknowledged and tolerated by the state in order to avoid having its authority tested in the tribal territories. In 1982 the al-Assad family turned to the Bedouin
Bedouin
tribe leaders for assistance during the Muslim Brotherhood uprising against al-Assad government (see 1982 Hama massacre ). The Bedouin
Bedouin
sheikhs' decision to support Hafez al-Assad led to a change in attitude on the part of the government that permitted the Bedouin
Bedouin
leadership to manage and transform critical state development efforts supporting their own status, customs and leadership.

As a result of Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
some Bedouins became refugees and found shelter in Jordan, Turkey, Lebanon, and other states.

In Israel

Further information: Negev
Negev
Bedouin
Bedouin
Bedouin
Bedouin
squatter compound in the Naqab Desert Rahat School Hura downtown

Prior to the 1948 Israeli Declaration of Independence
Israeli Declaration of Independence
, an estimated 65,000–90,000 Bedouins lived in the Negev
Negev
desert. According to _ Encyclopedia Judaica _, 15,000 Bedouin
Bedouin
remained in the Negev
Negev
after 1948; other sources put the number as low as 11,000.

In 1999, 110,000 Bedouins lived in the Negev, 50,000 in the Galilee and 10,000 in the central region of Israel.

All of the Bedouin
Bedouin
were granted Israeli citizenship in 1954.

The Bedouin
Bedouin
who remained in the Negev
Negev
belonged to the Tiaha confederation as well as some smaller groups such as the \ 'Azazme and the Jahalin . After 1948, some Negev
Negev
Bedouins were displaced. The Jahalin tribe, for instance, lived in the Tel Arad region of the Negev prior to the 1950s. In the early 1950s, the Jahalin were among the tribes that, according to Emmanuel Marks , "moved or were removed by the military government". They ended up in the so-called E1 area East of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
.

About 1,600 Bedouin
Bedouin
serve as volunteers in the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces , many as trackers in the IDF's elite tracking units.

Famously, Bedouin
Bedouin
shepherds were the first to discover the Dead Sea Scrolls , a collection of Jewish texts from antiquity, in the Judean caves of Qumran
Qumran
in 1946. Of great religious, cultural, historical and linguistic significance, 972 texts were found over the following decade, many of whom were discovered by Bedouins.

Successive Israeli administrations tried to demolish Bedouins villages in the Negev. Between 1967 and 1989, Israel
Israel
built seven legal townships in the north-east of the Negev, with Tel as-Sabi or Tel Sheva the first. The largest, city of Rahat , has a population of over 58,700 (as of December 2013); as such it is the largest Bedouin settlement in the world. Another well known township out of the seven of them that the Israeli government built, is Hura . According to the Israel
Israel
Land Administration (2007), some 60 per cent of the Negev Bedouin
Bedouin
live in urban areas . The rest live in so-called unrecognized villages , which are not officially recognized by the state due to general planning issues and other political reasons. They were built chaotically without taking into consideration local infrastructure. These communities are scattered all over the Northern Negev
Negev
and often are situated in inappropriate places, such as military fire zones, natural reserves , landfills , etc.

On 29 September 2003, Israeli government adapted a new "Abu Basma Plan" (Resolution 881), according to which a new regional council was formed, unifying a number of unrecognized Bedouin
Bedouin
settlements—Abu Basma Regional Council . This resolution also regarded the need to establish seven new Bedouin
Bedouin
settlements in the Negev, literally meaning the official recognition of unrecognized settlements, providing them with a municipal status and consequently with all the basic services and infrastructure. The council was established by the Interior Ministry on 28 January 2004.

Israel
Israel
is currently building or enlarging some 13 towns and cities in the Negev. According to the general planning, all of them will be fully equipped with the relevant infrastructure: schools, medical clinics, postal offices, etc. and they also will have electricity, running water and waste control. Several new industrial zones meant to fight unemployment are planned, some are already being constructed, like Idan ha Negev
Negev
in the suburbs of Rahat. It will have a hospital and a new campus inside. The Bedouins of Israel
Israel
receive free education and medical services from the state. They are allotted child cash benefits, which has contributed to the high birthrate among the Bedouin
Bedouin
(5% growth per year). But unemployment rate remains very high, and few obtain a high school degree (4%), and even fewer graduate from university (0.6%).

