Bedouin (/ˈbɛdu.ɪn/; Arabic: بَدَوِي badawī) is a
grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the
desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the
Levant. The English word bedouin comes from the
which means "desert dweller" and is traditionally contrasted with
ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people.
stretches from the vast deserts of
North Africa to the rocky sands of
the Middle East. They are traditionally divided into tribes, or
clans (known in
Arabic as ʿašāʾir; عَشَائِر) and share a
common culture of herding camels and goats.
Bedouins have been referred to by various names throughout history,
Qedarites in the Old Testament and Arabaa by the Assyrians
(ar-ba-a-a being a nisba of the noun Arab, a name still used for
Bedouins today). They are referred to as the ʾAʿrāb (أعراب) in
Bedouin girl in Nuweiba -
Bedouins have abandoned their nomadic and tribal traditions
for a modern urban lifestyle, many retain traditional
such as retaining the traditional ʿašāʾir clan structure,
traditional music, poetry, dances (such as "saas"), and many other
cultural practices and concepts.
often organize cultural festivals, usually held several times a year,
in which they gather with other
Bedouins to partake in, and learn
Bedouin traditions—from poetry recitation and
traditional sword dances, playing traditional instruments, and even
classes teaching traditional tent knitting. Traditions like camel
riding and camping in the deserts are still popular leisure activities
Bedouins who live within close proximity to deserts or
other wilderness areas.
3.2 Oral poetry
3.3 Raiding or ghazzu
4.1 Early history
4.2 Ottoman period
4.3 In the 20th century
5 In different countries
5.1 Arabian Peninsula
5.1.1 Saudi Arabia
5.3 North Africa
6 Tribes and populations
7 See also
10 Further reading
The term "Bedouin" derives from the singular form of the
badu (بدو), which literally means "Badiyah dwellers" in Arabic.
The word bādiyah (بَادِية) means visible land, in the sense of
"plain" or "desert". The term "Bedouin" therefore means "those in
bādiyah" or "those in the desert". In English usage, however, the
form "Bedouin" is commonly used for the singular term, the plural
being "Bedouins", as indicated by the Oxford English Dictionary,
The term "Bedouin" also uses the same root word as the
Arabic noun for
"the beginning"; "بداية"; "Bedaya." Most
Arabs believe the
Bedouins to be the predecessors to settled Arabs, including the
Arabs of the more westerly
Levant region. According to a
Umar ibn al-Khattab said of the Bedouin, "[T]hey are
the origin of the
Arabs and the substance of Islam." and the
word for the ethnicity itself may be influenced by that.
A widely quoted
Bedouin apothegm is "I am against my brother, my
brother and I are against my cousin, my cousin and I are against the
stranger" sometimes quoted as "I and my brother are against my
cousin, I and my cousin are against the stranger." This saying
signifies a hierarchy of loyalties based on the proximity of male
kinship, beginning with the nuclear family through the lineage and
then the paternal tribe, and, in principle at least, to an entire
genetic or linguistic group (which is perceived to akin to kinship in
Middle East and
North Africa generally). Disputes are settled,
interests are pursued, and justice and order are dispensed and
maintained by means of this framework, organized according to an ethic
of self-help and collective responsibility (Andersen 14). The
individual family unit (known as a tent or "gio"[clarification needed]
bayt) typically consisted traditionally of three or four adults (a
married couple plus siblings or parents) and any number of
When resources were plentiful, several tents would travel together as
a goum. While these groups were sometimes linked by patriarchal
lineage, others were just as likely linked by marriage alliances (new
wives were especially likely to have close male relatives join them).
Sometimes, the association was based on acquaintance and familiarity,
or even no clearly defined relation except for simple shared
membership within a tribe.
