BEAT MUSIC, BRITISH BEAT, or MERSEYBEAT (after bands from Liverpool and nearby areas beside the River Mersey ) is a pop and rock music genre that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1960s. Beat music is a fusion of rock and roll (mainly Chuck Berry guitar style and the midtempo beat of artists like Buddy Holly ), doo-wop , skiffle and R&B . The genre provided many of the bands responsible for the British Invasion of the American pop charts starting in 1964, and provided the model for many important developments in pop and rock music, including the format of the rock group around lead , rhythm and bass guitars with drums .
* 1 Use of the term * 2 Characteristics * 3 History * 4 British Invasion * 5 Decline and influence
* 6 Notable artists
* 6.1 Merseybeat * 6.2 Other British beat groups
* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links
USE OF THE TERM
The exact origins of the terms 'beat music' and 'Merseybeat' are uncertain. Beat music seems to have had little to do with the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s, and more to do with driving rhythms , which the bands had adopted from their rock and roll, rhythm and blues and soul music influences. As the initial wave of rock and roll declined in the later 1950s, "big beat" music, later shortened to "beat", became a live dance alternative to the balladeers like Tommy Steele , Marty Wilde and Cliff Richard who were dominating the charts.
The name _Mersey Beat _ was used for a Liverpool music magazine founded in 1961 by Bill Harry . Harry claims to have coined the term "based on a policeman\'s beat and not that of the music". The band the Pacifics were renamed the Mersey Beats in February 1962 by Bob Wooler , MC at the Cavern Club and in April that year they became the Merseybeats . With the rise of the Beatles in 1963, the terms Mersey sound and Merseybeat were applied to bands and singers from Liverpool, and this was the first time in British pop music that a sound and a location were linked together. The equivalent scenes in Birmingham and London were described as Brum beat and the Tottenham Sound respectively.
The most distinctive characteristic of the music was the strong beat, using the backbeat common to rock and roll and rhythm and blues , but often with a driving emphasis on all the beats of 4/4 bar. The rhythm itself—described by Alan Clayson as "a changeless four-four offbeat on the snare drum"—was developed in the clubs in Hamburg , West Germany , where many English groups, including the Beatles, performed in the early 1960s and where it was known as the _mach schau_ (make show) beat. The 8/8 rhythm was flexible enough to be adopted for songs from a range of genres. In addition, according to music writer Dave Laing ,
"he chord playing of the rhythm guitar was broken up into a series of separate strokes, often one to the bar, with the regular plodding of the bass guitar and crisp drumming behind it. This gave a very different effect from the monolithic character of rock, in that the beat was given not by the duplication of one instrument in the rhythm section by another, but by an interplay between all three. This flexibility also meant that beat music could cope with a greater range of time-signatures and song shapes than rock ">_ The Dave Clark Five appearing on The Ed Sullivan Show _ in 1966
In the late 1950s, a flourishing culture of groups began to emerge, often out of the declining skiffle scene, in major urban centres in the UK like Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham and London. This was particularly true in Liverpool, where it has been estimated that there were around 350 different bands active, often playing ballrooms, concert halls and clubs. Liverpool was perhaps uniquely placed within Britain to be the point of origin of a new form of music. Commentators have pointed to a combination of local solidarity, industrial decline , social deprivation, and the existence of a large population of Irish origin, the influence of which has been detected in Beat music. It was also a major port with links to America, which made for much greater access to American records and instruments like guitars, which could not easily be imported due to trade restrictions. As a result, Beat bands were heavily influenced by American groups of the era, such as Buddy Holly and the Crickets (from which group the Beatles derived their name, combining it with a pun on the beat in their music), and to a lesser extent by British rock and roll groups such as the Shadows .
After the national success of the Beatles in Britain from 1962, a number of Liverpool performers were able to follow them into the charts, including Gerry ">_ The arrival of the Beatles in the U.S., and subsequent appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show_, marked the start of the British Invasion
The term "British Invasion" was coined by T.V. reporter Walter Cronkite to describe the Beatles' arrival in the United States and the outbreak of Beatlemania in 1964. Their appearance on _The Ed Sullivan Show _ soon after led to chart success. During the next two years, the Animals , Petula Clark , the Dave Clark Five , the Rolling Stones , Donovan , Peter and Gordon , Manfred Mann , Freddie and the Dreamers , Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders , Herman’s Hermits , and the Troggs would have one or more number one singles in America.