In September 2011, the Israeli government approved a five-year economic development plan called the _Prawer plan_ . One of its implications is a relocation of some 30.000-40.000 Negev
Negev
Bedouin
Bedouin
from areas not recognized by the government to government-approved townships . In a 2012 resolution the European Parliament called for the withdrawal of the Prawer plan and respect for the rights of the Bedouin
Bedouin
people. In September 2014, Yair Shamir, who heads the Israeli government's ministerial committee on Bedouin
Bedouin
resettlement arrangements, stated that the government was examining ways to lower the birthrate of the Bedouin
Bedouin
community in order to improve its standard of living. Shamir claimed that without intervention, the Bedouin
Bedouin
population could exceed half a million by 2035.

In Jordan

A young Bedouin
Bedouin
lighting a camp fire in Wadi Rum , Jordan
Jordan

Most of the Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes migrated from the Arabian Peninsula to what is Jordan
Jordan
today between the 14th and 18th centuries. Today Bedouins make up from 33% to 40% of the population of Jordan. Often they are referred to as a backbone of the Kingdom, since Bedouin clans traditionally support the monarchy.

Most of Jordan's Bedouin
Bedouin
live in the vast wasteland that extends east from the Desert Highway. The eastern Bedouin
Bedouin
are camel breeders and herders, while the western Bedouin
Bedouin
herd sheep and goats. Some Bedouin in Jordan
Jordan
are semi-nomads, they adopt a nomadic existence during part of the year but return to their lands and homes in time to practice agriculture.

The largest tribe in Jordan
Jordan
is Bani Hasan who lives in east, center, and south of the country. Bani Hasan tribe members are around 1 million people, they are famous as the 1 Million Tribe and they are considered as the most powerful tribe in the kingdom. The largest nomadic groups of Jordan
Jordan
are the Banū (Banī laith; they reside in Petra
Petra
), baniṢakhr and Banū al-Ḥuwayṭāt (they reside in Wadi Rum ). There are numerous lesser groups, such as the al-Sirḥān (they live near the Iraqi border on the north of Jordan), Banū Khālid, Hawazim, ʿAṭiyyah, and Sharafāt. The Ruwālah (Rwala) tribe, which is not indigenous, passes through Jordan
Jordan
in its yearly wandering from Syria
Syria
to Saudi
Saudi
Arabia.

The Jordanian government provides the Bedouin
Bedouin
with different services such as education, housing and health clinics. However, some Bedouins give it up and prefer their traditional nomadic lifestyle.

In the recent years there is a growing discontent of the Bedouin
Bedouin
with the ruling monarch , but the king manages to deal with it. In August 2007, police clashed with some 200 Bedouins who were blocking the main highway between Amman and the port of Aqaba. Livestock herders, they were protesting the government's lack of support in the face of the steeply rising cost of animal feed, and expressed resentment about government assistance to refugees.

Arab Spring events in 2011 led to demonstrations in Jordan, and Bedouins took part in them. But it is unlikely that the Hashemites are to expect a revolt similar to turbulence in other Arab states. The main reasons for that are the high respect to the monarch, and contradictory interests of different groups of the Jordanian society. The King Abdullah II maintains his distance from the complaints by allowing blame to fall on government ministers, whom he replaces at will.

NORTH AFRICA

In the 11th century, reigning over Ifriqiya , the Zirids
Zirids
somehow recognised the sovereignty of the caliph of Cairo
Cairo
. Probably in 1048, the ruler or viceroy Zirid , al-Mu\'izz , decided to stop this sovereignty. The Fatimids were then powerless to lead a punitive expedition.

In the 11th century, the Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes of Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym , who originated from Syria
Syria
and North Arabia respectively, lived in a desert between the Nile
Nile
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
moved westward into the Maghreb
Maghreb
areas and were joined by a third Bedouin
Bedouin
tribe of Maqil , which had its roots in South Arabia. The vizier of the caliph of Cairo
Cairo
chose to let go of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and obtained the agreement of his sovereign. They set off with women, children, camping equipment, some stopping on the way, especially in Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
, where they are still one of the essential elements of the settlement, but most arrived in Ifriqiya by the Gabes
Gabes
region, Berber armies were defeated in trying to protect the walls of Kairouan
Kairouan
.

The Zirids
Zirids
abandoned Kairouan
Kairouan
to take refuge on the coast where they survived for a century. Ifriqiya , the Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym spread is on the high plains of Constantine where they gradually choked the Qal\'a of Banu Hammad , as they had done Kairouan
Kairouan
few decades ago. From there, they gradually gained the upper Algiers
Algiers
and Oran
Oran
plains, some were taken to the Moulouya
Moulouya
valley and in Doukkala plains by the Caliph of Marrakesh in the second half of the 12th century.

In the 13th century, they lived in all the Maghreb
Maghreb
plains with the exception of the main mountain ranges and some coastal regions that served as refuges for the natives. They gave up their old trade breeder of camels to look after the care of the sheep and oxen.

