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The Bay of Kotor
Kotor
(Montenegrin: Бока Которска, Boka Kotorska) pronounced [bɔ̂ka kɔ̂tɔrskaː]; Italian: Bocche di Cattaro), known simply as Boka ("the Bay"), is the name of the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in southwestern Montenegro
Montenegro
and the region of Montenegro
Montenegro
concentrated around the bay. The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor, Risan, Tivat, Perast, Prčanj
Prčanj
and Herceg Novi, along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor
Kotor
has been a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 1979. Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic churches and monasteries make it a major pilgrimage site.

Contents

1 Economy 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Hydrology

3 History

3.1 Pre-Christian 3.2 Middle Ages 3.3 Fifteenth through seventeenth centuries 3.4 Modern history

4 Culture

4.1 Religious buildings

5 Demographics

5.1 Boka

5.1.1 Serbs
Serbs
& Montenegrins 5.1.2 Croats

6 Notable 7 Gallery 8 Literature 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Economy[edit] A small naval port is under development as a yacht marina, Porto Montenegro. Geography[edit]

Municipalities of the Bay of Kotor
Kotor
(Kotor, Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
and Tivat) within Montenegro

Perast
Perast
and Bay of Kotor
Kotor
from Saint Nicholas' Church

Bay of Kotor.

The bay is about 28 km long with a shoreline extending 107.3 km. It is surrounded by two massifs of the Dinaric Alps: the Orjen
Orjen
mountains to the west, and the Lovćen
Lovćen
mountains to the east. The narrowest section of the bay, the 2300 m long Verige Strait, is only 340 m wide at its narrowest point.[1] The bay is a ria of the vanished Bokelj River that used to run from the high mountain plateaus of Mount Orjen. The bay is composed of several smaller broad bays, united by narrower channels. The bay inlet was formerly a river system. Tectonic and karstification processes led to the disintegration of this river. After heavy rains the waterfall of Sopot spring at Risan
Risan
appears, and Škurda, another well-known spring runs through a canyon from Lovćen. The outermost part of the bay is the Bay of Tivat
Tivat
(Teodo). On the seaward side is the Bay of Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
(Castelnuovo), at the main entrance to the Bay of Kotor. The inner bays are the Bay of Risan
Risan
to the northwest and the Bay of Kotor
Kotor
to the southeast. The Verige Strait represents the bay's narrowest section and is located between Cape St. Nedjelja and Cape Opatovo; it separates the inner bay east of the strait from the Bay of Tivat. Climate[edit] The Bay lies within the Mediterranean and northwards the humid subtropical climate zone, but its peculiar topography and high mountains make it one of the wettest places in Europe, with Europe's wettest inhabited areas (although certain Icelandic glaciers are wetter[2]). The littoral Dinarids and the Prokletije
Prokletije
mountains receive the most precipitation, leading to small glaciers surviving well above the 0 °C (32 °F) mean annual isotherm. November thunderstorms sometimes drop large amounts of water. By contrast, in August the area is frequently completely dry, leading to forest fires. With a maximum discharge of 200 m³/s, one of the biggest karst springs, the Sopot spring, reflects this seasonal variation. Most of the time it is inactive but after heavy rain a remarkable waterfall appears 20 m above the Bay of Kotor.

Station Height [m] Type Character Precipitation [mm] Snow

Zubacki kabao 1894 D perhumid Mediterranean snowclimate ca. 6250 ap. 140 days

Crkvice 940 Cfsb (fs= without summerdryness), perhumid Mediterranean mountain climate 4926 70 days

Risan 0 Cs’’a (s’’= double winter rain season), perhumid Mediterranean coast climate 3500 0.4 days

*classification scheme after Köppen Two wind systems have ecological significance: Bora and Jugo. Strong cold downslope winds of the Bora type appear in winter and are most severe in the Bay of Risan. Gusts reach 250 km/h and can lead to a significant temperature decline over several hours with freezing events. Bora weather situations are frequent and sailors study the mountains as cap clouds indicate an imminent Bora event. Jugo is a warm humid wind and brings heavy rain. It appears throughout the year but is usually concentrated in autumn and spring. Monthly and yearly precipitation ranges:

Station Period Height [m] I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII I-XII [mm/m²a]