The next scale of interaction within groups was the ibn ʿamm (cousin,
or literally "son of an uncle") or descent group, commonly of three to
five generations. These were often linked to goums, but where a goum
would generally consist of people all with the same herd type, descent
groups were frequently split up over several economic activities, thus
allowing a degree of 'risk management'; should one group of members of
a descent group suffer economically, the other members of the descent
group would be able to support them. Whilst the phrase "descent group"
suggests purely a lineage-based arrangement, in reality these groups
were fluid and adapted their genealogies to take in new
The largest scale of tribal interactions is the tribe as a whole, led
Sheikh (Arabic: شيخ šayḫ, literally, "old man"), though
the title is refer to leaders in varying contexts. The tribe often
claims descent from one common ancestor—as mentioned above. The
tribal level is the level that mediated between the
Bedouin and the
outside governments and organizations. Distinct structure of the
Bedouin society leads to long lasting rivalries between different
Bedouin traditionally had strong honor codes, and traditional systems
of justice dispensation in
Bedouin society typically revolved around
such codes. The bisha'a, or ordeal by fire, is a well-known Bedouin
practice of lie detection. See also: Honor codes of the Bedouin,
Bedouin systems of justice. Urbanized
Bedouin are less likely to
continue such traditions, instead opting for the codes of behavior
that govern the wider settled community to which they belong.[citation
Weaving lengths of fabric for tent making using ground loom.
Palestine, circa 1900
Livestock and herding, principally of goats and dromedary camels
comprised the traditional livelihoods of Bedouins. These two animals
were used for meat, dairy products, and wool. Most of the staple
foods that made up the Bedouins' diet were dairy products.
Camels, in particular, had numerous cultural and functional uses.
Having been regarded as a "gift from God", they were the main food
source and method of transportation for many Bedouins. In addition
to their extraordinary milking potentials under harsh desert
conditions, their meat was occasionally consumed by Bedouins. As a
cultural tradition, camel races were organized during celebratory
occasions, such as weddings or religious festivals.
Oral poetry was the most popular art form among Bedouins. Having a
poet in one's tribe was highly regarded in society. In addition to
serving as a form of art, poetry was used as a means of conveying
information and social control.
Raiding or ghazzu
The well-regulated traditional habit of
Bedouin tribes of raiding
other tribes, caravans, or settlements is known in
Murder of Ma'sum Beg, the envoy of the Safavid Shah Tahmasp, by
Beduins in the Hejaz, 16th century
Bedouin engaged in nomadic herding, agriculture and
sometimes fishing. A major source of income was the taxation of
caravans, and tributes collected from non-
Bedouin settlements. They
also earned income by transporting goods and people in caravans across
the desert. Scarcity of water and of permanent pastoral land
required them to move constantly.
The Moroccan traveller, Ibn Battuta, reported that in 1326 on the
route to Gaza, the Egyptian authorities had a customs post at Qatya on
the north coast of Sinai. Here
Bedouin were being used to guard the
road and track down those trying to cross the border without
Early Medieval grammarians and scholars seeking to develop a
system of standardizing the contemporary Classical
Arabic for maximal
intelligibility across the
Arabophone areas, believed that the Bedouin
spoke the purest, most conservative variety of the language. To solve
irregularities of pronunciation, the
Bedouin were asked to recite
certain poems, whereafter consensus was relied on to decide the
pronunciation and spelling of a given word.
Bedouin woman, circa 1898–1914
A plunder and massacre of the
Hajj caravan by
occurred in 1757, led by Qa'dan al-Fa'iz of the Bani Saqr tribe. An
estimated 20,000 pilgrims were either killed in the raid or died of
hunger or thirst as a result. Although
Bedouin raids on
were fairly common, the 1757 raid represented the peak of such
Tanzimat reforms in 1858 a new Ottoman Land Law was issued,
which offered legal grounds for the displacement of the Bedouin. As
Ottoman Empire gradually lost power, this law instituted an
unprecedented land registration process that was also meant to boost
the empire's tax base. Few
Bedouin opted to register their lands with
the Ottoman Tapu, due to lack of enforcement by the Ottomans,
illiteracy, refusal to pay taxes and lack of relevance of written
documentation of ownership to the
Bedouin way of life at that
At the end of the 19th century Sultan
Abdülhamid II settled Muslim
populations (Circassians) from the
Caucasus among areas
predominantly populated by the nomads in the regions of modern Syria,
Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine, and also created several permanent
Bedouin settlements, although the majority of them did not remain.
