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Bayezid II
Bayezid II
(3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1481 to 1512. During his reign, Bayezid II
Bayezid II
consolidated the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and thwarted a Safavid rebellion soon before abdicating his throne to his son, Selim I. He is most notable for evacuating Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
from Spain
Spain
after the proclamation of the Alhambra Decree
Alhambra Decree
and resettling them throughout the Ottoman Empire.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Fight for the throne 3 Reign

3.1 Jewish
Jewish
and Muslim immigration

4 Succession 5 In popular culture 6 Family 7 References 8 External links

Early life[edit] Bayezid II
Bayezid II
was the son of Mehmed II
Mehmed II
(1432–1481) and Emine Gülbahar Hatun. There are sources that claim that Bayezid was the son of Mükrime Hatun.[3][4] This would make Ayse Hatun a first cousin of Bayezid II. However, the marriage of Mükrime Hatun took place two years after Bayezid was born[5] and the whole arrangement was not to Mehmed's liking.[6] The Albanian-born Emine Gülbahar Hatun
Emine Gülbahar Hatun
is generally accepted as the real mother of Bayezid II.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Bayezid II
Bayezid II
married Gülbahar Hatun, who was the mother of Bayezid II's successor, Selim I
Selim I
and nephew of Sitti Mükrime Hatun. Fight for the throne[edit] Bayezid II's overriding concern was the quarrel with his brother Cem, who claimed the throne and sought military backing from the Mamluks in Egypt. Having been defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. Eventually, the Knights handed Cem over to Pope Innocent VIII
Pope Innocent VIII
(1484–1492). The Pope thought of using Cem as a tool to drive the Turks out of Europe, but as the papal crusade failed to come to fruition, Cem was left to languish and die in a Neapolitan prison.[citation needed] Bayezid II paid both the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
and the pope to keep his brother prisoner. Reign[edit] Bayezid II
Bayezid II
ascended the Ottoman throne in 1481.[16] Like his father, Bayezid II
Bayezid II
was a patron of western and eastern culture. Unlike many other Sultans, he worked hard to ensure a smooth running of domestic politics, which earned him the epithet of "the Just". Throughout his reign, Bayezid II
Bayezid II
engaged in numerous campaigns to conquer the Venetian possessions in Morea, accurately defining this region as the key to future Ottoman naval power in the Eastern Mediterranean. The last of these wars ended in 1501 with Bayezid II
Bayezid II
in control of the whole Peloponnese. Rebellions in the east, such as that of the Qizilbash, plagued much of Bayezid II's reign and were often backed by the Shah
Shah
of Persia, Ismail, who was eager to promote Shi'ism to undermine the authority of the Ottoman state. Ottoman authority in Anatolia
Anatolia
was indeed seriously threatened during this period and at one point Bayezid II's vizier, Ali Pasha, was killed in battle against rebels. Jewish
Jewish
and Muslim immigration[edit] Further information: Nasrid–Ottoman relations In July 1492, the new state of Spain
Spain
expelled its Jewish
Jewish
and Muslim populations as part of the Spanish Inquisition. Bayezid II
Bayezid II
sent out the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy
under the command of admiral Kemal Reis
Kemal Reis
to Spain
Spain
in 1492 in order to evacuate them safely to Ottoman lands. He sent out proclamations throughout the empire that the refugees were to be welcomed.[17] He granted the refugees the permission to settle in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and become Ottoman citizens. He ridiculed the conduct of Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
and Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
in expelling a class of people so useful to their subjects. "You venture to call Ferdinand a wise ruler," he said to his courtiers, "he who has impoverished his own country and enriched mine!"[18] Bayezid addressed a firman to all the governors of his European provinces, ordering them not only to refrain from repelling the Spanish refugees, but to give them a friendly and welcome reception.[18] He threatened with death all those who treated the Jews harshly or refused them admission into the empire. Moses Capsali, who probably helped to arouse the sultan's friendship for the Jews, was most energetic in his assistance to the exiles. He made a tour of the communities and was instrumental in imposing a tax upon the rich, to ransom the Jewish
Jewish
victims of the persecution.