Ibn Khaldun , a Muslim
Muslim
historian writes: "Similar to an army of locusts, they destroy everything in their path."

The Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects are used in Maghrebi regions of Morocco
Morocco
Atlantic Coast , in regions of High Plains and Sahara
Sahara
in Algeria
Algeria
, in regions of Tunisian Sahel and in regions of Tripolitania . The Bedouin dialects has four major varieties:

* Sulaym dialects, Libya
Libya
and southern Tunisia
Tunisia
; * Eastern Hilal dialects, central Tunisia
Tunisia
and eastern Algeria
Algeria
; * Central Hilal dialects, south and central Algeria
Algeria
, especially in border areas of Sahara
Sahara
; * Maqil dialects, western Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco
Morocco
;

In Morocco
Morocco
, Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects are spoken in plains and in recently founded cities such as Casablanca
Casablanca
. Thus, the dialect shares with the Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects _gal_ 'to say' (qala), they also represent the bulk of modern Urban dialects (Koinés ), such as those of Oran
Oran
and Algiers .

In Egypt

Bedouins in Egypt
Egypt
mostly reside in the Sinai
Sinai
peninsula and in the suburbs of the Egyptian capital of Cairo. The past few decades have been difficult for traditional Bedouin
Bedouin
culture due to changing surroundings and the establishment of new resort towns on the Red Sea coast, such as Sharm el- Sheikh
Sheikh
. Bedouins in Egypt
Egypt
are facing a number of challenges: erosion of traditional values, unemployment, and various land issues. With urbanization and new education opportunities, Bedouins started to marry outside their tribe, a practice that once was completely inappropriate.

Bedouins living in the Sinai
Sinai
peninsula didn't benefit much from employment in the initial construction boom due to low wages offered. Sudanese and Egyptians workers were brought here as construction laborers instead. When the tourist industry started to bloom, local Bedouins increasingly moved into new service positions such as cab drivers, tour guides, campgrounds or cafe managers. However, the competition is very high, and many Sinai
Sinai
Bedouins are unemployed. Since there are not enough employment opportunities, Tarabin Bedouins as well as other Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes living along the border between Egypt and Israel
Israel
are involved in inter-border smuggling of drugs and weapons, as well as infiltration of prostitutes and African labor workers .

In most countries in the Middle East
Middle East
the Bedouin
Bedouin
have no land rights, only users' privileges, and it is especially true for Egypt. Since the mid-1980s, the Bedouins who held desirable coastal property have lost control of much of their land as it was sold by the Egyptian government to hotel operators. The Egyptian government did not see the land as belonging to Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes, but rather as a state property.

In the summer of 1999, the latest dispossession of land took place when the army bulldozed Bedouin-run tourist campgrounds north of Nuweiba as part of the final phase of hotel development in the sector, overseen by the Tourist Development Agency (TDA). The director of the Tourist Development Agency dismissed Bedouin
Bedouin
rights to most of the land, saying that they had not lived on the coast prior to 1982. Their traditional semi-nomadic culture has left Bedouins vulnerable to such claims.

The Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
brought more freedom to the Sinai Bedouin, but since it was deeply involved in weapon smuggling into Gaza after a number of terror attacks on the Egypt- Israel
Israel
border a new Egyptian government has started a military operation in Sinai
Sinai
in the summer-fall of 2012. Egyptian army has demolished over 120 underground tunnels leading from Egypt
Egypt
to Gaza that were used as smuggling channels and gave profit to the Bedouin
Bedouin
families on the Egyptian side, as well as the Palestinian clans on the other side of the border. Thus the army has delivered a threatening message to local Bedouin, compelling them to cooperate with state troops and officials. After negotiations the military campaign ended up with a new agreement between the Bedouin
Bedouin
and Egyptian authorities.

TRIBES AND POPULATIONS

Map of the Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes in 1908

There are a number of Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes, but the total population is often difficult to determine, especially as many Bedouin
Bedouin
have ceased to lead nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyles. Below is a partial list of Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes and their historic place of origin. _ Bedouin shepherd in Syrian Desert