Ottoman authorities also initiated private acquisition of large plots
of state land offered by the sultan to the absentee landowners
(effendis). Numerous tenants were brought in order to cultivate the
newly acquired lands. Often it came at the expense of the Bedouin
Palestine Exploration Fund
Palestine Exploration Fund list of
Bedouin tribes living West of the
Jordan in 1875.
In the late 19th century, many
Bedouin began transition to a
semi-nomadic lifestyle. One of the factors was the influence of the
Ottoman empire authorities who started a forced sedentarization of
Bedouin living on its territory. The Ottoman authorities viewed
Bedouin as a threat to the state's control and worked hard on
establishing law and order in the Negev. During World War I, the
Bedouin fought with the Turks against the British, but later,
under T. E. Lawrence's assist, the
Bedouins switched side and fought
the Turks. Hamad Pasha al-Sufi (died 1923),
Sheikh of the Nijmat
sub-tribe of the Tarabin, led a force of 1,500 men who joined the
Turkish offensive against the Suez Canal.
In Orientalist historiography, the
Bedouin have been described
as remaining largely unaffected by changes in the outside world until
recently. Their society was often considered a "world without
time." Recent scholars have challenged the notion of the Bedouin
as 'fossilized,' or 'stagnant' reflections of an unchanging desert
culture. Emanuel Marx has shown that
Bedouin were engaged in a
constantly dynamic reciprocal relation with urban centers. Bedouin
scholar Michael Meeker explains that "the city was to be found in
In the 20th century
Bedouin mothers carrying their children on their shoulders. Color
photo taken in the late 19th century by the French photographer Félix
In the 1950s and 1960 large numbers of
Bedouin throughout Midwest Asia
started to leave the traditional, nomadic life to settle in the cities
of Midwest Asia, especially as hot ranges have shrunk and populations
have grown. For example, in Syria, the
Bedouin way of life effectively
ended during a severe drought from 1958 to 1961, which forced many
Bedouin to abandon herding for standard jobs. Similarly,
governmental policies in Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Tunisia,
oil-producing Arab states of the
Persian Gulf and Libya, as
well as a desire for improved standards of living, effectively led
Bedouin to become settled citizens of various nations, rather
than stateless nomadic herders.
Governmental policies pressing the
Bedouin have in some cases been
executed in an attempt to provide service (schools, health care, law
enforcement and so on—see Chatty 1986 for examples), but in others
have been based on the desire to seize land traditionally roved and
controlled by the Bedouin. In recent years, some
Bedouin have adopted
the pastime of raising and breeding white doves, while others have
rejuvenated the traditional practice of falconry.
In different countries
Bedouin man in Riyadh, 1964.
Arabian Peninsula is the original home of the Bedouin. From here
they started to spread out to surrounding deserts, forced out by the
lack of water and food. According to tradition, the Saudi
descendants of two groups. One group, the Yemenis, settled in the
Southwestern Arabia, in the mountains of Yemen, and claim they descend
from a semi-legendary ancestral figure, Qahtan (or Joktan). The second
group, the Qaysis, settled in North-Central Arabia and claimed they
were descendants of the Biblical Ishmael.
A number of additional
Bedouin tribes reside in Saudi Arabia. Among
them are the, Enazah, Bani Tameem,( Juhani) Jihnan ) Shammar,
al-Murrah, Qara, Mahra, Harasis, Dawasir, Harb, Ghamid, Mutayr,
Subaie, 'Utayba, Bani khalid, Qahtan, Rashaida, Ansar and Yam. In
Arabia and the adjacent deserts there are around 100 large tribes of
1,000 members or more. Some tribes number up to 20,000 and a few of
the larger tribes may have up to 100,000 members.
