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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The BAY OF KOTOR (Serbian : Бока Которска/Boka Kotorska) pronounced ; Italian : Bocche di Cattaro), known simply as BOKA ("the Bay"), is a winding bay of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in southwestern Montenegro .

The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor , Risan
Risan
, Tivat
Tivat
, Perast , Prčanj and Herceg Novi , along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor has been a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 1979.

Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic
Catholic
churches and monasteries make it a major pilgrimage site.

CONTENTS

* 1 Economy

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate * 2.2 Hydrology

* 3 History

* 3.1 Pre-Christian * 3.2 Middle Ages * 3.3 Fifteenth through seventeenth centuries * 3.4 Modern history

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Religious buildings

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Boka

* 5.1.1 Serbs
Serbs
"> Municipalities of the Bay of Kotor (Kotor, Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
and Tivat) within Montenegro
Montenegro
Perast and Bay of Kotor from Saint Nicholas' Church Bay of Kotor.

The bay is about 28 km long with a shoreline extending 107.3 km. It is surrounded by two massifs of the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
: the Orjen
Orjen
mountains to the west, and the Lovćen mountains to the east. The narrowest section of the bay, the 2300 m long Verige Strait, is only 340 m wide at its narrowest point. The bay is a ria of the vanished Bokelj River that used to run from the high mountain plateaus of Mount Orjen
Orjen
.

The bay is composed of several smaller broad bays, united by narrower channels. The bay inlet was formerly a river system. Tectonic and karstification processes led to the disintegration of this river. After heavy rains the waterfall of Sopot spring at Risan
Risan
appears, and Škurda, another well-known spring runs through a canyon from Lovćen.

The outermost part of the bay is the Bay of Tivat
Tivat
(Teodo). On the seaward side is the Bay of Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
(Castelnuovo), at the main entrance to the Bay of Kotor. The inner bays are the Bay of Risan
Risan
to the northwest and the Bay of Kotor to the southeast.

The Verige Strait represents the bay's narrowest section and is located between Cape St. Nedjelja and Cape Opatovo; it separates the inner bay east of the strait from the Bay of Tivat.

CLIMATE

The Bay lies within the Mediterranean and northwards the humid subtropical climate zone, but its peculiar topography and high mountains make it one of the wettest places in Europe, with Europe's wettest inhabited areas (although certain Icelandic glaciers are wetter ). The littoral Dinarids and the Prokletije
Prokletije
mountains receive the most precipitation, leading to small glaciers surviving well above the 0 °C (32 °F) mean annual isotherm . November thunderstorms sometimes drop large amounts of water. By contrast, in August the area is frequently completely dry, leading to forest fires . With a maximum discharge of 200 m³/s, one of the biggest karst springs , the Sopot spring, reflects this seasonal variation. Most of the time it is inactive but after heavy rain a remarkable waterfall appears 20 m above the Bay of Kotor.

STATION HEIGHT TYPE CHARACTER PRECIPITATION SNOW

ZUBACKI KABAO 1894 D perhumid Mediterranean snowclimate ca. 6250 ap. 140 days

CRKVICE 940 CFSB (fs= without summerdryness), perhumid Mediterranean mountain climate 4926 70 days

RISAN 0 CS’’A (s’’= double winter rain season), perhumid Mediterranean coast climate 3500 0.4 days

*classification scheme after Köppen

Two wind systems have ecological significance: Bora and Jugo . Strong cold downslope winds of the Bora type appear in winter and are most severe in the Bay of Risan. Gusts reach 250 km/h and can lead to a significant temperature decline over several hours with freezing events. Bora weather situations are frequent and sailors study the mountains as cap clouds indicate an imminent Bora event. Jugo is a warm humid wind and brings heavy rain. It appears throughout the year but is usually concentrated in autumn and spring.

Monthly and yearly precipitation ranges:

STATION PERIOD HEIGHT I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII I-XII

