The Info List - Bavarian Circle

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The Bavarian Circle
Bavarian Circle
(German: Bayerischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. The most significant state by far in the circle was the Duchy of Bavaria (raised to an Electorate by Emperor Ferdinand II in 1623) with the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
territories. Other Imperial Estates like the Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg, the Prince-Bishoprics of Freising, Passau and Regensburg
as well as the Imperial city of Regensburg, seat of the Imperial Diet from 1663, had a secondary importance. Composition[edit] The circle was made up of the following states:

Name Type of entity Comments

Bavaria Duchy Established in 907, held by the House of Wittelsbach
House of Wittelsbach
from 1180, Bavaria-Munich
and Bavaria-Landshut
reunited in 1506, annexed the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
from the Electoral Palatinate
Electoral Palatinate
in 1628 along with the electoral dignity, inherited as a whole by the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1777.

Berchtesgaden Prince-Provostry Established in 1111, Reichsfreiheit granted by Frederick I Barbarossa in 1156.

Breitenegg Lordship Granted to Johann Tserclaes de Tilly by Elector Maximilian I of Bavaria in 1624, Imperial county from 1654, sold to Bavaria in 1792.

Ehrenfels Lordship Territory around Beratzhausen, Reichsfreiheit granted by Frederick III of Habsburg in 1465, acquired by Palatinate-Neuburg
in 1567.

Freising Prince-Bishopric Established by Saint Corbinian
in 724, Prince-Bishopric from 1294

Haag County Reichsfreiheit granted by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen in 1245, Imperial county from 1509, held by the Dukes of Bavaria from 1567.

Hohenwaldeck Lordship Former Freising territory, Reichsfreiheit granted by Frederick III of Habsburg in 1476, county from 1637, to Bavaria in 1734

Leuchtenberg Landgraviate Established about 1146, principality from 1433, inherited by the House of Wittelsbach in 1646, to Bavaria in 1712.

Niedermünster in Regensburg Prince-Abbacy Established about 788, Reichsfreiheit granted by Henry II in 1002.

Obermünster in Regensburg Prince-Abbacy Established before 876, Reichsfreiheit granted by Louis IV of Wittelsbach in 1315.

Ortenburg County Established about 1120, Reichsfreiheit confirmed in 1479 by Frederick III of Habsburg.

Palatinate-Neuburg Duchy Wittelsbach territory established in 1505 after the Landshut War of Succession, inherited the Palatinate in 1685, line extinct in 1742, inherited by Palatinate-Sulzbach.

Palatinate-Sulzbach Duchy Subdivision of Palatinate-Neuburg
from 1656, heir of Palatinate-Neuburg
and Electoral Palatinate
Electoral Palatinate
in 1742, both united with Bavaria in 1777.

Passau Prince-Bishopric Established in 739 by Saint Boniface, Reichsfreiheit granted by Otto III in 999.

Regensburg Prince-Bishopric Established in 739 by Saint Boniface, Imperial immediacy
Imperial immediacy
from the 13th century

Regensburg Imperial City Since 1245.

Salzburg Prince-Archbishopric Bihopric established in 696 by Saint Rupert, archbishopric from 798, prince-archbishopric from 1213.

St Emmeram in Regensburg Prince-Abbacy Established in 739, held by the Bishops of Regensburg
until 975, Reichsfreiheit granted by Adolph of Nassau in 1295.

Störnstein Lordship Fief of the Bohemian Crown, raised to county and granted to the House of Lobkowicz by Ferdinand I of Habsburg in 1562, gained Reichsfreiheit in 1641.

Sulzbürg-Pyrbaum Lordship Held by the House of Wolfstein, Reichsfreiheit confirmed in 1353, county from 1673, fell to Bavaria in 1740.

External links[edit]

Imperial Circles in the 16th Century – Historical Maps of Germany

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Bavarian Circle
Bavarian Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire


Berchtesgaden Freising Niedermünster Obermünster Passau Regensburg Salzburg St. Emmeram


Bavaria Breitenegg Ehrenfels Haag Hohenwaldeck Leuchtenberg Neuburg Ortenburg Regensburg Störnstein Sulzbach Sulzbürg-Pyrbaum

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

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Circles of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
after the Imperial Reform

Created in 1500

Bavarian Franconian Westphalian (Lower Rhenish-Westphalian) Lower Saxon Swabian Upper Rhenish

Created in 1512

Austrian Burgundian Electoral Rhenish Upper Saxon


Territories of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
outside th