Saudi Arabia the
Bedouin remained the majority of the
population during the first half of the 20th century. However, due to
change of lifestyle their number has decreased dramatically.
Syrian bedouin, 1893
Although the Arabian desert was the homeland of the Bedouin, some
groups have migrated to the north. It was one of the first lands
inhabited by the
Bedouin outside the Arabian desert. Today there
are over a million
Bedouin living in Syria, making a living herding
sheep and goats. The largest
Bedouin clan in
Syria is called
Ruwallah who are part of the 'Anizzah' tribe. Another famous branch of
the Anizzah tribe is the two distinct groups of Hasana and S'baa who
largely arrived from the Arabian peninsula in the 18th century.
Herding among the
Bedouin was common until the late 1950s, when it
effectively ended during a severe drought from 1958 to 1961. Due to
the drought, many
Bedouin were forced to give up herding for standard
jobs.[better source needed] Another factor was the
formal annulling of the
Bedouin tribes' legal status in Syrian law in
1958, along with attempts of the ruling
Ba'ath Party regime to wipe
out tribalism. Preferences for customary law (‘urf) in contrast to
state law (qanun) have been informally acknowledged and tolerated by
the state in order to avoid having its authority tested in the tribal
territories. In 1982 the al-Assad family turned to the Bedouin
tribe leaders for assistance during the
Muslim Brotherhood uprising
against al-Assad government (see 1982 Hama massacre). The Bedouin
sheikhs' decision to support
Hafez al-Assad led to a change in
attitude on the part of the government that permitted the Bedouin
leadership to manage and transform critical state development efforts
supporting their own status, customs and leadership.
As a result of the
Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War some
Bedouins became refugees and
found shelter in Jordan, Turkey, Lebanon, and other states.
Bedouin squatter compound in the Naqab Desert
Prior to the 1948 Israeli Declaration of Independence, an estimated
Bedouins lived in the
Negev desert. According to
Encyclopedia Judaica, 15,000
Bedouin remained in the
Negev after 1948;
other sources put the number as low as 11,000.
In 1999, 110,000
Bedouins lived in the Negev, 50,000 in the Galilee
and 10,000 in the central region of Israel.
All of the
Bedouin were granted Israeli citizenship in 1954.
Bedouin who remained in the
Negev belonged to the Tiaha
confederation as well as some smaller groups such as the 'Azazme
and the Jahalin. After 1948, some
Bedouins were displaced. The
Jahalin tribe, for instance, lived in the
Tel Arad region of the Negev
prior to the 1950s. In the early 1950s, the Jahalin were among the
tribes that, according to Emmanuel Marks, "moved or were removed by
the military government". They ended up in the so-called E1 area
East of Jerusalem.
Bedouin serve as volunteers in the
Israel Defense Forces,
many as trackers in the IDF's elite tracking units.
Bedouin shepherds were the first to discover the Dead Sea
Scrolls, a collection of Jewish texts from antiquity, in the Judean
Qumran in 1946. Of great religious, cultural, historical and
linguistic significance, 972 texts were found over the following
decade, many of which were discovered by Bedouins.
Successive Israeli administrations tried to demolish
in the Negev. Between 1967 and 1989,
Israel built seven legal
townships in the north-east of the Negev, with
Tel as-Sabi or Tel
Sheva the first. The largest, city of Rahat, has a population of over
58,700 (as of December 2013); as such it is the largest Bedouin
settlement in the world. Another well-known township out of the seven
of them that the Israeli government built, is Hura. According to the
Israel Land Administration (2007), some 60 per cent of the Negev
Bedouin live in urban areas. The rest live in so-called
unrecognized villages, which are not officially recognized by the
state due to general planning issues and other political reasons. They
were built chaotically without taking into consideration local
infrastructure. These communities are scattered all over the Northern
Negev and often are situated in inappropriate places, such as military
fire zones, natural reserves, landfills, etc.
