Battle of Wattignies
Battle of Wattignies (15–16 October 1793) saw a Republican
French army commanded by
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan attack a Coalition army
directed by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After two days of
combat Jourdan's troops compelled the Habsburg Austrian covering force
led by François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt
to withdraw. The
War of the First Coalition
War of the First Coalition victory allowed the French
to raise the Siege of Maubeuge. At a time when failed generals were
often executed or imprisoned, Jourdan had to endure interference from
Lazare Carnot from the Committee of Public Safety. The village,
Wattignies-la-Victoire in honor of the important success, is
located 9 kilometres (6 mi) southeast of Maubeuge.
Coburg's main army encircled 25,000 French soldiers in
about 22,000 Austrians under Clerfayt were formed in a semi-circle,
covering the southern approaches to the fortress. On the first day,
45,000 French soldiers mounted a clumsy attack which was easily
repulsed, except near the village of Wattignies. On the second day,
Jourdan concentrated half his army at Wattignies and after a tough
fight, forced Coburg to concede defeat. Though the Coalition army was
better trained than the French, its units were spread out too thinly
and the different nationalities failed to cooperate. Soon the
Coalition army went into winter quarters, finishing a campaign that
started with great promise and ended in disappointment. Carnot rewrote
history so that he and the political representatives got most of the
credit for the triumph; Jourdan was dismissed in January 1794.
2.1 French deployment
2.2 Blockade of Maubeuge
2.3 French reaction
3.1 15 October
3.2 16 October
In the summer of 1793, the 118,000-strong Coalition army punched a gap
in the line of French fortresses along the frontier with the Austrian
Netherlands, with the Siege of Condé concluding on 12 July and the
Siege of Valenciennes on 27 July. In the Battle of Caesar's Camp,
the Coalition army under
Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld hustled
the French Army of the North out of a position near
Cambrai on 7
August. At this moment, the Coalition allies unwisely split their
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany headed west toward
Dunkirk with 37,000 British, Austrians, Hanoverians and Hessians.
From 6–8 September 1793, the Army of the North under Jean Nicolas
Houchard defeated the
Dunkirk covering force in the Battle of
Hondschoote, compelling the Duke of York to give up the Siege of
Dunkirk. This was followed by the Battle of Menin on 13 September,
in which the French routed a Dutch corps under Prince William of
Orange. The Dutch suffered 3,000 casualties and lost 40 field pieces
in the disaster. Two days later, an Austrian corps led by Johann Peter
Beaulieu routed the French and recaptured
Coburg's main army concluded the Siege of Le Quesnoy on 13 September
1793, taking 4,000 French troops prisoner. Two French columns
attempted to raise the siege but failed, one of the columns being
nearly wiped out by Coalition cavalry in the Battle of Avesnes-le-Sec.
Though Coburg might have easily seized
Cambrai and Bouchain, which had
been stripped of their garrisons to form the relief columns, the
Coalition commander chose to move against
Maubeuge instead. For
these defeats, Houchard was arrested on 23 September and incarcerated
in a common prison. Denounced as a coward and a traitor by the
Revolutionary Tribunal, he was executed by guillotine on 16
November. His predecessor in command of the Army of the North, Adam
Philippe, Comte de Custine had been guillotined on 27 August 1793.
