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The Battle of Wattignies
Battle of Wattignies
(15–16 October 1793) saw a Republican French army commanded by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
attack a Coalition army directed by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After two days of combat Jourdan's troops compelled the Habsburg Austrian covering force led by François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt to withdraw. The War of the First Coalition
War of the First Coalition
victory allowed the French to raise the Siege of Maubeuge. At a time when failed generals were often executed or imprisoned, Jourdan had to endure interference from Lazare Carnot
Lazare Carnot
from the Committee of Public Safety. The village, renamed Wattignies-la-Victoire
Wattignies-la-Victoire
in honor of the important success, is located 9 kilometres (6 mi) southeast of Maubeuge. Coburg's main army encircled 25,000 French soldiers in Maubeuge
Maubeuge
while about 22,000 Austrians under Clerfayt were formed in a semi-circle, covering the southern approaches to the fortress. On the first day, 45,000 French soldiers mounted a clumsy attack which was easily repulsed, except near the village of Wattignies. On the second day, Jourdan concentrated half his army at Wattignies and after a tough fight, forced Coburg to concede defeat. Though the Coalition army was better trained than the French, its units were spread out too thinly and the different nationalities failed to cooperate. Soon the Coalition army went into winter quarters, finishing a campaign that started with great promise and ended in disappointment. Carnot rewrote history so that he and the political representatives got most of the credit for the triumph; Jourdan was dismissed in January 1794.