Herceg Novi 1961–1984 40 230 221 183 135 130 73 28 45 160 181 326 262 1974

Risan 1961–1984 40 405 342 340 235 153 101 66 123 188 295 423 434 3105

Grahovo 1961–1984 710 351 324 305 251 142 94 55 103 202 416 508 473 3224

Podvrsnik 1961–1984 630 407 398 367 305 151 101 77 132 238 465 593 586 3820

Vrbanj 1961–1984 1010 472 390 388 321 181 104 70 122 224 369 565 536 3742

Knezlaz 1961–1984 620 547 472 473 373 207 120 72 136 268 400 629 661 4358

Crkvice 1961–1984 940 610 499 503 398 198 135 82 155 295 502 714 683 4774

Ivan. Korita 1960–1984 1350 434 460 742 472 128 198 74 46 94 300 694 972 4614

Goli vrh 1893–1913 1311 271 286 307 226 188 148 75 70 215 473 415 327 3129

Jankov vrh 1890–1909 1017 424 386 389 346 212 124 55 58 202 484 579 501 3750

Hydrology[edit]

Hydrologic system: karst hydrology ca. 4000 km², Sopot, Škurda, submerged sources[clarification needed] Water area: 87 km² Max depth: 60 m Average depth: 27.3 m Water content:24,12306 km³ (ca. 2.4 mrd m³) Highest point: Orjen
Orjen
(1894 m) Lowest point: sea surface (0 m) Length: 28,13 km Widest point: 7 km Narrowest point: 0.3 km

History[edit] Pre-Christian[edit]