* harb tribe is tribe in saudi and yemen and arab pensulina * Banu Hilal , some tribes of this confederation are Bedouin, they live in western Morocco
Morocco
, central Algeria
Algeria
, southern Tunisia
Tunisia
and Eastern Desert and others steppe of the region. * Banu Sulaym , Big tribes, the Sulaym in the east ( Libya
Libya
and southern Tunisia), present in Libya
Libya
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, Algeria
Algeria
and Syria
Syria
. * `Anizzah , some tribes of this confederation are Bedouin, they live in Northern Saudi
Saudi
Arabia, Western Iraq
Iraq
, the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
states, and the Syrian steppe . * \ 'Azazme , Negev
Negev
desert and Egypt. * Beni Hamida , east of Dead Sea, Jordan. * Bani Tameem in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Iraq
Iraq
, Qatar
Qatar
, Jordan
Jordan
, and Palestinian Territories . * Banu Yam
Yam
centered in Najran Province , Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Iraq * Beni Sakhr
Beni Sakhr
in Egypt
Egypt
Iraq, Syria
Syria
and Jordan. * Dulaim , a very large and powerful tribe in Al Anbar
Al Anbar
, Western Iraq
Iraq
. * al-Duwasir , south of Riyadh
Riyadh
. * Ghamid , large tribe from Al-Bahah Province , Saudi
Saudi
Arabia, mostly settled, but with a small Bedouin
Bedouin
section known as Badiyat Ghamid_. * al-Hadid , large Bedouin
Bedouin
tribe found in Iraq, Syria
Syria
and Jordan. Now mostly are settled in cities such as Haditha in Iraq, Homs ">

REFERENCES

* ^ Losleben, Elizabeth (2003). _The Bedouin
Bedouin
of the Middle East_. Lerner Publications. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-8225-0663-8 . Retrieved 1 November 2012. * ^ Algeria-Watch. "Selon le dernier recensement: L\'Algérie compte 34,8 millions d\'habitants". Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Social characteristics for Badia". _The Hashemite Fund for Development of Jordan
Jordan
Badia_. Retrieved 8 April 2016. * ^ Morrow, Adam (18 June 2007). " Bedouin
Bedouin
Take on the Govt". _Inter Press Service _. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ Ben Solomon, Ariel (14 January 2013). " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to aid Jordan
Jordan
with Syrian refugees". _The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post _. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "KSA sets up 5,000 tents for Syrian refugees". _ Arab News
Arab News
_. 6 August 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ Sales, Ben (20 August 2012). "Despite hardships, some Bedouins still feel obligation to serve Israel". _ Jewish Telegraphic Agency _. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ Naylor, Hugh. " Israel
Israel
plans to move West Bank Bedouin". _The National _. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ " Bedouins in migration". _Inter Press Service_. Retrieved 19 October 2016. * ^ "Bedouin". _ Oxford Dictionaries _. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. Retrieved 8 January 2017. * ^ "Bedouin". _ Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia Britannica
_. * ^ Pietruschka, Ute (2006). "Bedouin". In McAuliffe, Jane Dammen. _Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān_. Brill. (Subscription required (help)). * ^ _A_ _B_ Malcolm, Peter; Losleben, Elizabeth (2004). _Libya_. Marshall Cavendish. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-7614-1702-6 . Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Nomad". _Google Translate_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ Sidebotham, Steven E.; Hense, Martin; Nouwens, Hendrikje M. (2008). _The Red Land: The Illustrated Archaeology of Egypt\'s Eastern Desert_. American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-977-416-094-3 . Retrieved 1 November 2012. * ^ _ Sahih al-Bukhari _, Vol. 4, p. 206. * ^ Duri, A. A. (2012). _The Historical Formation of the Arab Nation (RLE: the Arab Nation)_. Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-415-62286-8 . CS1 maint: Date and year (link ) * ^ Hitti, Philip K. (1996). "The Original Arab, The Bedouin". _The Arabs: A Short History_. Regnery Publishing. Retrieved 19 October 2015 – via OneWorld Magazine: Deserts. * ^ Marx, Emanuel. "Ecology and politics of Middle Eastern politics". In Weissleder, Wolfgang. _The Nomadic alternative: Modes and models of interaction in the African-Asian deserts and steppes_. Moulton. p. 59. ISBN 978-0202900537 . Retrieved 23 November 2016. * ^ Naguib, Nefissa (2009). _Women, Water and Memory: Recasting Lives in Palestine_. Brill. p. 79. ISBN 978-9004167780 . Retrieved 23 November 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Abu-Saad, K.; Weitzman, S.; Abu-Rabiah, Y.; Abu-Shareb, H. & Fraser, D. "Rapid lifestyle, diet and health changes among urban Bedouin
Bedouin
Arabs
Arabs
of southern Israel". _Food and Agriculture Organization _. Retrieved 31 July 2015. * ^ Breulmann, Marc; Böer, Benno; Wernery, Ulrich; Wernery, Renate; El Shaer, Hassan; Alhadrami, Ghaleb; Gallacher, David; Peacock, John; Chaudhary, Shaukat Ali; Brown, Gary ">(PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 31 July 2015. :10 * ^ The Camel From Tradition to Modern Times.:21–24 * ^ The Camel From Tradition to Modern Times.:25 * ^ Meisami, Julie Scott; Starkey, Paul. _Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature_. Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 978-0415571135 . * ^ Beckerleg, Susan. "Hidden History, Secret Present: The Origins and Status of African Palestinians". London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Translated by Salah Al Zaroo. * ^ Ibn Battuta (1929). _Travels in Asia and Africa. 1325–1354_. Delhi 110052: Low Price Publications. p. 54. ISBN 81-7536-174-3 . Translated and selected by H.A.R. Gibb . * ^ Holes, Clive (2004). _Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions and Varieties_ (Revised ed.). Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-58901-022-2 . * ^ Shafir, Gershon (1989). _Land, Labor and the Origins of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict 1882–1914_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52135-300-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Frantzman, Seth J.; Kark, Ruth (2011). "Bedouin Settlement in Late Ottoman and British Mandatory Palestine: Influence on the Cultural and Environmental Landscape, 1870–1948". _New Middle Eastern Studies_. British Society of Middle East
Middle East
Studies (1). * ^ Magness, Jodi (2003). _The Archaeology of the Early Islamic Settlement in Palestine_. Eisenbrauns. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-57506-070-5 .