Contents

1 Background 2 Operations

2.1 French deployment 2.2 Blockade of Maubeuge 2.3 French reaction

3 Battle

3.1 15 October 3.2 16 October 3.3 Boussu

4 Results 5 Aftermath 6 Commentary 7 Footnotes 8 References

Background[edit] In the summer of 1793, the 118,000-strong Coalition army punched a gap in the line of French fortresses along the frontier with the Austrian Netherlands,[2] with the Siege of Condé concluding on 12 July and the Siege of Valenciennes on 27 July.[3] In the Battle of Caesar's Camp, the Coalition army under Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
hustled the French Army of the North out of a position near Cambrai
Cambrai
on 7 August.[4] At this moment, the Coalition allies unwisely split their forces. Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
headed west toward Dunkirk
Dunkirk
with 37,000 British, Austrians, Hanoverians and Hessians.[5] From 6–8 September 1793, the Army of the North under Jean Nicolas Houchard defeated the Dunkirk
Dunkirk
covering force in the Battle of Hondschoote, compelling the Duke of York to give up the Siege of Dunkirk.[6] This was followed by the Battle of Menin on 13 September, in which the French routed a Dutch corps under Prince William of Orange. The Dutch suffered 3,000 casualties and lost 40 field pieces in the disaster. Two days later, an Austrian corps led by Johann Peter Beaulieu routed the French and recaptured Menen
Menen
(Menin).[7] Coburg's main army concluded the Siege of Le Quesnoy on 13 September 1793, taking 4,000 French troops prisoner.[6] Two French columns attempted to raise the siege but failed, one of the columns being nearly wiped out by Coalition cavalry in the Battle of Avesnes-le-Sec. Though Coburg might have easily seized Cambrai
Cambrai
and Bouchain, which had been stripped of their garrisons to form the relief columns, the Coalition commander chose to move against Maubeuge
Maubeuge
instead.[8] For these defeats, Houchard was arrested on 23 September and incarcerated in a common prison. Denounced as a coward and a traitor by the Revolutionary Tribunal, he was executed by guillotine on 16 November.[9] His predecessor in command of the Army of the North, Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine had been guillotined on 27 August 1793.[10] Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
had been wounded at Hondschoote
Hondschoote
and was named to lead the Army of the Ardennes on 9 September 1793. He was appointed provisional commander in chief of the Army of the North on 22 September 1793. When Jourdan protested that he lacked the experience to command the 104,000-man army, the representatives on mission notified him that refusal would result in his arrest.[11] The new commander found that he must respond to the Coalition's move against Maubeuge.[12] Coburg's army began the Siege of Maubeuge
Maubeuge
on 30 September.[13] Operations[edit] French deployment[edit] On 1 October 1793, Jourdan's large army was distributed across a broad front in four great masses, starting at the North Sea
North Sea
and running southeast. Joseph Souham
Joseph Souham
at Dunkirk
Dunkirk
commanded 8,852 infantry in 17 battalions and 430 cavalry in one regiment and André Gigaux at Hondschoote
Hondschoote
had 7,269 infantry in 15 battalions. Near Cassel, Dominique Vandamme
Dominique Vandamme
led 8,984 foot soldiers in 19 battalions and 325 horsemen in one regiment, while Charles François Filon led 3,705 foot soldiers in nine battalions. At Bailleul there were 4,166 infantry in 10 battalions. The second mass started at Armentières, where there were 9,644 foot in 19 battalions and 1,338 horse in four regiments. At the Camp of Madelaine near Lille, Antoine Anne Lecourt de Berú directed 13,564 infantry in 28 battalions and 817 Chasseurs à Cheval, in three regiments.[14] Pierre Guillaume Gratien at Mons-en-Pévèle led 3,521 infantry in nine battalions.[15] The third mass was located at the Camp of Gavrelle
Gavrelle
between Douai
Douai
and Arras.[16] Commanded by Jourdan, the force included the Flankers of the Right with 6,048 foot in 15 battalions and 1,602 horse in five regiments and the Flankers of the Left with 6,821 infantry in 14 battalions and 1,323 cavalry in three regiments. The Advance Guard consisted of 4,821 foot in eight battalions and 1,901 horse in five regiments; the Center Division was made up of 4,077 infantry in six battalions and 428 cavalry in two regiments, with two battalions of 732 men guarding the wagon train.[15] Jacques Ferrand commanded the fourth mass, which was in the Maubeuge
Maubeuge
entrenched camp.[15] Second-in-command was Jean Nestor de Chancel.[17] The fortress garrison under Étienne Gudin counted 2,173 soldiers. Pierre Arnould Meyer's right brigade numbered 6,992 men including the 7th and 12th Dragoons, Joseph-Antoine Colomb's center brigade had 6,802 men and Jacques Desjardin's left brigade consisted of 8,140 men including the 1st Hussars; altogether Ferrand commanded 24,107 soldiers.[18] Blockade of Maubeuge[edit]

Prince of Coburg

At dawn on 29 September, a column under François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt
Count of Clerfayt
crossed the Sambre
Sambre
at Berlaimont, southwest of Maubeuge. To the northeast, Franz Vincenz von Hoditz's column crossed the river near Pont-sur- Sambre
Sambre
and a third column led by Nikolaus von Colloredo-Mels crossed the Sambre
Sambre
at Hautmont. In a series of skirmishes, the three Austrian columns pressed east, finally driving Desjardin's troops into the Maubeuge
Maubeuge
entrenched camp, with losses of 150 men and two cannons.[19] To the east of Maubeuge, Austrians under Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour
Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour
crossed the Sambre
Sambre
near Marpent
Marpent
and Jeumont. A column under Alexander Friedrich von Seckendorf crossed near Merbes-le-Château
Merbes-le-Château
farther east. These forces forced Meyer's troops in disorder back within Maubeuge, which was isolated.[20]