Churches in the Bay of Kotor: 1) from the 9th and 2) 10th and 11th century

The Bay of Kotor
Kotor
within the Kingdom of Zeta in the 12th century

The nearby hamlet of Risan
Risan
was a thriving Illyrian city called Rhizon as early as 229 BC and gave its name to the bay, then known as Rhizonicus Sinus. Queen Teuta
Queen Teuta
of Illyria
Illyria
retired from Shkodra
Shkodra
to Rhizon. Rhizon
Rhizon
eventually submitted to Rome
Rome
in 168 BC, at the same time that Acrivium, or Acruvium, the modern Kotor, was first mentioned.[citation needed] Middle Ages[edit] The Sklavenoi, South Slavs, settled in the Balkans in the 6th century.[3][4][5] The Serbs, mentioned in the Royal Frankish Annals
Royal Frankish Annals
of the mid-9th century, controlled a great part of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
("Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur").[6][7] The Slavic, Montenegrin tribes, consolidated under the Vlastimirović dynasty (610–960). The two principalities of Doclea and Travunia were roughly adjacent at Boka. As elsewhere in the Balkans, Slavs mixed with the Roman population of these Byzantine coastal cities. The Theme of Dalmatia
Theme of Dalmatia
was established in the 870s. According to De Administrando Imperio (ca. 960), Risan
Risan
was part of Travunia, a Serbian principality ruled by the Belojević family.[citation needed] After the Great Schism of 1054, the coastal region was officially under the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(the West). In 1171, Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
sided with the Venetian Republic
Venetian Republic
in a dispute with the Byzantine Empire. The Venetians incited the Slavs
Slavs
of the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
littoral to rebel against Byzantine rule and Nemanja joined them, launching an offensive towards Kotor. The Bay was thenceforth under the rule of the Nemanjić dynasty. In 1195 Nemanja and his son Vukan constructed the Church of Saint Luka in Kotor. In 1219 Saint Sava
Saint Sava
founded the seat of the Eparchy of Zeta on Prevlaka, one of the eparchies of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The town of Kotor
Kotor
was under Nemanjić rule until ca. 1370 when it became a part of the Kingdom of Bosnia. Its merchant fleet and importance gradually increased, and after the fall of Serbia to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the late 14th century, Kotor
Kotor
was seized by the Venetian Republic. Part of the area was conquered by the Ottomans at the end of the 15th century, and the Venetian Republic
Venetian Republic
held the southern part including Kotor. The Ottoman part was retaken at the end of the 17th century and the whole area became part of the Venetian Republic, with the name of Albania Veneta. Until the 20th century the difference between the two parts was visible because the former Ottoman part had an Orthodox majority, while the part that was under Venetian rule had a Catholic
Catholic
majority.[citation needed] Fifteenth through seventeenth centuries[edit] With the Ottoman expansion in the Balkans and fall of Serbian statehood in the 15th century, Venetians started to expand into the Bay. The plurality of Boka's citizens were Serbian Orthodox, under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitanate of Zeta. Venetian rule brought Italian language
Italian language
and culture to Boka, which was partially accepted by its population. Throughout Venetian rule, repeated assimilation attempts of the Slavs
Slavs
failed. In 1451 and 1455 the Venetian Doge issued orders to the Bishop of Kotor
Kotor
to work to convert the Orthodox under his jurisdiction and to confiscate their property. The Venetian governor of Kotor
Kotor
banished all Orthodox from Bogdashich and Kavchani and committed serious atrocities on Prevlaka
Prevlaka
in 1672.[citation needed] The town of Perast
Perast
had difficult moments in 1654 when the Ottomans attacked, retaliating against Bokeljs who had sunk an Ottoman ship. The Bokeljs' successful defence of Perast
Perast
and Boka received attention all over Europe. It attracted Petar Zrinski, a famous statesman in Europe who had fought dramatic battles with the Turks. During his three-day sojourn in Perast
Perast
he presented his legendary sword to the town in recognition for their efforts to defend their homeland, and to stop the Ottoman Empire.[citation needed] In 1669, according to Andrija Zmajević, hajduks of the Bay[8] wished to build a church, but were denied due to Zmajević's intervention on the providur of Kotor
Kotor
and captain of Perast.[9] Modern history[edit] At the beginning of the 19th century the region around the Bay was included in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy
Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy
and later in the Illyrian provinces, which were a part of the French Empire. The region was later conquered by Montenegro
Montenegro
with Russian help by Prince-Bishop
Prince-Bishop
Petar I Petrović Njegoš and, in 1813, a union of the bay area with Montenegro
Montenegro
was declared. In 1815, the bay was annexed by the Austrian Empire ( Austro-Hungary
Austro-Hungary
since 1867) and was included in the province of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(part of Cisleithania
Cisleithania
since 1867). In 1848, when the numerous revolutions sparked in the Austrian Empire, an Assembly of the Gulf of Kotor
Kotor
was held sponsored by Petar II Petrović-Njegoš
Petar II Petrović-Njegoš
of Montenegro, to decide on the proposition of Boka's unification with Croatian Ban Josip Jelačić
Josip Jelačić
in an attempt to unite Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia under the Habsburg crown. The Assembly brought the decision that "The Gulf of Kotor, according to its location, history, language and tribal majority belongs to Serbs". The Serb National Guard of Kotor
Kotor
however refused the proposition and Stefan Mitrov Ljubiša wrote in the name of the Assembly to the Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
in Zagreb
Zagreb
and to Njegoš that they refused the option to join Croatia, stating that they would rather first await the national unification of Serbs
Serbs
and then that of all South Slavs. He also stated that "The people of Boka Kotorska
Boka Kotorska
are pure Serbs". In the early 20th century Boka's character was considered Yugoslav.[citation needed] The Kingdom of Montenegro
Montenegro
attempted to take the bay during World War I. It was bombarded from Lovćen, but by 1916 Austro-Hungary
Austro-Hungary
had defeated Montenegro. On 7 November 1918 the Montenegrin army entered the bay and was greeted by the people as liberators. It became a part of the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. The State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs
Serbs
joined the Kingdom of Montenegro. Within a month, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
was formed and was renamed as Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1929. The bay was a municipality of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
until it was re-organized into smaller districts in 1922. It was incorporated into the Zeta Area and from 1939 Zeta Banate. After the assassination of King Alexander in Marseilles, nationalist Croat politicians talked of Croatian regional autonomy, the Croatian Banate, that was to include 8 settlements in Boka that hosted a Catholic
Catholic
majority. At that time, a little below a quarter of the population identified as Catholics, and the Croatian viewpoint was that the Boka Catholics were ethnic Croats. The Catholics have mainly adopted a Croat national identity.[citation needed] According to the 1910 census, the bay had 40,582 inhabitants, of whom 24,794 were Orthodox Christians
Orthodox Christians
and 14,523 Catholics.