* ^ Hillelson, S. (October 1937). "Notes on the Bedouin
Bedouin
Tribes of Beersheba District". _Palestine Exploration Quarterly_. Palestine Exploration Fund . 69 (4): 242–252. doi :10.1179/peq.1937.69.4.242 .

* ^ Goering, Kurt (Autumn 1979). " Israel
Israel
and the Bedouin
Bedouin
of the Negev". _ Journal of Palestine Studies _. 9 (1): 3–20. doi :10.1525/jps.1979.9.1.00p0173n . * ^ Marx, Emanuel (2005). "Nomads and Cities: The Development of a Conception". In Leder, S.; Streck, B. _Shifts and Drifts in Nomad-Sedentary Relations_. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. pp. 3–16. ISBN 3-89500-413-8 . * ^ Heidemann, Stefan (2005). "Arab Nomads and Seljuq Military". In Leder, S.; Streck, B. _Shifts and Drifts in Nomad-Sedentary Relations_. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. pp. 289–306. ISBN 3-89500-413-8 . * ^ Etheredge, Laura (2011). _Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan_. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-61530-329-8 . * ^ Leybourne, Marina; Jaubert, Ronald; Tutwiler, Richard N. (June 1993). "Changes in Migration and Feeding Patterns Among Semi-nomadic pastoralists in Northern Syria" (PDF). _Overseas Development Institute _. * ^ Peters, Emrys L. (1990). _The Bedouin
Bedouin
of Cyrenaica: Studies in Personal and Corporate Power_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38561-9 . Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ Cole, Donald Powell; Altorki, Soraya (1998). _Bedouin, Settlers, and Holiday-makers: Egypt\'s Changing Northwest Coast_. American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-977-424-484-1 . Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ Peart, Natalie. " Bedouin
Bedouin
hospitality & the beauty of the White Desert". _Part of this World_. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Falconry". _sheikhmohammed.com_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Falconry in the desert". _Chicago Tribune_. Reuters. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Bedouins. Origins and history". Archived from the original on 23 December 2004. * ^ "Arab, Najdi Bedouin
Bedouin
in Syria". _Joshua Project_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "The Unreached Peoples Prayer Profiles". _kcm.co.kr_. Retrieved 20 July 2017. * ^ Buessow, Johann (2008). " Bedouin
Bedouin
Syria: \'Anaza groups between empire and nation state, 1800–1960\'". _Orient Institut Beirut_. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. * ^ "Indigenous Peoples of the World: The Bedouin". _Intercontinental Cry_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ Chatty, Dawn (2010). "The Bedouin
Bedouin
in Contemporary Syria: The Persistence of Tribal Authority and Control" (PDF). _The Middle East Journal _. Middle East
Middle East
Institute . 64 (1). doi :10.3751/64.1.12 . * ^ El Shamayleh, Nisreen (10 March 2012). "Syrian Bedouin
Bedouin
find shelter in Jordan". _ Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
_. * ^ Khalidi, Walid, ed. (1992). _All That Remains. The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel
Israel
in 1948_. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies . p. 582. ISBN 0-88728-224-5 . * ^ "The Bedouin
Bedouin
in Israel: Demography". _ Israel
Israel
Ministry of Foreign Affairs _. 1 July 1999. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. * ^ "Report of the Commission to Propose a Policy for Arranging Bedouin
Bedouin
Settlement in the Negev
Negev
(a.k.a. the Goldberg Report)" (PDF). _Ministry of Construction _ (in Hebrew). pp. 6–13. * ^ Lustick, Ian (1980). _ Arabs
Arabs
in the Jewish State_. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. pp. 57, 134–6. * ^ Marks, Emmanuel (1974). _ Bedouin
Bedouin
Society in the Negev_ (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv: Rashafim. p. 17. * ^ " Muslim
Muslim
Arab Bedouins serve as Jewish state\'s gatekeepers". _ Al Arabiya English _. 24 April 2013. * ^ "Population and Density per Sq. Km. In Localities Numbering 5,000 Residents and More on 31 XII 2013(1)" (PDF). _ Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics _. * ^ " Bedouin
Bedouin
of the Negev" (PDF). _ Israel
Israel
Land Authority _. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2011. * ^ "Beduin in Limbo". _The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post_. 24 December 2007. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. * ^ "Government resolutions passed in recent years regarding the Arab population of Israel". _Abraham Fund Initiative_. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. * ^ "The Bedouin