Jean-Baptiste Jourdan

Coburg split his forces into a 26,000-man Siege Army directed by the Prince of Orange and an Army of Observation. The Siege Army consisted of 14,000 Austrians under Colloredo south of the Sambre
Sambre
and 12,000 Dutch under Orange north of the river. Colloredo's force included 16 battalions, 10 companies and eight squadrons. The Army of Observation totaled 25,550 infantry and 12,150 cavalry, distributed in three main divisions. Franz Xaver von Wenckheim commanded 7,250 foot and 4,200 horse, west of the Sambre
Sambre
in the Forêt de Mormal. Hoditz directed 9,300 foot and 3,750 horse on the east of Maubeuge
Maubeuge
and Clerfayt led 9,000 foot and 4,200 horse on the south side of Maubeuge. Clerfayt divided his corps into three groups under Count Heinrich von Bellegarde, Joseph Binder von Degenschild and Ludwig von Terzi.[21] The Coalition forces began constructing extensive siege works around Maubeuge. On the first day, the French garrison sortied against the Cense de Château but were repulsed after stiff fighting. Maubeuge
Maubeuge
was supplied for a normal garrison but far too many soldiers were trapped there. On 10 October, Ferrand had to put the troops on half-rations, while hundreds of sick and dying soldiers crowded the hospitals. On the 13 October, the French enjoyed initial success in a sortie against the Bois du Tilleul, but troops sent out to help mistakenly fired on their own friends and the French were compelled to retreat. The Coalition established batteries of 20 24-pound cannons against the town. After the Coalition army opened its bombardment on the night of 14 October, the morale of the garrison sank. When some soldiers complained to Chancel that they were hungry and tired he replied, "Listen young men, it takes a lot of work and privation in order to gain the honor to fight and die for your country."[22] Representative Jean-Baptiste Drouet tried to cut his way out of Maubeuge
Maubeuge
with some dragoons but was captured. Denounced for abandoning the place, Drouet claimed his escape would have raised the spirits of the garrison.[23] French reaction[edit] Leaving 10,000 soldiers in the Camp of Gavrelle
Gavrelle
to support Bouchain and Cambrai, Jourdan immediately moved to the relief of Maubeuge
Maubeuge
with the remaining 20,000 men. He also called in 12,000 reinforcements from the Camp de Madelaine and 10,000 more from farther north.[24] Without waiting for the troops from the north, Jourdan assembled a division under Jacques Fromentin. Leaving the camp on 3 October, it arrived at Guise
Guise
on the 6th. That same day Antoine Balland's division left the Camp of Gavrelle
Gavrelle
and reached Guise
Guise
on 9 October. Berú promptly sent Gratien's brigade and other units from Lille
Lille
and Mons-en-Pévèle, this body of 11,701 soldiers was assigned to Florent Joseph Duquesnoy.[25] Left wing commander Jean-Baptiste Davaine sent 9,012 troops under Martin Jean Carrion de Loscondes which arrived at Guise
Guise
on 10 October. The Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
placed the Army of Ardennes under Jourdan's control on 2 October. The army's commander Ferrand was immured in Maubeuge
Maubeuge
and orders were sent for one detachment to operate from Philippeville. A motley force of 4,263 men was assembled under Pierre Raphaël Paillot de Beauregard
Pierre Raphaël Paillot de Beauregard
and reached Fourmies on 11 October. The next day, several units from the north joined Beauregard's division. Jourdan's army shifted east from Guise
Guise
to Avesnes-sur-Helpe
Avesnes-sur-Helpe
between 11 and 13 October.[26] On 14 October, Jourdan and Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
member Lazare Carnot reconnoitered the Coalition front south of Maubeuge. The numerical strength of the army was 37,906 infantry and 6,370 cavalry for a grand total of 44,276, with the troops distributed as follows. Fromentin's division numbered 7,357 men including 1,495 cavalry. Carrion's division, now under Étienne Jean-François Cordellier-Delanoüe, counted 6,866 troops including 668 horsemen. Balland's division consisted of 13,294 soldiers, of which 1,440 were cavalry. Duquesnoy's division had 10,906 men including 1,960 mounted troops. Beauregard's division comprised 5,853 troops of which 837 were horsemen.[27] Historian Ramsay Weston Phipps remarked that Beauregard's men were "bad troops under a bad General".[28] Battle[edit] 15 October[edit] The Austrian covering force was entrenched and though Clerfayt was in nominal command, Coburg was on the scene and in control of the battle. Coburg was so certain of success that he was supposed to have said that if he were defeated, he would become a sans-culotte. This story made the rounds in the French army and made its soldiers eager to make the Coalition commander wear trousers.[29] On the morning of 15 October, Bellegarde held the Coalition right flank with about 5,000 troops in three battalions of foot and 16 squadrons of horse. The extreme right touched the Sambre
Sambre
at Berlaimont. Clerfayt defended the center with 9,200 soldiers, deployed along a west-to-east line of villages. Supported by division commanders were Franz Joseph, Count Kinsky
Franz Joseph, Count Kinsky
and Joseph Karl von Lilien, Clerfayt controlled five battalions of grenadiers, five battalions of regulars, ​1⁄3 battalion of Croats, four infantry companies and 12 cavalry squadrons. Terzi was posted on the left flank at Wattignies with 4,000 men in three battalions of foot and 12 squadrons of horse. The extreme left at Obrechies
Obrechies
was defended by Karl Joseph Hadik von Futak and 2,100 soldiers.[30] Far to the east at Beaumont, Johann Andreas Benjowsky commanded 4,000 troops organized as three battalions and 12 squadrons.[31] From right to left the French divisions were Beauregard at Solre-le-Château, Duquesnoy on the main road from Avesnes-sur-Helpe, Balland in reserve at Avesnelles, Cordellier at La Capelle and Fromentin at Dompierre-sur-Helpe. Duquesnoy and Beauregard moved to attack Wattignies, while Fromentin advanced against the Austrian right flank.[32] Jourdan enjoyed a two-to-one superiority and the Coalition generals had to be anxious about the 20,000 French soldiers at Maubeuge.[33]