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan had been wounded at
Hondschoote and was named to
Army of the Ardennes on 9 September 1793. He was appointed
provisional commander in chief of the Army of the North on 22
September 1793. When Jourdan protested that he lacked the experience
to command the 104,000-man army, the representatives on mission
notified him that refusal would result in his arrest. The new
commander found that he must respond to the Coalition's move against
Maubeuge. Coburg's army began the Siege of
Maubeuge on 30
On 1 October 1793, Jourdan's large army was distributed across a broad
front in four great masses, starting at the
North Sea and running
Joseph Souham at
Dunkirk commanded 8,852 infantry in 17
battalions and 430 cavalry in one regiment and André Gigaux at
Hondschoote had 7,269 infantry in 15 battalions. Near Cassel,
Dominique Vandamme led 8,984 foot soldiers in 19 battalions and 325
horsemen in one regiment, while Charles François Filon led 3,705 foot
soldiers in nine battalions. At Bailleul there were 4,166 infantry in
10 battalions. The second mass started at Armentières, where there
were 9,644 foot in 19 battalions and 1,338 horse in four regiments. At
the Camp of Madelaine near Lille, Antoine Anne Lecourt de Berú
directed 13,564 infantry in 28 battalions and 817 Chasseurs à Cheval,
in three regiments. Pierre Guillaume Gratien at Mons-en-Pévèle
led 3,521 infantry in nine battalions.
The third mass was located at the Camp of
Arras. Commanded by Jourdan, the force included the Flankers of
the Right with 6,048 foot in 15 battalions and 1,602 horse in five
regiments and the Flankers of the Left with 6,821 infantry in 14
battalions and 1,323 cavalry in three regiments. The Advance Guard
consisted of 4,821 foot in eight battalions and 1,901 horse in five
regiments; the Center Division was made up of 4,077 infantry in six
battalions and 428 cavalry in two regiments, with two battalions of
732 men guarding the wagon train. Jacques Ferrand commanded the
fourth mass, which was in the
Maubeuge entrenched camp.
Second-in-command was Jean Nestor de Chancel. The fortress
garrison under Étienne Gudin counted 2,173 soldiers. Pierre Arnould
Meyer's right brigade numbered 6,992 men including the 7th and 12th
Dragoons, Joseph-Antoine Colomb's center brigade had 6,802 men and
Jacques Desjardin's left brigade consisted of 8,140 men including the
1st Hussars; altogether Ferrand commanded 24,107 soldiers.
Blockade of Maubeuge
Prince of Coburg
At dawn on 29 September, a column under François Sébastien Charles
Joseph de Croix,
Count of Clerfayt
Count of Clerfayt crossed the
Sambre at Berlaimont,
southwest of Maubeuge. To the northeast, Franz Vincenz von Hoditz's
column crossed the river near Pont-sur-
Sambre and a third column led
by Nikolaus von Colloredo-Mels crossed the
Sambre at Hautmont. In a
series of skirmishes, the three Austrian columns pressed east, finally
driving Desjardin's troops into the
Maubeuge entrenched camp, with
losses of 150 men and two cannons. To the east of Maubeuge,
Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour
Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour crossed
Marpent and Jeumont. A column under Alexander
Friedrich von Seckendorf crossed near
Merbes-le-Château farther east.
These forces forced Meyer's troops in disorder back within Maubeuge,
which was isolated.
Coburg split his forces into a 26,000-man Siege Army directed by the
Prince of Orange and an Army of Observation. The Siege Army consisted
of 14,000 Austrians under Colloredo south of the
Sambre and 12,000
Dutch under Orange north of the river. Colloredo's force included 16
battalions, 10 companies and eight squadrons. The Army of Observation
totaled 25,550 infantry and 12,150 cavalry, distributed in three main
divisions. Franz Xaver von Wenckheim commanded 7,250 foot and 4,200
horse, west of the
Sambre in the Forêt de Mormal. Hoditz directed
9,300 foot and 3,750 horse on the east of
Maubeuge and Clerfayt led
9,000 foot and 4,200 horse on the south side of Maubeuge. Clerfayt
divided his corps into three groups under Count Heinrich von
Bellegarde, Joseph Binder von Degenschild and Ludwig von Terzi.