Bedouin
Population in Transition: Site Visit to Abu Basma Regional Council". _Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute_. 28 June 2005. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. * ^ "A Lіѕt of Trаvеl Tips tо Make Yоur Vacation Plаnnіng Easier". _bns-en.com_. Retrieved 20 July 2017. * ^ Eichner, Itamar (1 April 2012). "Harvard University makes aliyah". _ Ynetnews _. * ^ "Arab, Bedouin
Bedouin
in Saudi
Saudi
Arabia". _Joshua Project_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Cabinet Approves Plan to Provide for the Status of Communities in, and the Economic Development of, the Bedouin
Bedouin
Sector in the Negev". _Prime Minister's Office_. 11 September 2012. * ^ " Bedouin
Bedouin
transfer plan shows Israel\'s racism". _Al Jazeera_. 13 September 2011. * ^ Sherwood, Harriet (3 November 2011). "Bedouin\'s plight: "We want to maintain our traditions. But it\'s a dream here"". _The Guardian_. * ^ Khoury, Jack (8 July 2013). "European Parliament condemns Israel\'s policy toward Bedouin
Bedouin
population". _ Haaretz _. The European Parliament Calls for the protection of the Bedouin
Bedouin
communities of the West Bank and in the Negev, and for Israeli authorities to respect their rights and condemns any violations (e.g., house demolitions, forced displacements, and public service limitations). It calls also, in this context, for the withdrawal of the Prawer Plan by the Israeli Government. * ^ "Minister: Israel
Israel
Looking at Ways to Lower Bedouin
Bedouin
Birthrate". _Haaretz_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "To up Bedouin
Bedouin
living standards, minister tackles birth rate". _The Times of Israel_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ " Bedouin
Bedouin
Culture in Jordan". Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Jordan
Jordan
: Overview. Peoples, UNHCR
UNHCR
report, 2007 * ^ Daniel Noll. "Life Lessons We Learned from Jordan\'s Bedouins". _Uncornered Market_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Brenda\'s Jordan". Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ " Jordan
Jordan
profile - Leaders". _BBC News_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "The People of Jordan". _kinghussein.gov.jo_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Map of the Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes of Jordan". _jordanjubilee.com_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Jordan". _ Encyclopædia Britannica Online _. * ^ Bronner, Ethan (4 February 2011). " Jordan
Jordan
Faces a Rising Tide of Unrest, but Few Expect a Revolt". _ The New York Times _. * ^ _A_ _B_ Versteegh, Kees (31 May 2014). "The Arabic
Arabic
Language". Edinburgh University Press. Retrieved 20 July 2017 – via Google Books. * ^ Decret, François (September 2003). "Les invasions hilaliennes en Ifrîqiya". _www.clio.fr_ (in French). Retrieved 21 November 2015. * ^ Versteegh, Kees. "Dialects of Arabic: Maghreb
Maghreb
Dialects". _TeachMideast.org_. * ^ Barkat, Mélissa (2000). "Les dialectes Maghrébins". _Détermination d'indices acoustiques robustes pour l'identification automatique des parlers arabes_. Université Lumière Lyon 2. * ^ Versteegh, Kees (31 May 2014). "The Arabic
Arabic
Language". Edinburgh University Press. Retrieved 20 July 2017 – via Google Books. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Elyan, Tamim (20 August 2010). "Metropolitan Bedouins: Tarabin tribe living in Cairo
Cairo
between urbanization and Bedouin
Bedouin
traditions". _Daily News Egypt
Egypt
_. * ^ Ben-David, Yosef (1 July 1999). "The Bedouin
Bedouin
in Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. * ^ Abercron, Konstantin. " Sinai
Sinai
Beduines". _allsinai.info_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ " Egypt
Egypt
Halts Sinai
Sinai
Anti-terror Campaign, Will Open Talks With Bedouin". _Haaretz_. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Versteegh, Kees (31 May 2014). _The Arabic
Arabic
Language_. Edinburgh University Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-7486-9460-0 . Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Versteegh, Kees (31 May 2014). _The Arabic
Arabic
Language_. Edinburgh University Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-7486-9460-0 . Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Le site de la tribu des Chaâmba Algériens". _chaamba.net_ (in French).