Count Bellegarde

On the right, Beauregard's men left Solre-le-Château
Solre-le-Château
at 7:00 am. Near Obrechies, four squadrons of Austrian cavalry charged them and drove them off, with the loss of three field guns.[34] Duquesnoy's division departed Flaumont at 6:00 am and marched through Beugnies, Dimont
Dimont
and Dimechaux. Supported by a plentiful artillery, the French infantry drove two Austrian battalions out of Wattignies, but as the French poured out of the other side of the village they were met by an infantry-cavalry counterattack. Duquesnoy's soldiers abandoned Wattignies and retreated to Dimechaux
Dimechaux
and Dimont.[35] On the far left, Cordellier's division advanced on Leval and Monceau-Saint-Waast
Monceau-Saint-Waast
while farther east, Fromentin's division attacked toward Saint-Remy-Chaussée
Saint-Remy-Chaussée
and Saint-Aubin. Bellegarde's cannons opened fire in mid-morning, starting a mutual bombardment. The French infantry crossed a ravine and grappled for possession of Saint-Aubin village with a Croatian infantry battalion. In the afternoon Bellegarde launched a counterattack led by Austrian regular infantry, while two regiments of cavalry swept down on the French left flank. The Austrians captured eight French cannon and caused the French to flee to the safety of the ravine.[36] In the center, Clerfayt deployed five grenadier battalions in the villages of Dourlers, Mont-Dourlers, Floursies
Floursies
and along the Monceau Road. This east–west sunken road was located on a reverse slope, just south of Dourlers. The French Royalists and some Croatians guarded the forest to the east, while the Croatian battalion fought to the west at Saint-Aubin. The remaining battalions of Austrian regular foot and all the horse occupied a ridge behind the line of villages.[37] Jourdan, Carnot and Representative Ernest Dominique François Joseph Duquesnoy accompanied Balland's division in the center. The army commander planned to wait for the attacks of his two wings to make significant progress before launching the attack of Balland's division. In mid-morning, the division filed out of the woods in front of Dourlers
Dourlers
and opened fire with its artillery. Seeing the initial success of the two wings, Carnot wanted the attack to be started at once. Jourdan wanted more ground to be gained on the flanks but the politician would not be denied. Finally, Jourdan put himself at the head of Balland's division and ordered the assault. As the French soldiers came over the crest of the ridge in front on the sunken road, they came under murderous fire from the crack Austrian grenadiers. Despite heroic attempts to get light artillery forward, cannons were dismounted and gunners and horses were shot down. In the thick of the bullets, Jourdan bravely urged his troops on but an Austrian force appeared from the direction of Saint-Aubin, threatening the French left flank. At nightfall the representatives authorized a retreat after Balland's division had lost between 1,200 and 1,500 casualties.[38] 16 October[edit]