Crimean
Crimean
Tatar
Tatar
khan, Mengli Giray at the court of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II.

The Muslims
Muslims
and Jews of al-Andalus (Iberia) contributed much to the rising power of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
by introducing new ideas, methods and craftsmanship. The first printing press in Constantinople
Constantinople
was established by the Sephardic Jews in 1493. It is reported that under Bayezid's reign, Jews enjoyed a period of cultural flourishing, with the presence of such scholars as the Talmudist
Talmudist
and scientist Mordecai Comtino; astronomer and poet Solomon ben Elijah Sharbiṭ ha-Zahab; Shabbethai ben Malkiel Cohen, and the liturgical poet Menahem Tamar. Succession[edit] On 14 September 1509, Constantinople[19][20] was devastated by an earthquake. During Bayezid II's final years, a succession battle developed between his sons Selim I
Selim I
and Ahmet. Ahmet unexpectedly captured Karaman, an Ottoman city, and began marching to Constantinople
Constantinople
to exploit his triumph. Fearing for his safety, Selim staged a revolt in Thrace
Thrace
but was defeated by Bayezid and forced to flee back to the Crimean
Crimean
Peninsula. Bayezid II
Bayezid II
developed fears that Ahmet might in turn kill him to gain the throne, so he refused to allow his son to enter Constantinople. Selim returned from Crimea and, with support from the Janissaries, forced his father to abdicate the throne on 25 April 1512. Bayezid departed for retirement in his native Demotika, but he died on 26 May 1512 at Büyükçekmece
Büyükçekmece
before reaching his destination and only a month after his abdication. He was buried next to the Bayezid Mosque in Istanbul.

Bayezid II
Bayezid II
fighting his son Selim I
Selim I
at Uğraşdere.

In popular culture[edit]

Sultan
Sultan
Bayezid II's statesmanship, tolerance, and intellectual abilities are depicted in the historical novel The Sultan's Helmsman, which takes place in the middle years of his reign. Sultan
Sultan
Bayezid II
Bayezid II
and his struggle with his son Selim is a prominent subplot in the video game Assassin's Creed: Revelations. In the game, due to Bayezid's absence from Constantinople, the Byzantines had the opportunity to sneak back into the city, hoping to revive their fallen empire. Near the end of the game, Bayezid surrendered the throne to his son Selim. However, Bayezid does not make an actual appearance. Bayezid II, prior to becoming Sultan, is depicted by Akin Gazi in the Starz series, Da Vinci's Demons. He seeks an audience with Pope Sixtus IV (having been manipulated into believing that peace between Rome and Constantinople
Constantinople
is a possibility), only to be ridiculed and humiliated by Sixtus, actions which later serve as a pretext for the Ottoman invasion of Otranto. Sixtus assumes that Bayezid has been overlooked in favor of his brother Cem.

Tomb of Bayezid II
Bayezid II
in Istanbul.

Family[edit]

Consorts

Bayezid had eight consorts:

Nigar Hatun, daughter of Abdullah Vehbi Bey; Şirin Hatun; Bülbül Hatun; Gülbahar Hatun; Gülruh Hatun; Hüsnüşah Hatun, daughter of Cambaz Kadioğlu Nasuh Bey of the Karamanids; Muhtereme Hatun; Gülfem Hatun;

Sons

Bayezid had eight sons:

Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Abdullah – son with Şirin Hatun,[21] Governor of Sarihan 1481, and of Karaman 1481–1483 Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Ahmed – son with Bülbül Hatun,[22] Governor of Sarihan 1481–1483 and of Amasya 1483–1513 Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Korkud – son with Nigar Hatun,[21] Governor of Sarihan 1483–1501 and 1511–1513, and of Anatolia
Anatolia
1502–1509 and 1510–1511 Sultan
Sultan
Selim I
Selim I
– son with Gülbahar Hatun,[23] who succeeded as Sultan
Sultan
Selim Khan I Yavuz Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Şehinşah – son with Hüsnüşah Hatun,[21] Governor of Sarihan 1481-1483 and of Karaman 1483–1511 Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Alemşah – son with Gülruh Hatun,[23] Governor of Kastamonu 1504 and of Sarihan 1504–1507 Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed – son with Muhtereme Hatun, Governor of Kefe Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud – son with Bülbül Hatun,[22] Governor of Sarihan 1502