FURTHER READING

* Asher, Michael _Last of the Bedu_ Penguin Books 1996 * Brous, Devorah. "The \'Uprooting:\' Education Void of Indigenous \'Location-Specific\' Knowledge, Among Negev
Negev
Bedouin
Bedouin
Arabs
Arabs
in Southern Israel". _International Perspectives on Indigenous Education._ (Ben Gurion University 2004) * Chatty, D _Mobile Pastoralists_ 1996. Broad introduction to the topic, specific focus on women's issues. * Chatty, Dawn . _From Camel to Truck. The Bedouin
Bedouin
in the Modern World_. New York: Vantage Press. 1986 * Cole, Donald P. "Where have the Bedouin
Bedouin
gone?" _Anthropological Quarterly_. Washington: Spring 2003.Vol.76, Iss. 2; pg. 235 * Falah, Ghazi. "Israeli State Policy Towards Bedouin Sedentarization
Sedentarization
in the Negev", _Journal of Palestine Studies_, 1989 Vol. XVIII, No. 2, pp. 71–91 * Falah, Ghazi. "The Spatial Pattern of Bedouin
Bedouin
Sedentarization
Sedentarization
in Israel", _GeoJournal_, 1985 Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 361–368. * Gardner, Andrew. "The Political Ecology of Bedouin
Bedouin
Nomadism in the Kingdom of Saudi
Saudi
Arabia". In _Political Ecology Across Spaces, Scales and Social Groups_, Lisa Gezon and Susan Paulson, eds. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press. * Gardner, Andrew. "The New Calculus of Bedouin
Bedouin
Pastoral Nomadism in the Kingdom of Saudi
Saudi
Arabia". _Human Organization_ 62 (3): 267–276. * Gardner, Andrew and Timothy Finan. "Navigating Modernization: Bedouin
Bedouin
Pastoralism and Climate Information in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". _MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East
Middle East
Studies_ 4 (Spring): 59–72. * Gardner, Ann. "At Home in South Sinai." _Nomadic Peoples_ 2000.Vol.4, Iss. 2; pp. 48–67. Detailed account of Bedouin
Bedouin
women. * Jarvis, Claude Scudamore . _Yesterday and To-day in Sinai_. Edinburgh/London: W. Blackwood _Three Deserts_. London: John Murray, 1936; _Desert and Delta_. London: John Murray, 1938. Sympathetic accounts by a colonial administrator in Sinai. * Lancaster, William . _The Rwala Bedouin
Bedouin
Today_ 1981 (Second Edition 1997). Detailed examination of social structures. * S. Leder/B. Streck (ed.): _Shifts and Drifts in Nomad-Sedentary Relations._ Nomaden und Sesshafte 2 (Wiesbaden 2005) * Lithwick, Harvey. "An Urban Development Strategy for the Negev's Bedouin
Bedouin
Community". Center for Bedouin
Bedouin
Studies and Development and Negev
Negev
Center for Regional Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, August 2000 * Mohsen, Safia K. _The quest for order among Awlad Ali of the Western Desert of Egypt_. * Thesiger, Wilfred (1959). _Arabian Sands_. ISBN 0-14-009514-4 (Penguin paperback). British adventurer lives as and with the Bedu of the Empty Quarter for 5 years

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to BEDOUINS _.

_ Wikisource has the text of The New Student\'s Reference Work article BEDOUINS _.

LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

Demographics of Algeria
Algeria

RELIGIONS

* Islam
Islam

* Sunni
Sunni
* Shia

* Christianity

* Orthodox * Catholicism * Protestant

* Jews

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Arabs
Arabs

* Arab-Berber * Bedouin * Chaamba * Ghenanma * Ouled Djerir * Ouled Naïl * Reguibat

* Berbers

* Chaoui * Chenouas * Kabyle * Mozabite * Sahrawi * Tuareg * Zenata
Zenata
* Zouaoua

* Gnawa
Gnawa
* Roma (Gypsy)