Wattignies church

During the night, French deserters wrongly reported to the Austrians that Jourdan was reinforced to 100,000 men. Believing he was going to be attacked again, Coburg reinforced his covering force by five battalions of about 3,750 men and rearranged his defenses. On the left, Terzi had 5,250 foot soldiers in seven regular battalions and 2,100 cavalry in 14 squadrons. The center under Clerfayt counted 6,650 foot and 1,800 horse. This force was made up of five grenadier battalions, two regular battalions, ​1⁄3 of a battalion of Croats, four companies and six squadrons of French Royalists and six squadrons of cuirassiers. Bellegarde's right wing was composed of 4,500 infantry in seven regular battalions and 2,100 light cavalry in 14 squadrons. Altogether, the covering force numbered about 16,400 infantry and 6,000 cavalry.[39] According to Carnot, he argued that Wattignies on the Austrian left was the key to the position but that Jourdan wanted to attack the Austrian right.[40] Phipps believed that Carnot's account was nonsense and that the course of the battle was typical of Jourdan's tactics.[1] Jourdan's account only stated that he gave the order to attack Wattignies. Fromentin on the left was instructed not to mount a serious attack. Cordellier was ordered to act under Fromentin's orders and also reinforce Balland with three battalions and a cavalry regiment. Balland was directed to place nine battalions plus two cavalry regiments at Jourdan's disposal. The rest of Balland's division was to form line of battle and use its light troops to probe the enemy positions. The divisions of Beauregard and Duquesnoy numbered 16,000 soldiers, to these, Jourdan's special force added about 6,000 men.[41] On 16 October, Fromentin's two divisions on the left flank and Balland's division in the center skirmished all day. Bellegarde and Clefayt held the bulk of their strength in their main positions. Jourdan mounted the main French assault against the height of Wattignies in three columns from Dimont, Dimechaux
Dimechaux
and Choisies.[42] The main attack was also supported by additional artillery.[32] When an early morning fog lifted in mid-morning, the French artillery opened a barrage on Wattignies. Duquesnoy's division formed the two right columns while Jourdan's detachment made up the left column.[43] After being driven back twice by heavy fire, the French columns forced their way into Wattignies in the early afternoon. A counterattack from the northwest briefly pushed back the French, who were rallied by Jourdan. More French troops came up and defeated the Austrian attack. Duquesnoy sent Gratien's brigade forward but it was caught by Austrian cavalry in the open and thrown back. By this time, the French had dragged a battery up to the Wattignies heights to support the infantry. Under pressure from infantry and artillery, Terzi's division recoiled to the north.[44] On the right of Duquesnoy, Beauregard's division attacked Obrechies, which was defended by Hadik with two battalions of regulars and eight squadrons of cavalry. As the French began breaking into the village, Hadik launched attacks from three directions at once, routing Beauregard's men. The French abandoned five cannon and fled back to Solrinnes.[45] According to one observer, they did not stop until they reached Solre-le-Château.[28] Boussu[edit] Far to the east, a column of French conscripts under Jacob Job Élie, set out from Philippeville
Philippeville
toward Beaumont. In the early hours of 16 October, they were attacked by Coalition troops and fled. Élie managed to rally his soldiers and arrange them in two lines near Boussu-lez-Walcourt. At dawn when the Austrians attacked again, the second line fired a volley into the backs of the first line and all the infantry took to their heels. Louis Henri Loison
Louis Henri Loison
capably covered the retreat with the French cavalry, saving the foot soldiers from being cut to pieces. As it was, Élie lost 400 men and 12 artillery pieces, while only 138 casualties were suffered[46] by Benjowsky's division.[47] Results[edit]