The Coalition forces began constructing extensive siege works around
Maubeuge. On the first day, the French garrison sortied against the
Cense de Château but were repulsed after stiff fighting.
supplied for a normal garrison but far too many soldiers were trapped
there. On 10 October, Ferrand had to put the troops on half-rations,
while hundreds of sick and dying soldiers crowded the hospitals. On
the 13 October, the French enjoyed initial success in a sortie against
the Bois du Tilleul, but troops sent out to help mistakenly fired on
their own friends and the French were compelled to retreat. The
Coalition established batteries of 20 24-pound cannons against the
town. After the Coalition army opened its bombardment on the night of
14 October, the morale of the garrison sank. When some soldiers
complained to Chancel that they were hungry and tired he replied,
"Listen young men, it takes a lot of work and privation in order to
gain the honor to fight and die for your country." Representative
Jean-Baptiste Drouet tried to cut his way out of
Maubeuge with some
dragoons but was captured. Denounced for abandoning the place, Drouet
claimed his escape would have raised the spirits of the garrison.
Leaving 10,000 soldiers in the Camp of
Gavrelle to support Bouchain
and Cambrai, Jourdan immediately moved to the relief of
the remaining 20,000 men. He also called in 12,000 reinforcements from
the Camp de Madelaine and 10,000 more from farther north. Without
waiting for the troops from the north, Jourdan assembled a division
under Jacques Fromentin. Leaving the camp on 3 October, it arrived at
Guise on the 6th. That same day Antoine Balland's division left the
Gavrelle and reached
Guise on 9 October. Berú promptly sent
Gratien's brigade and other units from
Lille and Mons-en-Pévèle,
this body of 11,701 soldiers was assigned to Florent Joseph
Left wing commander Jean-Baptiste Davaine sent 9,012 troops under
Martin Jean Carrion de Loscondes which arrived at
Guise on 10 October.
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety placed the Army of Ardennes under
Jourdan's control on 2 October. The army's commander Ferrand was
Maubeuge and orders were sent for one detachment to operate
from Philippeville. A motley force of 4,263 men was assembled under
Pierre Raphaël Paillot de Beauregard
Pierre Raphaël Paillot de Beauregard and reached Fourmies on 11
October. The next day, several units from the north joined
Beauregard's division. Jourdan's army shifted east from
Avesnes-sur-Helpe between 11 and 13 October.
On 14 October, Jourdan and
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety member Lazare
Carnot reconnoitered the Coalition front south of Maubeuge. The
numerical strength of the army was 37,906 infantry and 6,370 cavalry
for a grand total of 44,276, with the troops distributed as follows.
Fromentin's division numbered 7,357 men including 1,495 cavalry.
Carrion's division, now under Étienne Jean-François
Cordellier-Delanoüe, counted 6,866 troops including 668 horsemen.
Balland's division consisted of 13,294 soldiers, of which 1,440 were
cavalry. Duquesnoy's division had 10,906 men including 1,960 mounted
troops. Beauregard's division comprised 5,853 troops of which 837 were
Ramsay Weston Phipps remarked that
Beauregard's men were "bad troops under a bad General".
The Austrian covering force was entrenched and though Clerfayt was in
nominal command, Coburg was on the scene and in control of the battle.
Coburg was so certain of success that he was supposed to have said
that if he were defeated, he would become a sans-culotte. This story
made the rounds in the French army and made its soldiers eager to make
the Coalition commander wear trousers.
On the morning of 15 October, Bellegarde held the Coalition right
flank with about 5,000 troops in three battalions of foot and 16
squadrons of horse. The extreme right touched the
Berlaimont. Clerfayt defended the center with 9,200 soldiers, deployed
along a west-to-east line of villages. Supported by division
Franz Joseph, Count Kinsky
Franz Joseph, Count Kinsky and Joseph Karl von Lilien,
Clerfayt controlled five battalions of grenadiers, five battalions of
regulars, 1⁄3 battalion of Croats, four infantry companies and 12
cavalry squadrons. Terzi was posted on the left flank at Wattignies
with 4,000 men in three battalions of foot and 12 squadrons of horse.