On 29 September 2003, Israeli government adapted a new "Abu Basma
Plan" (Resolution 881), according to which a new regional council was
formed, unifying a number of unrecognized
Basma Regional Council. This resolution also regarded the need to
establish seven new
Bedouin settlements in the Negev, literally
meaning the official recognition of unrecognized settlements,
providing them with a municipal status and consequently with all the
basic services and infrastructure. The council was established by the
Interior Ministry on 28 January 2004.
Israel is currently building or enlarging some 13 towns and cities in
the Negev. According to the general planning, all of them will be
fully equipped with the relevant infrastructure: schools, medical
clinics, postal offices, etc. and they also will have electricity,
running water and waste control. Several new industrial zones meant to
fight unemployment are planned, some are already being constructed,
like Idan ha
Negev in the suburbs of Rahat. It will have a hospital
and a new campus inside. The
Israel receive free
education and medical services from the state. They are allotted child
cash benefits, which has contributed to the high birthrate among the
Bedouin (5% growth per year). But unemployment rate remains very high,
and few obtain a high school degree (4%), and even fewer graduate from
In September 2011, the Israeli government approved a five-year
economic development plan called the Prawer plan. One of its
implications is a relocation of some 30.000-40.000
areas not recognized by the government to government-approved
townships. In a 2012 resolution the European Parliament called
for the withdrawal of the Prawer plan and respect for the rights of
Bedouin people. In September 2014, Yair Shamir, who heads the
Israeli government's ministerial committee on
arrangements, stated that the government was examining ways to lower
the birthrate of the
Bedouin community in order to improve its
standard of living. Shamir claimed that without intervention, the
Bedouin population could exceed half a million by 2035.
Bedouin lighting a camp fire in Wadi Rum, Jordan
Most of the
Bedouin tribes migrated from the
Arabian Peninsula to what
Jordan today between the 14th and 18th centuries. Today
Bedouins make up from 33% to 40% of the population of Jordan.
Often they are referred to as a backbone of the Kingdom, since
Bedouin clans traditionally support the monarchy.
Most of Jordan's
Bedouin live in the vast wasteland that extends east
from the Desert Highway. The eastern
Bedouin are camel breeders
and herders, while the western
Bedouin herd sheep and goats. Some
Jordan are semi-nomads, they adopt a nomadic existence
during part of the year but return to their lands and homes in time to
The largest nomadic groups of
Jordan are the Banū (Banī laith; they
reside in Petra), baniṢakhr and Banū al-Ḥuwayṭāt (they reside
in Wadi Rum. There are numerous lesser groups, such
as the al-Sirḥān, Banū Khālid, Hawazim, ʿAṭiyyah, and
Sharafāt. The Ruwālah (Rwala) tribe, which is not indigenous, passes
Jordan in its yearly wandering from
Syria to Saudi Arabia.
The Jordanian government provides the
Bedouin with different services
such as education, housing and health clinics. However, some Bedouins
give it up and prefer their traditional nomadic lifestyle.
In the recent years there is a growing discontent of the
the ruling monarch, but the king manages to deal with it. In August
2007, police clashed with some 200
Bedouins who were blocking the main
highway between Amman and the port of Aqaba.
Livestock herders, they
were protesting the government's lack of support in the face of the
steeply rising cost of animal feed, and expressed resentment about
government assistance to refugees.
Arab Spring events in 2011 led to demonstrations in Jordan, and
Bedouins took part in them. But it is unlikely that the
to expect a revolt similar to turbulence in other Arab states. The
main reasons for that are the high respect to the monarch, and
contradictory interests of different groups of the Jordanian society.