Duke of York

Prepared for a long battle, Jourdan reinforced Duquesnoy's division at Wattignies and ordered it to entrench. The Duke of York arrived from the northwest with 3,500 men to reinforce Coburg. The Austrian commander-in-chief had plenty of soldiers but the Prince of Orange denied a request to send any of his soldiers to the south side of the Sambre.[48] Fearful of a sortie by the large garrison of Maubeuge, Coburg lifted the siege and retreated across the river at Hautmont
Hautmont
and Buissière. Chancel recommended an attack on the retreating army but Ferrand declined to intervene.[49] The Maubeuge
Maubeuge
garrison made a weak sortie on 15 October but remained inert the next day. On 17 October, the garrison sent out a column to the south to meet with Jourdan, instead of to the north after the retreating Coalition forces.[50] The Coalition reported losses of 365 killed, 1,753 wounded and 369 captured or missing, a total of 2,487 casualties. French losses were estimated at 3,000.[51] Another authority numbered French losses as 5,000 killed, wounded and missing. The Austrians sustained 2,500 killed and wounded while an additional 500 men were captured.[52] A third source also gave casualty figures of 5,000 French and 3,000 Austrians and added that the French lost 27 artillery pieces.[53] A fourth source estimated losses as 3,000 on each side.[49] For the poor performance of the Maubeuge
Maubeuge
garrison, Chancel was blamed, arrested, convicted and guillotined.[49] For the rout of his brigade, Gratien was arrested but eventually acquitted.[54] Claude Lecourbe distinguished himself in the attack on Wattignies on 16 October. Édouard Mortier
Édouard Mortier
was wounded at Dourlers
Dourlers
on 15 October.[55] Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte
Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte
fought in Balland's division and Michel Ney was probably in Fromentin's division.[12] Aftermath[edit] Jourdan did not follow up his victory; after adding the Maubeuge garrison, he had about 60,000 French soldiers, opposed by 65,000 well-entrenched Coalition troops on the north bank of the Sambre, from Solesmes on the west to Thuin
Thuin
on the east. Though there was time for more operations, Coburg moved his army into winter quarters. While Jourdan was with the right wing of the Army of the North, the operations of the left wing under Davaine failed.[56] Davaine was tried and executed at the same time as Chancel.[57] In Paris, Carnot demanded an advance on Charleroi
Charleroi
and Jourdan tried to comply but found that the Coalition held all the river crossings and heavy rain had ruined the roads. After threatening to resign on 4 November, the army commander was recalled to Paris to speak with the Committee of Public Safety. This was the usual prelude to arrest and execution but Jourdan was allowed to return to the army and put his soldiers in winter quarters.[58] After reinforcing the Army of the West and the Army of the Moselle
Army of the Moselle
each with 10,000 men, time was wasted in denouncing generals Duquesnoy, Meyer and Gudin. On 10 January 1794, Jourdan was accused of not protecting the frontier and summoned again to Paris. He was passionately defended by Representative Duquesnoy before the Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
and only dismissed from the army.[59] Commentary[edit]

Lazare Carnot

The Carnot version of history is evident in the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) account:

Jourdan wished to renew the left attack, but Carnot, the engineer, considered the Wattignies plateau the key of the position and his opinion prevailed. In the night the nearly equal partition of force, which was largely responsible for the failure, was modified, and the strength of the attack massed opposite Wattignies.[60]

Historian Michael Glover presented Carnot as a meddler and wrote of the politically powerful Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
member,