The extreme left at
Obrechies was defended by Karl Joseph Hadik von
Futak and 2,100 soldiers. Far to the east at Beaumont, Johann
Andreas Benjowsky commanded 4,000 troops organized as three battalions
and 12 squadrons.
From right to left the French divisions were Beauregard at
Solre-le-Château, Duquesnoy on the main road from Avesnes-sur-Helpe,
Balland in reserve at Avesnelles, Cordellier at La Capelle and
Fromentin at Dompierre-sur-Helpe. Duquesnoy and Beauregard moved to
attack Wattignies, while Fromentin advanced against the Austrian right
flank. Jourdan enjoyed a two-to-one superiority and the Coalition
generals had to be anxious about the 20,000 French soldiers at
On the right, Beauregard's men left
Solre-le-Château at 7:00 am. Near
Obrechies, four squadrons of Austrian cavalry charged them and drove
them off, with the loss of three field guns. Duquesnoy's division
departed Flaumont at 6:00 am and marched through Beugnies,
Dimechaux. Supported by a plentiful artillery, the French infantry
drove two Austrian battalions out of Wattignies, but as the French
poured out of the other side of the village they were met by an
infantry-cavalry counterattack. Duquesnoy's soldiers abandoned
Wattignies and retreated to
Dimechaux and Dimont.
On the far left, Cordellier's division advanced on Leval and
Monceau-Saint-Waast while farther east, Fromentin's division attacked
Saint-Remy-Chaussée and Saint-Aubin. Bellegarde's cannons
opened fire in mid-morning, starting a mutual bombardment. The French
infantry crossed a ravine and grappled for possession of Saint-Aubin
village with a Croatian infantry battalion. In the afternoon
Bellegarde launched a counterattack led by Austrian regular infantry,
while two regiments of cavalry swept down on the French left flank.
The Austrians captured eight French cannon and caused the French to
flee to the safety of the ravine.
In the center, Clerfayt deployed five grenadier battalions in the
villages of Dourlers, Mont-Dourlers,
Floursies and along the Monceau
Road. This east–west sunken road was located on a reverse slope,
just south of Dourlers. The French Royalists and some Croatians
guarded the forest to the east, while the Croatian battalion fought to
the west at Saint-Aubin. The remaining battalions of Austrian regular
foot and all the horse occupied a ridge behind the line of
Jourdan, Carnot and Representative Ernest Dominique François Joseph
Duquesnoy accompanied Balland's division in the center. The army
commander planned to wait for the attacks of his two wings to make
significant progress before launching the attack of Balland's
division. In mid-morning, the division filed out of the woods in front
Dourlers and opened fire with its artillery. Seeing the initial
success of the two wings, Carnot wanted the attack to be started at
once. Jourdan wanted more ground to be gained on the flanks but the
politician would not be denied. Finally, Jourdan put himself at the
head of Balland's division and ordered the assault. As the French
soldiers came over the crest of the ridge in front on the sunken road,
they came under murderous fire from the crack Austrian grenadiers.
Despite heroic attempts to get light artillery forward, cannons were
dismounted and gunners and horses were shot down. In the thick of the
bullets, Jourdan bravely urged his troops on but an Austrian force
appeared from the direction of Saint-Aubin, threatening the French
left flank. At nightfall the representatives authorized a retreat
after Balland's division had lost between 1,200 and 1,500
During the night, French deserters wrongly reported to the Austrians
that Jourdan was reinforced to 100,000 men. Believing he was going to
be attacked again, Coburg reinforced his covering force by five
battalions of about 3,750 men and rearranged his defenses. On the
left, Terzi had 5,250 foot soldiers in seven regular battalions and
2,100 cavalry in 14 squadrons. The center under Clerfayt counted 6,650
foot and 1,800 horse. This force was made up of five grenadier
battalions, two regular battalions, 1⁄3 of a battalion of Croats,
four companies and six squadrons of French Royalists and six squadrons
of cuirassiers. Bellegarde's right wing was composed of 4,500 infantry
in seven regular battalions and 2,100 light cavalry in 14 squadrons.