The King Abdullah II maintains his distance from the complaints by
allowing blame to fall on government ministers, whom he replaces at
In the 11th century, reigning over Ifriqiya, the
recognised the sovereignty of the caliph of Cairo. Probably in 1048,
the ruler or viceroy Zirid, al-Mu'izz, decided to stop this
Fatimids were then powerless to lead a punitive
In the 11th century, the
Bedouin tribes of
Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym,
who originated from
Syria and North Arabia respectively, living at
the time in a desert between the
Nile and the Red Sea, moved westward
Maghreb areas and were joined by a third
Bedouin tribe of
Maqil, which had its roots in South Arabia. The vizier of the
Cairo chose to let go of the
Maghreb and obtained the
agreement of his sovereign. They set off with women, children, camping
equipment, some stopping on the way, especially in Cyrenaica, where
they are still one of the essential elements of the settlement, but
most arrived in
Ifriqiya by the
Gabes region; Berber armies were
defeated in trying to protect the walls of Kairouan.
Kairouan to take refuge on the coast where they
survived for a century. Ifriqiya, the
Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym
spread is on the high plains of Constantine where they gradually
choked the Qal'a of Banu Hammad, as they had done
Kairouan few decades
ago. From there, they gradually gained the upper
Algiers and Oran
plains, some were taken to the
Moulouya valley and in
by the Caliph of
Marrakesh in the second half of the 12th
In the 13th century, they lived in all the
Maghreb plains with the
exception of the main mountain ranges and some coastal regions that
served as refuges for the natives. They gave up their old trade
breeder of camels to look after the care of the sheep and
Ibn Khaldun, a
Muslim historian writes: "Similar to an army of
locusts, they destroy everything in their path."
Bedouin dialects are used in Maghrebi regions of
Coast, in regions of High Plains and
Sahara in Algeria, in regions of
Tunisian Sahel and in regions of Tripolitania. The
has four major varieties:
Libya and southern Tunisia;
Eastern Hilal dialects, central
Tunisia and eastern Algeria;
Central Hilal dialects, south and central Algeria, especially in
border areas of Sahara;
Maqil dialects, western
Algeria and Morocco;
Bedouin dialects are spoken in plains and in recently
founded cities such as Casablanca. Thus, the dialect shares with the
Bedouin dialects gal 'to say' (qala), they also represent the bulk of
modern Urban dialects (Koinés), such as those of
Egypt mostly reside in the
Sinai peninsula and in the
suburbs of the Egyptian capital of Cairo. The past few decades
have been difficult for traditional
Bedouin culture due to changing
surroundings and the establishment of new resort towns on the Red Sea
coast, such as Sharm el-Sheikh.
Egypt are facing a number
of challenges: erosion of traditional values, unemployment, and
various land issues. With urbanization and new education
Bedouins started to marry outside their tribe, a
practice that once was completely inappropriate.
Bedouins living in the
Sinai peninsula did not benefit much from
employment in the initial construction boom due to low wages offered.
Sudanese and Egyptians workers were brought here as construction
laborers instead. When the tourist industry started to bloom, local
Bedouins increasingly moved into new service positions such as cab
drivers, tour guides, campgrounds or cafe managers. However, the
competition is very high, and many
Bedouins are unemployed.
Since there are not enough employment opportunities, Tarabin Bedouins
as well as other
Bedouin tribes living along the border between Egypt
Israel are involved in inter-border smuggling of drugs and
weapons, as well as infiltration of prostitutes and African labor
In most countries in the
Middle East the
Bedouin have no land rights,
only users' privileges, and it is especially true for Egypt. Since
the mid-1980s, the
Bedouins who held desirable coastal property have
lost control of much of their land as it was sold by the Egyptian
government to hotel operators. The Egyptian government did not see the
land as belonging to
Bedouin tribes, but rather as a state property.