DECLINE AND INFLUENCE
By 1967 beat music was beginning to sound out of date, particularly compared with the "harder edged" blues rock that was beginning to emerge. Most of the groups that had not already disbanded, like the Beatles, moved into different forms of rock music and pop music , including psychedelic rock and eventually progressive rock . Beat was a major influence on the American garage rock and folk rock movements, and would be a source of inspiration for subsequent rock music subgenres, including Britpop in the 1990s.
Gerry and the Pacemakers in 1964
* The Beatles * The Big Three * The Cryin\' Shames * Lee Curtis and the All-Stars * The Dakotas * Derry and the Seniors * The Escorts * The Fourmost * Gerry and the Pacemakers * Billy J. Kramer * The Liverbirds * The Merseybeats * The Mindbenders * The Mojos * Rory Storm and the Hurricanes * Kingsize Taylor and the Dominoes * The Searchers * The Swinging Blue Jeans * The Undertakers
OTHER BRITISH BEAT GROUPS
Herman\'s Hermits in 1965
* ^ _A_ _B_ B. Longhurst, _Popular Music and Society_ (Polity, 2nd edn., 2007), ISBN 0-7456-3162-2 , p. 98. * ^ _A_ _B_ Mersey Beat - the founders\' story. * ^ B. Eder and R. Unterberger, "The Merseybeats", _Allmusic_, retrieved 16 June 2009. * ^ Ian Inglis (2010). "Historical approaches to Merseybeat". _The Beat Goes on: Liverpool, Popular Music and the Changing City (editors Marion Leonard, Robert Strachan)_. Liverpool University Press. p. 11. Retrieved 20 June 2013. * ^ B. Eder, "Various artists: _Brum Beat: the Story of the 60s Midland Sound_", _Allmusic_, retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ P. Hurry, M. Phillips and M. Richards, _Heinemann Advanced Music_ (Heinemann, 2001), p. 158. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jon Stratton (2010). "Englishing Popular Music in the 1960s". _ Britpop and the English Music Tradition (editors Andy Bennett, Jon Stratton)_. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2010. pp. 41–46. Retrieved 2 July 2013. * ^ J. Shepherd, _Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: Volume II: Performance and Production_ (Continuum, 2003), ISBN 0-8264-6322-3 , p. 78. * ^ Nell Irvin Painter , _Creating Black Americans: African-American History and Its Meanings, 1619 to the Present_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 261. * ^ _A_ _B_ R. Stakes, "Those boys: the rise of Mersey beat", in S. Wade, ed., _Gladsongs and Gatherings: Poetry and its Social Context in Liverpool Since the 1960s_ (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-85323-727-1 , pp. 157–66. * ^ Gilliland 1969 , show 27, track 4. * ^ W. Everett, _ The Beatles as Musicians: The Quarry Men through Rubber Soul_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-19-514105-9 , pp. 37–8. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Gilliland 1969 , show 29. * ^ _Daily Telegraph_ "'Dreamers' star Freddie Garrity dies", 20 May 2006, accessed August 2007. * ^ V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra, and S. T. Erlewine, _All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul_ (Backbeat Books, 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X , p. 532. * ^ I. Chambers, _Urban Rhythms: Pop Music and Popular Culture_ (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1985), ISBN 0-312-83469-1 , p. 75. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gilliland 1969 , show 30. * ^ J. R. Covach and G. MacDonald Boone. _Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), ISBN 0-19-510005-0 , p. 60. * ^ Gilliland 1969 , show 28. * ^ Gilliland 1969 , show 48. * ^ "British Invasion". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved 23 January 2016. * ^ E. Macan, _Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), ISBN 0-19-509888-9 , p. 11. * ^ V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, _All music guide to rock: the definitive guide to rock, pop, and soul_ (Backbeat Books, 3rd end., 2002), pp. 1320-1. * ^ R. Unterberger, "Merseybeat", retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ D. B. Scott, "The Britpop sound", in A. Bennett and J. Stratton, eds., _ Britpop and the English Music Tradition_ (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010), ISBN 0-7546-6805-3 , pp. 103-122. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ "Merseybeat (Top Artists)", _Allmusic_, retrieved 5 February 2011.
* Gilliland, John (1969). "The British Are Coming! The British Are Coming!: The U.S.A. is invaded by a wave of long-haired English rockers" (audio). _ Pop Chronicles _. University of North Texas Libraries . * Leigh, S., (2004) _Twist and Shout!: Merseybeat, The Cavern, The Star-Club and The Beatles_ (Nirvana Books), ISBN 0-9506201-5-7 (updated version of _Let's Go Down to the Cavern_)