Historic map of the Bay of Kotor

Bay of Kotor
Kotor
within the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in Austria-Hungary

The Bay region was occupied by the Italian Army in April 1941 and was included in the Italian Governatorato di Dalmazia
Governatorato di Dalmazia
until September 1943. Since 1945, it has been part of the Republic of Montenegro.[citation needed] Culture[edit] Most of the region's inhabitants are Orthodox Christians, declaring themselves on census forms as either Serbs
Serbs
or as Montenegrins, while a minority are Croatian. The Bay region is under the protection of UNESCO due to its rich cultural heritage.[citation needed] The Boka region has a long naval tradition and has harbored a strong naval fleet since the Middle Ages. The fleet peaked at 300 ships in the 18th century, when Boka was a rival to Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and Venice. On the landward side, long walls run from the fortified old town of Kotor
Kotor
to the castle of Saint John, far above; the heights of the Krivošije
Krivošije
(Krivoscie), a group of barren plateaus in Mount Orjen, were crowned by small forts. The shores of the bay Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
house the Orthodox convent of St. Sava near (Savina monastery) standing amid beautiful gardens. It was founded in the 16th century and contains many fine specimens of 17th century silversmiths' work. 12.87 km east of Herceg Novi, there is a Benedictine monastery on a small island opposite Perast (Perasto). Perast
Perast
itself was for a time an independent state in the 14th century.[citation needed] Religious buildings[edit] Today Boka has about 100 Catholic
Catholic
churches and chapels and about 200 Orthodox churches and chapels, as well as some Orthodox monasteries. The Cathedral of St. Trifun in Kotor
Kotor
is Boka's oldest cathedral, built in 1166. The churches of St. George and Lady of Škrpjel (near Perast) were built on two of the bay's islets in the first half of the 17th century. Demographics[edit]

Kotor
Kotor
and Boka kotorska

The Bokelj or Bokez (Бокељ, Бокез) people (pl. Бокељи, Bokelji, or Бокези, Bokezi) are the inhabitants of the Boka Kotorska (hence the name) and adjacent regions (near the towns of Kotor, Tivat, Herceg Novi, Risan, Perast).[10] They are an ethnic South Slavic community, many of whom nationally identify as Montenegrin, Serb or Croat, or others. Most are Eastern Orthodox, while some are Roman Catholics. By ethnicity, according to the 2011 Montenegrin population census, Boka had 41.89% Serbs, 34.68% Montenegrins
Montenegrins
and 7.61% Croats:[citation needed]

Budva
Budva
– 19,218:

Montenegrins
Montenegrins
– 9,262 (48.19%) Serbs
Serbs
– 7,247 (37.71%) Croats
Croats
– 167 (0.87%) Muslims – 113 (0.59%) Albanians
Albanians
– 100 (0.52%) Romas – 33 (0.17%) Bosniaks
Bosniaks
– 82 (0.43%) others – 460 (2.86%) undeclared – 1,150 (5.98%)

Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
– 30,864:

Serbs
Serbs
– 15,090 (48.89%) Montenegrins
Montenegrins
– 10,395 (33.68%) Croats
Croats
– 662 (2.14%) Romas – 259 (0,84%) Muslims – 160 (0,52%) Bosniaks
Bosniaks
– 74 (0,24%) Russians
Russians
– 118 (0,38%) Albanians
Albanians
– 41 (0,13%) others – 1,158 (4.06%) undeclared – 2,908 (9,42%)

Kotor
Kotor
– 23,481:

Montenegrins
Montenegrins
– 11,002 (46.85%) Serbs
Serbs
– 7,197 (30.65%) Croats
Croats
– 1,842 (7.84%) Muslims – 109 (0.46%) Albanians
Albanians
– 63 (0.27%) Romas – 36 (0.15%) Bosniaks
Bosniaks
– 17 (0.07%) others – 746 (3.18%) undeclared – 2,255 (9.6%) no data – 214 (0.93)

Tivat
Tivat
– 13,991:

Montenegrins
Montenegrins
– 4,666 (33.25%) Serbs
Serbs
– 4,435 (31.61%) Croats
Croats
– 2,304 (16.42%) Muslims – 114 (0.81%) Albanians
Albanians
– 97 (0.69%) Bosniaks
Bosniaks
– 96 (0.68%) Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs
– 61 (0.43%) Slovenes
Slovenes
– 57 (0.41%) Russians
Russians
– 56 (0.4%) Roma – 20 (0.14%) others – 500 (3.56%) undeclared – 1,275 (9.09%)

The four counties of Boka Kotorska
Boka Kotorska
have a total population of 71,443, comprising about 76% Orthodox Christians
Orthodox Christians
and 11% Catholic
Catholic
Christians:

Budva
Budva
– unknown Kotor
Kotor
– 23,481:

78% Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
Christians 13% Roman Catholic

Tivat
Tivat
– 13,991:

23% Roman Catholic

Herceg-Novi – 33,971:

84.28% Orthodox Christians 4% Roman Catholic

Boka[edit] Serbs
Serbs
& Montenegrins[edit] Slavic tribes settled around the Bay in the 7th century. The region was divided between tribes, the Docleans and the Travunians. Croats[edit] According to the 2003 Census the percentage of Croats
Croats
was 6.41%.[11] Notable[edit]

Matej Zmajević
Matej Zmajević
– shipbuilder Andrija Paltašić – typographer Nikola Modruški – bishop Krsto Čorko[12] – naval captain Petar Želalić[13] – naval captain Ivan Visin
Ivan Visin
– sailor Stjepan Mitrov Ljubiša
Stjepan Mitrov Ljubiša
– politician Rambo Amadeus
Rambo Amadeus
– singer St. Leopold Bogdan Mandić (1866–1942) blessed Ozana Kotorska (also known as Katarina Kosić, 1493–1565)

Gallery[edit]

Cathedral of Saint Tryphon (Sv. Tripun) in Kotor.

Saint-George and Our-Lady-of-the-Reef, two islands off Perast.

Church in Perast.

Bay of Kotor
Kotor
and Illyrian fortresses on the hills 1) Risan
Risan
2)Gosici 3)Kremalj (Mirac)

Kotor
Kotor
bay from St John Castle.

Ferry to village Kamenari

The ancient fortifications of Kotor

Panorama of the Bay of Kotor

Literature[edit]

Odjeci slavnih vremena – Tomislav Grgurević, Boka kotorska: Etnički sastav u razdoblju austrijske uprave (1814.-1918. g.),Ivan Crkvenčić, Antun Schaller, Hrvatski geografski glasnik 68/1, 51–72 (2006),

See also[edit]

Albania Veneta Crazy Vuk's border Croatian Civic Society of Montenegro Montenegrin Littoral Prevlaka

References[edit]

^ D Magaš. Natural-Geographic Characteristics of the Boka Kotosdka Area As the Basis of Development. Geoadria Vol. 7 No. 1, Croatian Geographical Society and University of Zadar Department of Geography, Zadar, 2002, pp. 53. ^ "Late Holocene Glacial History of Sólheimajökull, Southern Iceland" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-03-20.  ^ Hupchick, Dennis P. The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 1-4039-6417-3 ^ Rastko.org, Arheologija 13047 ^ J B Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene, Vol 2 L ^ Serbian studies, Volumes 2–3, p. 29 ^ De originibus Slavicis, Volume 1 By Johann Christoph von Jordan, p. 155 ^ Miloš Milošević (1988). Hajduci u Boki Kotorskoj 1648–1718. CANU.  ^ Marko Jačov (1992). Le Missioni cattoliche nei Balcani durante la Guerra di Candia (1645–1669). Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. pp. 709–. ISBN 978-88-210-0638-8.  ^ "[Projekat Rastko – Boka] Simo Matavulj – Boka i Bokelji". rastko.org.rs. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.  ^ http://www.monstat.org/EngPOPIS1.htm. Retrieved October 11, 2010.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ "Slavni "Kapetani Boke kotorske"". Radio DUX. Retrieved 31 May 2015.  ^ Petar Želalić famous naval captain, from Boka Kotorska
Boka Kotorska
Archived April 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bay of Kotor.

Coordinates: 42°26′N 18°38′E / 42.433°N 18.633°E / 42.433; 18.633

v t e

Regions in Montenegro

Banjani Bay of Kotor Bihor Bjelice Bjelopavlići Budva
Budva
Riviera Bukovica Bratonožići Brda Ceklin Cetinje Field Crmnica Cuce Dragalj Field Drobnjaci Grahovo Field Grbalj Gruda Hoti Lower Kolašin Upper Kolašin Krivošije Kuči Lukovo Field Lješanska nahija Malesija Maleševci Montenegrin Littoral Morača Mrkojevići Nikšić Njeguši Field Old Herzegovina Old Montenegro Paštrovići Piperi Piva Pješivci Podgora Plav-Gusinje Potarje Polimlje Rovca Sandžak Skadarska Krajina Šaranci Tuzi Vaso

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