In the summer of 1999, the latest dispossession of land took place
when the army bulldozed Bedouin-run tourist campgrounds north of
Nuweiba as part of the final phase of hotel development in the sector,
overseen by the Tourist Development Agency (TDA). The director of the
Tourist Development Agency dismissed
Bedouin rights to most of the
land, saying that they had not lived on the coast prior to 1982. Their
traditional semi-nomadic culture has left
Bedouins vulnerable to such
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011 brought more freedom to the Sinai
Bedouin, but since it was deeply involved in weapon smuggling into
Gaza after a number of terror attacks on the Egypt-
Israel border a new
Egyptian government has started a military operation in
Sinai in the
summer-fall of 2012. Egyptian army has demolished over 120 underground
tunnels leading from
Egypt to Gaza that were used as smuggling
channels and gave profit to the
Bedouin families on the Egyptian side,
as well as the Palestinian clans on the other side of the border. Thus
the army has delivered a threatening message to local Bedouin,
compelling them to cooperate with state troops and officials. After
negotiations the military campaign ended up with a new agreement
Bedouin and Egyptian authorities.
Tribes and populations
Map of the
Bedouin tribes in 1908
There are a number of
Bedouin tribes, but the total population is
often difficult to determine, especially as many
Bedouin have ceased
to lead nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyles. Below is a partial list of
Bedouin tribes and their historic place of origin.
Bedouin shepherd in Syrian Desert
Harb tribe is a tribe in
Saudi Arabia and
Yemen on the Arabian
Banu Hilal, some tribes of this confederation are Bedouin, they
live in western Morocco, central Algeria, southern
Tunisia and Eastern
Desert and others steppe of the region.
Banu Sulaym, Big tribes, the Sulaym in the east (
southern Tunisia), present in Libya, Tunisia,
`Anizzah, some tribes of this confederation are Bedouin, they live in
Northern Saudi Arabia, Western Iraq, the
Persian Gulf states, Syrian
steppe and in Bekaa.
Negev desert and Egypt.
Beni Hamida, east of Dead Sea, Jordan.
Bani Tameem in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Qatar, Jordan, Palestinian
Syria and Lebanon.
Banu Yam centered in Najran Province,
Saudi Arabia and Iraq
Beni Sakhr in
Syria and Jordan.
Dulaim, a very large and powerful tribe in Al Anbar, Western Iraq.
al-Duwasir, south of Riyadh.
Ghamid, large tribe from Al-Bahah Province, Saudi Arabia, mostly
settled, but with a small
Bedouin section known as Badiyat Ghamid.
Bedouin tribe found in Iraq,
Syria and Jordan. Now
mostly are settled in cities such as Haditha in Iraq, Homs & Hama
in Syria, and Amman in Jordan.
al-Howeitat, one of the largest tribes in
al-Jaloudi (al-Jaludi) of al-Harb ("Goliath's Tribe" of "War Tribe"),
one of the largest tribes in the Arabian Peninsula, mostly settled in
Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Palestine,
Syria and Iraq. The tribe has deep
roots in the Umayyad and Abbassid dynasties.
al-Khassawneh, one of the largest tribes in Northern
well known for the long history dominating the North.
Bani Khalid one of the
Bedouin tribes in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar,
Egypt and Syria.
Jordan Majalis have long dominated Karak Bedouin
society, Strongest tribe in Karak, one of the largest political power
al-Mawasi, a group living on the central
Gaza Strip coast.
Muzziena tribe in
Dahab and South
Shahran (al-Ariydhah), a very large tribe residing in the area between
Bisha, Khamis Mushait and Abha. Al-Arydhah 'wide' is a famous name for
Shahran because it has a very large area, in Saudi Arabia.
Shammar, a very large and influential tribe in Iraq, Saudi Arabia,
Syria, and Jordan. Descended from the ancient tribe of
Tayy from Najd.
Subay', central Nejd.
Tarabin—one of the largest tribes in
Egypt (Sinai) and Israel
Israel near the
Jordan river cliff in the Eastern
Tribes of Arabia
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