Altogether, the covering force numbered about 16,400 infantry and
According to Carnot, he argued that Wattignies on the Austrian left
was the key to the position but that Jourdan wanted to attack the
Austrian right. Phipps believed that Carnot's account was nonsense
and that the course of the battle was typical of Jourdan's tactics.
Jourdan's account only stated that he gave the order to attack
Wattignies. Fromentin on the left was instructed not to mount a
serious attack. Cordellier was ordered to act under Fromentin's orders
and also reinforce Balland with three battalions and a cavalry
regiment. Balland was directed to place nine battalions plus two
cavalry regiments at Jourdan's disposal. The rest of Balland's
division was to form line of battle and use its light troops to probe
the enemy positions. The divisions of Beauregard and Duquesnoy
numbered 16,000 soldiers, to these, Jourdan's special force added
about 6,000 men.
On 16 October, Fromentin's two divisions on the left flank and
Balland's division in the center skirmished all day. Bellegarde and
Clefayt held the bulk of their strength in their main positions.
Jourdan mounted the main French assault against the height of
Wattignies in three columns from Dimont,
Dimechaux and Choisies.
The main attack was also supported by additional artillery. When
an early morning fog lifted in mid-morning, the French artillery
opened a barrage on Wattignies. Duquesnoy's division formed the two
right columns while Jourdan's detachment made up the left column.
After being driven back twice by heavy fire, the French columns forced
their way into Wattignies in the early afternoon. A counterattack from
the northwest briefly pushed back the French, who were rallied by
Jourdan. More French troops came up and defeated the Austrian attack.
Duquesnoy sent Gratien's brigade forward but it was caught by Austrian
cavalry in the open and thrown back. By this time, the French had
dragged a battery up to the Wattignies heights to support the
infantry. Under pressure from infantry and artillery, Terzi's division
recoiled to the north. On the right of Duquesnoy, Beauregard's
division attacked Obrechies, which was defended by Hadik with two
battalions of regulars and eight squadrons of cavalry. As the French
began breaking into the village, Hadik launched attacks from three
directions at once, routing Beauregard's men. The French abandoned
five cannon and fled back to Solrinnes. According to one observer,
they did not stop until they reached Solre-le-Château.
Far to the east, a column of French conscripts under Jacob Job Élie,
set out from
Philippeville toward Beaumont. In the early hours of 16
October, they were attacked by Coalition troops and fled. Élie
managed to rally his soldiers and arrange them in two lines near
Boussu-lez-Walcourt. At dawn when the Austrians attacked again, the
second line fired a volley into the backs of the first line and all
the infantry took to their heels.
Louis Henri Loison
Louis Henri Loison capably covered
the retreat with the French cavalry, saving the foot soldiers from
being cut to pieces. As it was, Élie lost 400 men and 12 artillery
pieces, while only 138 casualties were suffered by Benjowsky's
Duke of York
Prepared for a long battle, Jourdan reinforced Duquesnoy's division at
Wattignies and ordered it to entrench. The Duke of York arrived from
the northwest with 3,500 men to reinforce Coburg. The Austrian
commander-in-chief had plenty of soldiers but the Prince of Orange
denied a request to send any of his soldiers to the south side of the
Sambre. Fearful of a sortie by the large garrison of Maubeuge,
Coburg lifted the siege and retreated across the river at
Buissière. Chancel recommended an attack on the retreating army but
Ferrand declined to intervene. The
Maubeuge garrison made a weak
sortie on 15 October but remained inert the next day. On 17 October,
the garrison sent out a column to the south to meet with Jourdan,
instead of to the north after the retreating Coalition forces.