Daughters

Bayezid had twelve daughters:

Aynışah Hatun
Aynışah Hatun
– daughter with Şirin Hatun, married in 1490 to Prince Damat Sultan
Sultan
Ahmed Göde Akkoyunlu;[24] Ayşe Hatun – daughter with Nigar Hatun, married Güveyi Sinan Paşa;[24] Sofiye Sultan
Sultan
Fatma Hatun – daughter with Nigar Hatun, married to Damad Güzelce Hasan Bey;[25] Gevhermülük Şah Hatun – daughter with Bülbül Hatun, married to Damat Mehmed Pasha Dukakis;[25] Hatice Hatun – daughter with Bülbül Hatun, married to Damat Faik Pasha;[26] Hundi Hatun – daughter with Bülbül Hatun, married in 1484 to Damat Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha;[26] Hümaşah Hatun – married to Damat Antalyali Bali Pasha;[27] Ilaldi Hatun – married to Damat Hain Ahmed Pasha;[27] Kamerşah Hatun – daughter with Gülruh Hatun, married in 1490 to Damat Mustafa Bey, son of Davud Pasha;[27] Selçukşah Hatun – married in 1485 to Damat Mehmed Bey, son of Damat Kara Mustafa Pasha;[27] Şehzade Şah Hatun – daughter with Bülbül Hatun, married in 1490 to Damat Nasuh Bey;[28] Sultanzade Hatun – daughter with Hüsnüşah Hatun;[28]

References[edit]

Notes

^ Necdet Sakaoğlu (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak publications. pp. 110–112. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6.  (The name of the real biological mother of Bayezid II
Bayezid II
is given as Meliketû'l-Melikât Gül-Bahar Valide Hâtun). ^ Peirce, Leslie (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-19-508677-5.  ^ Bahadıroğlu, Yavuz (2009) Ottoman History with Illustrations - Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Publications, 15th Ed., p. 129, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2. (www.nesilyayinlari.com) ^ Necdet Sakaoğlu (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak publications. pp. 113–117. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. . ^ Wedding portrait, Nauplion.net ^ Babinger 1992, p. 57-8. ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=LtzXAAAAMAAJ&q=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&dq=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=MwvrU8jYE4XqyQPPnYGgBg&ved=0CCkQ6AEwBg ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=L6-VRgVzRcUC&pg=PA52&dq=gulbahar+mother+of+bayezid+ii&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=MwvrU8jYE4XqyQPPnYGgBg&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=JXh6vjXt_4IC&pg=PA32&dq=bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=KnXrU7_CFuX4yQPYlYGwBA&ved=0CBwQuwUwAw ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=L6-VRgVzRcUC&pg=PA365&dq=bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=KnXrU7_CFuX4yQPYlYGwBA&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=w4RpAAAAMAAJ&q=Gulbahar+Hatun+bayezid+ii+mother&dq=Gulbahar+Hatun+bayezid+ii+mother&hl=sq&sa=X&ei=enbrU-PJNqT4yQOqoIGADg&ved=0CCEQ6AEwBA ^ " Sultan
Sultan
II. Bayezid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 6 February 2009.  ^ Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 129, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2 (www.nesilyayinlari.com) ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=77aDnC12IDEC&pg=PA30&dq=Gülbahar+Albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=SWjkU9zFHeHqyQPLoYL4Cw&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Gülbahar Albanian&f=false ^ https://books.google.al/books?id=nDoOAQAAMAAJ&q=Gülbahar+Albanian&dq=Gülbahar+Albanian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jMPlU7_7LabB7Aa3_IHYDQ&ved=0CEsQ6wEwCA ^ " Sultan
Sultan
Bajazid's (i.e., Beyazit's) Mosque, Constantinople, Turkey". World Digital Library. 1890–1900. Retrieved 2013-10-18.  ^ Egger, Vernon O. (2008). A History of the Muslim World Since 1260: The Making of a Global Community. Prentice Hall. p. 82. ISBN 0-13-226969-4.  ^ a b The Jewish
Jewish
Encyclopedia: a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish
Jewish
people from the earliest times to the present day, Vol.2 Isidore Singer, Cyrus Adler, Funk and Wagnalls, 1912 p.460 ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire... ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople
Constantinople
was officially renamed Istanbul
Istanbul
in 1930. ^ a b c Uluçay 1988, p. 46. ^ a b Uluçay 1988, p. 44. ^ a b Uluçay 1988, p. 45. ^ a b Uluçay 1988, p. 48. ^ a b Uluçay 1988, p. 49. ^ a b Uluçay 1988, p. 50. ^ a b c d Uluçay 1988, p. 51. ^ a b Uluçay 1988, p. 52.