HERCEG NOVI 1961–1984 40 230 221 183 135 130 73 28 45 160 181 326 262 1974

RISAN 1961–1984 40 405 342 340 235 153 101 66 123 188 295 423 434 3105

GRAHOVO 1961–1984 710 351 324 305 251 142 94 55 103 202 416 508 473 3224

PODVRSNIK 1961–1984 630 407 398 367 305 151 101 77 132 238 465 593 586 3820

VRBANJ 1961–1984 1010 472 390 388 321 181 104 70 122 224 369 565 536 3742

KNEZLAZ 1961–1984 620 547 472 473 373 207 120 72 136 268 400 629 661 4358

CRKVICE 1961–1984 940 610 499 503 398 198 135 82 155 295 502 714 683 4774

IVAN. KORITA 1960–1984 1350 434 460 742 472 128 198 74 46 94 300 694 972 4614

GOLI VRH 1893–1913 1311 271 286 307 226 188 148 75 70 215 473 415 327 3129

JANKOV VRH 1890–1909 1017 424 386 389 346 212 124 55 58 202 484 579 501 3750

HYDROLOGY

* Hydrologic system: karst hydrology ca. 4000 km², Sopot, Škurda, submerged sources * Water area: 87 km² * Max depth: 60 m * Average depth: 27.3 m * Water content:24,12306 km³ (ca. 2.4 mrd m³) * Highest point: Orjen
Orjen
(1894 m) * Lowest point: sea surface (0 m) * Length: 28,13 km * Widest point: 7 km * Narrowest point: 0.3 km

HISTORY

PRE-CHRISTIAN

Churches in the Bay of Kotor: 1) from the 9th and 2) 10th and 11th century The Bay of Kotor within the Kingdom of Zeta in the 12th century

The nearby hamlet of Risan
Risan
was a thriving Illyrian city called Rhizon as early as 229 BC and gave its name to the bay, then known as Rhizonicus Sinus. Queen Teuta of Illyria
Illyria
retired from Shkodra to Rhizon. Rhizon eventually submitted to Rome
Rome
in 168 BC, at the same time that Acrivium, or Acruvium, the modern Kotor , was first mentioned.

MIDDLE AGES

The Sklavenoi , South Slavs
South Slavs
, settled in the Balkans in the 6th century. The Serbs
Serbs
, mentioned in the Royal Frankish Annals of the mid-9th century, controlled a great part of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
("Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur"). The Slavic, Montenegrin tribes, consolidated under the Vlastimirović dynasty (610–960). The two principalities of Doclea and Travunia
Travunia
were roughly adjacent at Boka. As elsewhere in the Balkans, Slavs
Slavs
mixed with the Roman population of these Byzantine coastal cities. The Theme of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was established in the 870s. According to De Administrando Imperio (ca. 960), Risan
Risan
was part of Travunia
Travunia
, a Serbian principality ruled by the Belojević family .

After the Great Schism of 1054, the coastal region was officially under the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(the West). In 1171, Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
sided with the Venetian Republic
Venetian Republic
in a dispute with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. The Venetians incited the Slavs
Slavs
of the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
littoral to rebel against Byzantine rule and Nemanja joined them, launching an offensive towards Kotor . The Bay was thenceforth under the rule of the Nemanjić dynasty . In 1195 Nemanja and his son Vukan constructed the Church of Saint Luka in Kotor. In 1219 Saint Sava
Saint Sava
founded the seat of the Eparchy of Zeta on Prevlaka , one of the eparchies of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
. The town of Kotor was under Nemanjić rule until ca. 1370 when itt became a part of the Kingdom of Bosnia
Kingdom of Bosnia
. Its merchant fleet and importance gradually increased, and after the fall of Serbia to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the late 14th century, Kotor was seized by the Venetian Republic. Part of the area was conquered by the Ottomans at the end of the 15th century, and the Venetian Republic held the southern part including Kotor. The Ottoman part was retaken at the end of the 17th century and the whole area became part of the Venetian Republic, with the name of Albania Veneta . Until the 20th century the difference between the two parts was visible because the former Ottoman part had an Orthodox majority, while the part that was under Venetian rule had a Catholic
Catholic
majority.

FIFTEENTH THROUGH SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES

With the Ottoman expansion in the Balkans and fall of Serbian statehood in the 15th century, Venetians started to expand into the Bay. The plurality of Boka's citizens were Serbian Orthodox , under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitanate of Zeta . Venetian rule brought Italian language
Italian language
and culture to Boka, which was partially accepted by its population. Throughout Venetian rule, repeated assimilation attempts of the Slavs
Slavs
failed. In 1451 and 1455 the Venetian Doge issued orders to the Bishop of Kotor to work to convert the Orthodox under his jurisdiction and to confiscate their property. The Venetian governor of Kotor banished all Orthodox from Bogdashich and Kavchani and committed serious atrocities on Prevlaka in 1672.

The town of Perast had difficult moments in 1654 when the Ottomans attacked, retaliating against Bokeljs who had sunk an Ottoman ship. The Bokeljs' successful defence of Perast and Boka received attention all over Europe. It attracted Petar Zrinski , a famous statesman in Europe who had fought dramatic battles with the Turks. During his three-day sojourn in Perast he presented his legendary sword to the town in recognition for their efforts to defend their homeland, and to stop the Ottoman Empire.