* Turks

* Kouloughlis

LANGUAGES

* Arabic
Arabic

* Algerian Arabic
Arabic
* Hassaniya Arabic

* Berber languages

* Kabyle * Shawiya * Shenwa * Mozabite * Tamahaq

* v * t * e

Demographics of Egypt
Egypt

RELIGIONS

* Islam
Islam

* Sunni
Sunni
* Shia * Ismailis

* Christianity

* Orthodox * Catholicism * Protestant

* Jews

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Arabs
Arabs

* Egyptians * Sa\'idi * Bedouin * Arab-Berber * Lebanese * Syro-Lebanese

* Ababda * Abazins * Ahamidat Alhoarh * Albanians * Beja * Berber * Bisharin * Circassians * Copts
Copts
* El homaydat * Hedareb * Houara * Huteimi * Magyarab * Nubian * Roma (Gypsy)

* Turks

* Kouloughlis

FOREIGN NATIONALS

* Armenians * Britons * Chinese * Filipinos * Greeks * Indians * Italians * Japanese * Koreans * Lebanese * Malays * Pakistanis * Palestinians * Syro-Lebanese * Sudanese * Turks

* v * t * e

Demographics of Iraq
Iraq

RELIGIONS

* Islam
Islam

* Sunni
Sunni
* Shia

* Christianity

* Evangelical * Oriental Orthodox * Roman Catholicism

* Jews

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Afro-Iraqi

* Arabs
Arabs

* Bedouins * Marsh Arabs
Arabs

* Armenians * Assyrians * Circassians * Persians

* Kurds

* Feylis * Yazidis

* Kawliya/Zott/Ghorbati (Gypsy) * Shabak * Solluba * Turkmens/Turkomans (Turks)

FOREIGN NATIONALS

* Pakistanis * Palestinians * Sudanese

* v * t * e

Ethnic groups of Jordan
Jordan

RELIGIONS

* Islam
Islam

* Sunni
Sunni
* Shia

* Christianity

* Orthodox

* Druze * Jews

ETHNIC GROUPS

* African

* Arabs
Arabs

* Bedouin * Mahafzah * Rawashdeh

* Kurds * Shapsugs

FOREIGN NATIONALS

* Armenians * Assyrians * Iraqis
Iraqis
* Koreans * Pakistanis * Palestinians * Syrians * Turks

* v * t * e

Demographics of Libya
Libya

RELIGIONS

* Islam
Islam

* Sunni
Sunni
* Shia

* Christianity

* Orthodox * Catholicism * Protestant

* Jews

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Arabs
Arabs

* Arab-Berber * Bedouin * Dawada

* Berbers

* Toubou * Tuareg

* Copts
Copts
* Gouran * Roma (Gypsy) * Turks

* v * t * e

Demographics of Oman
Oman

RELIGIONS

* Islam
Islam

* Shia * Sunni
Sunni
* Ibadi

* Christianity

* Roman Catholicism

* Jews

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Al-Lawatia

* Arabs
Arabs

* Bahrani * Bedouins * Ghafiri * Harasis * Hinawi * Omanis

* Mehri * Swahilis

FOREIGN NATIONALS

* Filipinos * Indians * Pakistanis

* v * t * e

Demographics of Sudan
Sudan

RELIGIONS

* Islam
Islam

* Sunni
Sunni
* Shia

* Christianity

* Orthodox * Catholicism * Protestant

* Jews

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Arabs
Arabs

* Bedouin

* Ababda * Beja * Berber * Bisharin * Copts
Copts
* Hedareb * Houara * Huteimi * Magyarab * Nubians * Roma (Gypsy)

FOREIGN NATIONALS

* Armenians * Koreans * Pakistanis

* v * t * e

Demographics of Syria
Syria

RELIGIONS

* Christianity

* Eastern Orthodox * Syriac Orthodox * Melkite * Protestant

* Islam
Islam

* Sunni
Sunni
* Shia * Alawites * Ismailis * Druze 1

* Jews * Yazidis

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Albanians

* Arabs
Arabs

* Bedouins

* Arameans * Armenians * Assyrians * Black people of Yarmouk Basin * Circassians * Dom/Nawar (Gypsy) * Greeks * Kurds * Lebanese * Turkmens/Turkomans (Turks)

FOREIGN NATIONALS

* Greeks * Iranians * Iraqis
Iraqis
* Lebanese * Pakistanis * Palestinians * Venezuelans

1 Under the terms of the Syrian Constitution the Druze community is designated as a part of the Syrian Muslim
Muslim
community.

* v * t * e

Demographics of Tunisia
Tunisia

RELIGIONS

* Islam
Islam

* Sunni
Sunni
* Shia

* Christianity

* Orthodox * Catholicism * Protestant

* Judaism

ETHNIC GROUPS

* Arabs