Bibliography

Sidney Nettleton Fisher. "The foreign relations of Turkey (1481–1512)" (PDF). Utrecht University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-11-17.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Bajazet II". Jewish
Jewish
Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.  M. Çağatay Uluçay (1985). Padişahların kadınları ve kızları. Türk Tarih Kurumu. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Bayezid II
Bayezid II
at Wikimedia Commons

Bayezid II House of Osman Born: Dec 3, 1447 Died: May 26, 1512

Regnal titles

Preceded by Mehmed II Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire May 3, 1481 – April 25, 1512 Succeeded by Selim I

Titles in pretence

Preceded by Mehmed II Byzantine Emperor Claim merged into Sultanate

v t e

Ottoman Sultans / Caliphs

Dynasty Family tree (detailed) Family tree (simplified) Line of succession

Osman I Orhan Murad I Bayezid I Interregnum Mehmed I Murad II Mehmed II Murad II Mehmed II Bayezid II Selim I Suleiman I Selim II Murad III Mehmed III Ahmed I Mustafa I Osman II Mustafa I Murad IV Ibrahim Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II Mustafa II Ahmed III Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II Abdulmejid I Abdülaziz Murad V Abdul Hamid II Mehmed V Mehmed VI Abdulmejid II
Abdulmejid II
( Caliph
Caliph
only)

§ First Ottoman caliph

Book Category

Related templates: Claimants Valide Sultans

v t e

Ottoman princes

1st generation

Alaeddin Pasha Orhan

2nd generation

Süleyman Pasha Murad I Şehzade Halil

3rd generation

Savcı Bey Bayezid I

4th generation

Süleyman Çelebi İsa Çelebi Mehmed I Musa Çelebi Mustafa Çelebi

5th generation

Murad II Küçük Mustafa

6th generation

Mehmed the Conqueror

7th generation

Bayezid II Sultan
Sultan
Cem

8th generation

Şehzade Ahmet Şehzade Korkut Selim I

9th generation

Suleiman the Magnificent

10th generation

Şehzade Mustafa Şehzade Mehmed Şehzade Abdullah Selim II Şehzade Bayezid Şehzade Cihangir

11th generation

Murad III

12th generation

Mehmed III Sultan
Sultan
Yahya

13th generation

Şehzade Mahmud Ahmed I Mustafa I

14th generation

Osman II Murad IV Ibrahim

15th generation

Şehzade Ömer Mehmed IV Suleiman II Ahmed II

16th generation

Mustafa II Ahmed III

17th generation

Mahmud I Osman III Mustafa III Abdul Hamid I

18th generation

Selim III Mustafa IV Mahmud II

19th generation

Abdulmejid I Abdulaziz

20th generation

Abdul Hamid II Murad V Mehmed V Şehzade Ahmed Kemaleddin Mehmed VI Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin Abdulmejid II

21st generation

Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selaheddin Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Selim Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abdülkadir Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Abid Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Mehmed
Ziyaeddin Şehzade Ömer
Şehzade Ömer
Hilmi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89106193 LCCN: n83314009 ISNI: 0000 0001 1773 9635 GND: 118506056 SUDOC: 031832261 BNF: cb12297389r (data) ULAN: 500397677 MusicBrainz: 692042e6-8cc4-4a5f-8e71-d3c3c07de

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