The Coalition reported losses of 365 killed, 1,753 wounded and 369
captured or missing, a total of 2,487 casualties. French losses were
estimated at 3,000. Another authority numbered French losses as
5,000 killed, wounded and missing. The Austrians sustained 2,500
killed and wounded while an additional 500 men were captured. A
third source also gave casualty figures of 5,000 French and 3,000
Austrians and added that the French lost 27 artillery pieces. A
fourth source estimated losses as 3,000 on each side. For the poor
performance of the
Maubeuge garrison, Chancel was blamed, arrested,
convicted and guillotined. For the rout of his brigade, Gratien
was arrested but eventually acquitted. Claude Lecourbe
distinguished himself in the attack on Wattignies on 16 October.
Édouard Mortier was wounded at
Dourlers on 15 October.
Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte fought in Balland's division and Michel Ney
was probably in Fromentin's division.
Jourdan did not follow up his victory; after adding the Maubeuge
garrison, he had about 60,000 French soldiers, opposed by 65,000
well-entrenched Coalition troops on the north bank of the Sambre, from
Solesmes on the west to
Thuin on the east. Though there was time for
more operations, Coburg moved his army into winter quarters. While
Jourdan was with the right wing of the Army of the North, the
operations of the left wing under Davaine failed. Davaine was
tried and executed at the same time as Chancel.
In Paris, Carnot demanded an advance on
Charleroi and Jourdan tried to
comply but found that the Coalition held all the river crossings and
heavy rain had ruined the roads. After threatening to resign on 4
November, the army commander was recalled to Paris to speak with the
Committee of Public Safety. This was the usual prelude to arrest and
execution but Jourdan was allowed to return to the army and put his
soldiers in winter quarters. After reinforcing the Army of the
West and the
Army of the Moselle
Army of the Moselle each with 10,000 men, time was wasted
in denouncing generals Duquesnoy, Meyer and Gudin. On 10 January 1794,
Jourdan was accused of not protecting the frontier and summoned again
to Paris. He was passionately defended by Representative Duquesnoy
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety and only dismissed from the
The Carnot version of history is evident in the Encyclopædia
Britannica (1911) account:
Jourdan wished to renew the left attack, but Carnot, the engineer,
considered the Wattignies plateau the key of the position and his
opinion prevailed. In the night the nearly equal partition of force,
which was largely responsible for the failure, was modified, and the
strength of the attack massed opposite Wattignies.
Michael Glover presented Carnot as a meddler and wrote of
the politically powerful
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety member,
Carnot's talents as 'the organizer of victory' are beyond dispute, but
his tactical skills were minimal, a defect he concealed by a careful
rewriting of history. To drive away a poorly led covering force of
20,000 with the 45,000 available to the Army of the North should have
posed no great problem, but the business was sadly bungled. Carnot
insisted that there should be a double encircling movement, a favorite
maneuver of his, combined with a frontal attack, thus carefully
dispersing the French numerical superiority.
Carnot believed that General Duquesnoy was capable but recognized that
Balland and Fromentin were not very good generals and had no use at
all for Cordellier. Phipps pointed out that none of Jourdan's division
commanders fought under Napoleon. Jourdan later noted that Coburg
erred by placing the Army of Observation too close to Maubeuge. He
asserted that if Coburg had defended Avesnes-sur-Helpe, the relief
army would have been in difficulty. He thought that Benjowsky's force
should have been posted at Obrechies. A British observer, Harry
Calvert credited the powerful French artillery for the victory.
Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron, a French Royalist who emigrated
Russian Empire attributed the Coalition failure to the Dunkirk
expedition that split the army, the retreat from Maubeuge, chronic
slowness and the "disastrous system of forming a cordon, which causes
one to be weak everywhere".
Phipps summed up the failure of the Coalition with a cricket analogy.
The Allies totally failed to see that the best way to defend the
length of the frontier was to concentrate and to crush Jourdan, and
although they were well informed about his collecting troops at Guise,
they allowed him to bring up slowly superior forces against one link
of their long chain, as if their posts were so many players, each
bound to defend his own wicket.