In 1669, according to Andrija Zmajević , hajduks of the Bay wished to build a church, but were denied due to Zmajević's intervention on the providur of Kotor and captain of Perast.

MODERN HISTORY

At the beginning of the 19th century the region around the Bay was included in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and later in the Illyrian provinces , which were a part of the French Empire . The region was later conquered by Montenegro
Montenegro
with Russian help by Prince-Bishop
Prince-Bishop
Petar I Petrović Njegoš and, in 1813, a union of the bay area with Montenegro
Montenegro
was declared. In 1815, the bay was annexed by the Austrian Empire ( Austro-Hungary
Austro-Hungary
since 1867) and was included in the province of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(part of Cisleithania
Cisleithania
since 1867). In 1848, when the numerous revolutions sparked in the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
, an Assembly of the Gulf of Kotor was held sponsored by Petar II Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro, to decide on the proposition of Boka's unification with Croatian Ban Josip Jelačić in an attempt to unite Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, Croatia and Slavonia under the Habsburg crown. The Assembly brought the decision that "The Gulf of Kotor, according to its location, history, language and tribal majority belongs to Serbs". The Serb National Guard of Kotor however refused the proposition and Stefan Mitrov Ljubiša wrote in the name of the Assembly to the Croatian Parliament in Zagreb
Zagreb
and to Njegoš that they refused the option to join Croatia, stating that they would rather first await the national unification of Serbs
Serbs
and then that of all South Slavs. He also stated that "The people of Boka Kotorska
Boka Kotorska
are pure Serbs". In the early 20th century Boka's character was considered Yugoslav .

The Kingdom of Montenegro
Montenegro
attempted to take the bay during World War I . It was bombarded from Lovćen , but by 1916 Austro-Hungary
Austro-Hungary
had defeated Montenegro. On 7 November 1918 the Montenegrin army entered the bay and was greeted by the people as liberators. It became a part of the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs
Serbs
. The State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs
Serbs
joined the Kingdom of Montenegro
Montenegro
. Within a month, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed and was renamed as Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1929. The bay was a municipality of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
until it was re-organized into smaller districts in 1922. It was incorporated into the Zeta Area and from 1939 Zeta Banate. After the assassination of King Alexander in Marseilles, nationalist Croat politicians talked of Croatian regional autonomy, the Croatian Banate , that was to include 8 settlements in Boka that hosted an Catholic
Catholic
majority. At that time, a little below a quarter of the population identified as Catholics, and the Croatian viewpoint was that the Boka Catholics were ethnic Croats
Croats
. The Catholics have mainly adopted a Croat national identity.

According to the 1910 census, the bay had 40,582 inhabitants, of whom 24,794 were Orthodox Christians
Orthodox Christians
and 14,523 Catholics. Historic map of the Bay of Kotor Bay of Kotor within the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary

The Bay region was occupied by the Italian Army in April 1941 and was included in the Italian Governatorato di Dalmazia until September 1943. Since 1945, it has been part of the Republic of Montenegro
Montenegro
.

CULTURE

Most of the region's inhabitants are Orthodox Christians
Orthodox Christians
, declaring themselves on census forms as either Serbs
Serbs
or as Montenegrins, while a minority are Croatian. The Bay region is under the protection of UNESCO due to its rich cultural heritage.

The Boka region has a long naval tradition and has harbored a strong naval fleet since the Middle Ages. The fleet peaked at 300 ships in the 18th century, when Boka was a rival to Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and Venice
Venice
.

On the landward side, long walls run from the fortified old town of Kotor to the castle of Saint John, far above; the heights of the Krivošije
Krivošije
(Krivoscie), a group of barren plateaus in Mount Orjen, were crowned by small forts.

The shores of the bay Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
house the Orthodox convent of St. Sava near (Savina monastery) standing amid beautiful gardens. It was founded in the 16th century and contains many fine specimens of 17th century silversmiths' work. 12.87 km east of Herceg Novi, there is a Benedictine monastery on a small island opposite Perast (Perasto). Perast itself was for a time an independent state in the 14th century.

RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS

Today Boka has about 100 Catholic
Catholic
churches and chapels and about 200 Orthodox churches and chapels, as well as some Orthodox monasteries. The Cathedral of St. Trifun in Kotor is Boka's oldest cathedral, built in 1166. The churches of St. George and Lady of Škrpjel (near Perast) were built on two of the bay's islets in the first half of the 17th century.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Kotor and Boka kotorska

The BOKELJ or BOKEZ (Бокељ, Бокез) people (pl. Бокељи, Bokelji, or Бокези, Bokezi) are the inhabitants of the Boka Kotorska
Boka Kotorska
(hence the name) and adjacent regions (near the towns of Kotor , Tivat
Tivat
, Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
, Risan
Risan
, Perast ). They are an ethnic South Slavic community, many of whom nationally identify as Montenegrin, Serb or Croat, or others. Most are Eastern Orthodox, while some are Roman Catholics.

By ethnicity , according to the 2011 Montenegrin population census, Boka had 41.89% Serbs, 34.68% Montenegrins and 7.61% Croats:

* Budva
Budva
– 19,218:

* Montenegrins – 9,262 (48.19%) * Serbs
Serbs
– 7,247 (37.71%) * Croats
Croats
– 167 (0.87%) * Muslims – 113 (0.59%) * Albanians
Albanians
– 100 (0.52%) * Romas – 33 (0.17%) * Bosniaks
Bosniaks
– 82 (0.43%) * others – 460 (2.86%) * undeclared – 1,150 (5.98%)

* Herceg Novi
Herceg Novi
– 30,864:

* Serbs
Serbs
– 15,090 (48.89%) * Montenegrins – 10,395 (33.68%) * Croats
Croats
– 662 (2.14%) * Romas – 259 (0,84%) * Muslims – 160 (0,52%) * Bosniaks
Bosniaks
– 74 (0,24%) * Russians
Russians
– 118 (0,38%) * Albanians
Albanians
– 41 (0,13%) * others – 1,158 (4.06%) * undeclared – 2,908 (9,42%)

* Kotor – 23,481:

* Montenegrins – 11,002 (46.85%) * Serbs
Serbs
– 7,197 (30.65%) * Croats
Croats
– 1,842 (7.84%) * Muslims – 109 (0.46%) * Albanians
Albanians
– 63 (0.27%) * Romas – 36 (0.15%) * Bosniaks
Bosniaks
– 17 (0.07%) * others – 746 (3.18%) * undeclared – 2,255 (9.6%) * no data – 214 (0.93)

* Tivat
Tivat
– 13,991:

* Montenegrins – 4,666 (33.25%) * Serbs
Serbs
– 4,435 (31.61%) * Croats
Croats
– 2,304 (16.42%) * Muslims – 114 (0.81%) * Albanians
Albanians
– 97 (0.69%) * Bosniaks
Bosniaks
– 96 (0.68%) * Yugoslavs – 61 (0.43%) * Slovenes
Slovenes
– 57 (0.41%) * Russians
Russians
– 56 (0.4%) * Roma – 20 (0.14%) * others – 500 (3.56%) * undeclared – 1,275 (9.09%)

The four counties of Boka Kotorska
Boka Kotorska
have a total population of 71,443, comprising about '76% Orthodox Christians
Orthodox Christians
and 11% Catholic
Catholic
Christians :

* Budva
Budva
– unknown

* Kotor – 23,481:

* 78% Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
Christians * 13% Roman Catholic

* Tivat
Tivat
– 13,991:

* 23% Roman Catholic

* Herceg-Novi – 33,971:

* 84.28% Orthodox Christians * 4% Roman Catholic

BOKA

Serbs
Serbs
18.63

CRITERIA i, ii, iii, iv

REFERENCE 125

INSCRIPTION 1979 (3rd Session )

EXTENSIONS 1979–2003

Location of Bay of Kotor

NOTABLE

* Matej Zmajević – shipbuilder * Andrija Paltašić – typographer * Nikola Modruški – bishop * Krsto Čorko – naval captain * Petar Želalić – naval captain * Ivan Visin – sailor * Stjepan Mitrov Ljubiša – politician * Rambo Amadeus – singer * St. Leopold Bogdan Mandić (1866–1942) * blessed Ozana Kotorska (also known as Katarina Kosić, 1493–1565)

GALLERY

*

Cathedral of Saint Tryphon (Sv. Tripun) in Kotor . *

Saint-George and Our-Lady-of-the-Reef, two islands off Perast . *

Church in Perast . *

Bay of Kotor and Illyrian fortresses on the hills 1) Risan
Risan
2)Gosici 3)Kremalj (Mirac) *

Kotor bay from St John Castle. *

Ferry to village Kamenari *

The ancient fortifications of