Carnot's talents as 'the organizer of victory' are beyond dispute, but his tactical skills were minimal, a defect he concealed by a careful rewriting of history. To drive away a poorly led covering force of 20,000 with the 45,000 available to the Army of the North should have posed no great problem, but the business was sadly bungled. Carnot insisted that there should be a double encircling movement, a favorite maneuver of his, combined with a frontal attack, thus carefully dispersing the French numerical superiority.[61]

Carnot believed that General Duquesnoy was capable but recognized that Balland and Fromentin were not very good generals and had no use at all for Cordellier. Phipps pointed out that none of Jourdan's division commanders fought under Napoleon.[62] Jourdan later noted that Coburg erred by placing the Army of Observation too close to Maubeuge. He asserted that if Coburg had defended Avesnes-sur-Helpe, the relief army would have been in difficulty. He thought that Benjowsky's force should have been posted at Obrechies.[62] A British observer, Harry Calvert credited the powerful French artillery for the victory.[63] Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron, a French Royalist who emigrated to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
attributed the Coalition failure to the Dunkirk expedition that split the army, the retreat from Maubeuge, chronic slowness and the "disastrous system of forming a cordon, which causes one to be weak everywhere".[56] Phipps summed up the failure of the Coalition with a cricket analogy.

The Allies totally failed to see that the best way to defend the length of the frontier was to concentrate and to crush Jourdan, and although they were well informed about his collecting troops at Guise, they allowed him to bring up slowly superior forces against one link of their long chain, as if their posts were so many players, each bound to defend his own wicket.[63]

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 259. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 213. ^ Smith 1998, pp. 48–49. ^ Smith 1998, pp. 50–51. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 212–213. ^ a b Smith 1998, pp. 53–55. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 241–242. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 243. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 244–245. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 189. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 246–247. ^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 250. ^ Smith 1998, p. 58. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 53. ^ a b c Dupuis 1909, p. 54. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 247. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 28. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 62–63. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 66–68. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 69–70. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 73–74. ^ Cust 1859, pp. 153–154. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 22–23. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 89–90. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 91–94. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 95–97. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 103–104. ^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 256. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 252. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 111–112. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 109. ^ a b Cust 1859, p. 154. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 113. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 170. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 169. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 159–161. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 163. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 164–165. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 176–177. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 172. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 173–175. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 177–178. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 181. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 184–187. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 187–188. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 256–257. ^ Cust 1859, p. 155. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 257–258. ^ a b c Cust 1859, p. 156. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 258. ^ Dupuis 1909, p. 193. ^ Rothenberg 1980, p. 247. ^ Smith 1998, p. 59. ^ Dupuis 1909, pp. 185–186. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 254–255. ^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 264. ^ Phipps 2011, p. 266. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 269–270. ^ Phipps 2011, pp. 271–272. ^ Chisholm 1911. ^ Glover 1987, p. 160. ^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 262. ^ a b Phipps 2011, p. 261.

References[edit]

Cust, Edward (1859). "Annals of the Wars: 1783–1795". London: Mitchell's Military Library. OCLC 162602184. Retrieved 24 May 2015.   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Wattignies". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 419.  Dupuis, Victor (1909). "La Campagne de 1793 à l'Armée du Nord et des Ardennes d'Hondtschoote à Wattignies" (in French). Paris: Librairie Militaire R. Chapelot et Cie. OCLC 772971230. Retrieved 23 May 2015.  Glover, Michael (1987). "Jourdan: The True Patriot". In Chandler, David. Napoleon's Marshals. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-905930-5.  Phipps, Ramsay Weston (2011). The Armies of the First French Republic: The Armée du Nord. I. USA: Pickle Partners Publishing. ISBN 978-1-908692-24-5.  Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1980). The Art of War in the Age of Napoleon. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-31076-8.  Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. ISBN 1-85367-276-9. 

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(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt
Count of Clerfayt
(Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Coordinates: 50°12′05″N 04°00′48″E / 50.20139°N 4.01333°E /

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