^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 259.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 213.
^ Smith 1998, pp. 48–49.
^ Smith 1998, pp. 50–51.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 212–213.
^ a b Smith 1998, pp. 53–55.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 241–242.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 243.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 244–245.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 189.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 246–247.
^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 250.
^ Smith 1998, p. 58.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 53.
^ a b c Dupuis 1909, p. 54.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 247.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 28.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 62–63.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 66–68.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 69–70.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 73–74.
^ Cust 1859, pp. 153–154.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 22–23.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 89–90.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 91–94.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 95–97.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 103–104.
^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 256.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 252.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 111–112.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 109.
^ a b Cust 1859, p. 154.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 113.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 170.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 169.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 159–161.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 163.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 164–165.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 176–177.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 172.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 173–175.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 177–178.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 181.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 184–187.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 187–188.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 256–257.
^ Cust 1859, p. 155.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 257–258.
^ a b c Cust 1859, p. 156.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 258.
^ Dupuis 1909, p. 193.
^ Rothenberg 1980, p. 247.
^ Smith 1998, p. 59.
^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 185–186.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 254–255.
^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 264.
^ Phipps 2011, p. 266.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 269–270.
^ Phipps 2011, pp. 271–272.
^ Chisholm 1911.
^ Glover 1987, p. 160.
^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 262.
^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 261.
Cust, Edward (1859). "Annals of the Wars: 1783–1795". London:
Mitchell's Military Library. OCLC 162602184. Retrieved 24 May
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Wattignies". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Dupuis, Victor (1909). "La Campagne de 1793 à l'Armée du Nord et des
Ardennes d'Hondtschoote à Wattignies" (in French). Paris: Librairie
Militaire R. Chapelot et Cie. OCLC 772971230. Retrieved 23 May
Glover, Michael (1987). "Jourdan: The True Patriot". In Chandler,
David. Napoleon's Marshals. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan.
Phipps, Ramsay Weston (2011). The Armies of the First French Republic:
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Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1980). The Art of War in the Age of Napoleon.
Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.
Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill.
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Storming of the Bastille (14 Jul 1789)
Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789)
Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789)
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 Aug 1789)
Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles (5 Oct 1789)
Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790)
Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790)
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy (12 Jul 1790)
Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes (20–21 Jun 1791)
Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre (17 Jul 1791)
Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791)
The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791)
Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)
France declares war (20 Apr 1792)
Brunswick Manifesto (25 Jul 1792)
Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792)
10th of August (10 Aug 1792)
September Massacres (Sep 1792)
National Convention (20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795)
First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)
Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI (21 Jan 1793)
Revolutionary Tribunal (9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795)
Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror (27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of General Security
Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793)
Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793)
Levée en masse
Levée en masse (23 Aug 1793)
The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat (painting)
Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects (17 Sep 1793)
Marie Antoinette is guillotined (16 Oct 1793)
Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)
Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794)
Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial (10 Jun 1794)
Thermidorian Reaction (27 Jul 1794)
Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794)
White Terror (Fall 1794)
Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)
Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III (22 Aug 1795)
Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals (Nov 1795)
Council of Five Hundred
Council of Ancients
13 Vendémiaire 5 Oct 1795
Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor (4 Sep 1797)
Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt (Dec 1797)
Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799)
Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire (9 Nov 1799)
Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII (24 Dec 1799)
Siege of Mainz
Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon (18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793)
War in the Vendée
Battle of Neerwinden)
Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars (23 May 1793)
Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne (21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793)
Battle of Kaiserslautern
Siege of Mainz
Battle of Wattignies
Battle of Hondschoote
Siege of Bellegarde
Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes (Pyrenees)
First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793)
Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas (Pyrenees)
Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies (24 Apr 1794)
Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou (Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794)
Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay (22 May 1794)
Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794)
Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing (18 May 1794)
Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)
Peace of Basel
Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato (3–4 Aug 1796)
Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione (5 Aug 1796)
Battle of Theiningen
Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim (11 Aug 1796)
Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg (24 Aug 1796)
Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg (3 Sep 1796)
Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto (4 Sep 1796)
Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano (8 Sep 1796)
Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen (19 Oct 1796)
Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen (26 Oct 1796)
Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano (6 Nov 1796)
Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796)
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole (15–17 Nov 1796)
The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)
Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797)
Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli (14–15 Jan 1797)
Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797)
Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben (17 Apr 1797)
Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797)
Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio (17 Oct 1797)
French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland (28 January – 17 May 1798)
French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801)
Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798)
Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)
Second Coalition (1798–1802)
Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799)
Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach (20–21 Mar 1799)
Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799)
Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano (5 Apr 1799)
Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799)
First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich (4–7 Jun 1799)
Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799)
Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799)
Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich (25–26 Sep 1799)
Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo (14 Jun 1800)
Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden (3 Dec 1800)
League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)
Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville (9 Feb 1801)
Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence (18 Mar 1801)
Algeciras Campaign (8 Jul 1801)
Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens (25 Mar 1802)
Eustache Charles d'Aoust
Alexandre de Beauharnais
Jean François Carteaux
Jean Étienne Championnet
Chapuis de Tourville
Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
Jacques François Dugommier
Charles François Dumouriez
Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino
Louis-Charles de Flers
Emmanuel de Grouchy
Jacques Maurice Hatry
François Christophe de Kellermann
Pierre Choderlos de Laclos
François Joseph Lefebvre
Jean Baptiste de Marbot
François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers
Auguste de Marmont
Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise
Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr)
Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon
Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr
Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer
Belgrand de Vaubois
Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno
Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
Count of Clerfayt
Count of Clerfayt (Walloon)
Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze (Swiss)
Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth
Pál Kray (Hungarian)
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc (French)
Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon)
Karl Mack von Leiberich
Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon)
Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich
Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló (Hungarian)
Karl Philipp Sebottendorf
Dagobert von Wurmser
Sir Ralph Abercromby
Admiral Sir James Saumarez
Admiral Sir Edward Pellew
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
William V, Prince of Orange
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
Luis Firmin de Carvajal
Other significant figures and factions
Society of 1789
Jean Sylvain Bailly
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt
Isaac René Guy le Chapelier
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Nicolas de Condorcet
Madame de Lamballe
Madame du Barry
Louis de Breteuil
Loménie de Brienne
Charles Alexandre de Calonne
Arnaud de La Porte
François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy
Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth
Charles Malo François Lameth
Madame de Staël
Pierre Paul Royer-Collard
Jacques Pierre Brissot
Roland de La Platière
Father Henri Grégoire
Marquis de Condorcet
Marie Jean Hérault
Jean Baptiste Treilhard
Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud
Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac
Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve
Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil
Olympe de Gouges
Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet
Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux
Charles François Lebrun
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot
Louis Philippe I
Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin de Thionville
Jean Joseph Mounier
Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours
François de Neufchâteau
Louis Antoine de Saint-Just
Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras
Louis Philippe I
Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau
Marquis de Sade
Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois
Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai
Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville
Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas
Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier
Prieur de la Côte-d'Or
Prieur de la Marne
Jean Bon Saint-André
Pierre Louis Prieur
Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac
Antoine Christophe Saliceti
Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne
Pierre Gaspard Chaumette
Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte
Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien
Louis Henri, Prince of Condé
Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé
Joséphine de Beauharnais
Jean Sylvain Bailly
Jacques-Donatien Le Ray
Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes
List of people associated with the French Revolution
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
Pierre Claude François Daunou
Liberté, égalité, fraternité
French Republican Calendar
Cult of the Supreme Being
Cult of Reason
Temple of Reason
Women in the French Revolution
Symbolism in the French Revolution
Historiography of the French Revolution
Influence of the French Revolution
Coordinates: 50°12′05″N 04°00′48″E / 50.20139°N