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(i) (i)

Decisive Roman victory

* End of Boudica's revolt * Roman rule secured

BELLIGERENTS

Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Iceni
Iceni
, Trinovantes , and other British peoples

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
Boudica

STRENGTH

10,000 Dio claims 230,000; Plus women, children and non-combatants

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

Tacitus claims 400 Tacitus claims 80,000

* v * t * e

Roman invasion and occupation of Britain

* Caesar\'s invasions (55–54 BC)

* Conquest of Britain (43–76 AD)

* Medway * Capture of Camulodunon * Caer Caradoc * Menai

* Boudica\'s uprising (60–61 AD)

* Camulodunum * Londinium
Londinium
* Watling Street

* Scotch Corner (71 AD) * Mons Graupius (83 AD) * Siege of Burnswark (140 AD) * Caledonia (208–210 AD) * Carausian Revolt (286–296 AD) * Usurpation of Magnentius (350–353 AD) * Carausius II (354–358 AD) * Great Conspiracy (367–368 AD) * Usurpation of Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
(383–388 AD) * Stilicho\'s Pictish War (398 AD) * Usurpation of Marcus (406–407 AD) * Usurpation of Gratian (407 AD) * Usurpation of Constantine III (407–411 AD)

The BATTLE OF WATLING STREET took place in Roman-occupied Britain in AD 60 or 61 between an alliance of indigenous British peoples led by Boudica and a Roman army led by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
. Although heavily outnumbered, the Romans decisively defeated the allied tribes, inflicting heavy losses on them. The battle marked the end of resistance to Roman rule in Britain in the southern half of the island, a period that lasted until 410 AD.

Historians are dependent on Roman sources for accounts of the battle. The precise location is not known, but most historians place it between Londinium
Londinium
and Viroconium ( Wroxeter in Shropshire
Shropshire
), on the Roman Road now known as Watling Street . This name for the road originated in Anglo-Saxon times, thus the modern name of the battle is anachronistic as well as being somewhat speculative.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 2 Battle

* 2.1 Location

* 3 Aftermath * 4 References * 5 External links

BACKGROUND

In AD 43, Rome invaded south-eastern Britain. The conquest was gradual. While some kingdoms were defeated militarily and occupied, others remained nominally independent as allies of the Roman empire
Roman empire
.

One such people was the Iceni
Iceni
in what is now Norfolk
Norfolk
. Their king, Prasutagus , secured his independence by leaving his lands jointly to his daughters and to the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
, Nero
Nero
, in his will. But when he died, in 61 or shortly before, his will was ignored. The Romans seized his lands and violently humiliated his family: his widow, Boudica , was flogged and their daughters raped. Roman financiers called in their loans.

When the Roman Governor of Britain , Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
, was campaigning on the island of Mona ( Anglesey
Anglesey
, north Wales), the Iceni allied with their neighbours the Trinovantes , whose former capital , Camulodunum ( Colchester
Colchester
), was now a colony for Roman veterans. To add insult to injury, the Romans had erected a temple to the former emperor Claudius
Claudius
in the city, built at local expense. The rebels descended on Camulodunum and destroyed it, killing all those who could not escape.

Boudica and her army headed for Londinium
Londinium
(London). So did Suetonius and a small portion of his army, but, arriving ahead of the rebels, he concluded he did not have the numbers to defend Londinium
Londinium
and ordered the city evacuated before it was attacked. Londinium, too, was burnt to the ground and the Roman historian Tacitus claims every inhabitant who could not get away was killed.

While Boudica's army continued their assault in Verulamium
Verulamium
(St. Albans ), Suetonius
Suetonius
regrouped his forces. According to Tacitus, he amassed a force including his own Legio XIV Gemina , parts of the XX Valeria Victrix , and any available auxiliaries, a total of 10,000 men. A third legion, II Augusta , near Exeter
Exeter
, failed to join him; a fourth, IX Hispana , had been routed trying to relieve Camulodunum.

BATTLE

Hugely outnumbered, Suetonius
Suetonius
had chosen his battleground carefully. He selected a narrow gorge with a forest behind him, opening out into a wide plain. The gorge protected the Roman flanks from attack, while the forest would impede approach from the rear. This would have prevented Boudica from bringing considerable forces to bear on the Roman position, and the open plain in front made ambushes impossible. Suetonius
Suetonius
placed his legionaries in close order, with lightly armed auxiliaries on the flanks and cavalry on the wings. Boadicea
Boadicea
by Thomas Thornycroft , depicting Boudica with her daughters in their chariot as she addresses troops before the battle.

As their armies deployed, the commanders would have sought to motivate their soldiers. Tacitus, who wrote of the battle more than fifty years later, claims to relate Boudica's speech to her followers:

"'But now,' she said, 'it is not as a woman descended from noble ancestry, but as one of the people that I am avenging lost freedom, my scourged body, the outraged chastity of my daughters. Roman lust has gone so far that not our very persons, nor even age or virginity, are left unpolluted. But heaven is on the side of a righteous vengeance; a legion which dared to fight has perished; the rest are hiding themselves in their camp, or are thinking anxiously of flight. They will not sustain even the din and the shout of so many thousands, much less our charge and our blows. If you weigh well the strength of the armies, and the causes of the war, you will see that in this battle you must conquer or die. This is a woman's resolve; as for men, they may live and be slaves.'"

Although the Britons gathered in considerable force, they are said to have been poorly equipped, as the Iceni
Iceni
had been disarmed before the rebellion. They placed their wagon train in a crescent at their end of the field, from which point their families could watch what they may have expected to be an overwhelming victory. Two Germanic leaders, Boiorix of the Cimbri and Ariovistus of the Suebi , are reported to have done the same thing in their battles against Gaius Marius and Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
respectively.

Tacitus also wrote of Suetonius
Suetonius
addressing his legionaries:

"Ignore the racket made by these savages. There are more women than men in their ranks. They are not soldiers—they're not even properly equipped. We've beaten them before and when they see our weapons and feel our spirit, they'll crack. Stick together. Throw the javelins, then push forward: knock them down with your shields and finish them off with your swords. Forget about plunder. Just win and you'll have everything."

Although Tacitus, like many historians of his day, was given to invent stirring speeches for such occasions, Suetonius's speech here is unusually blunt and practical. Tacitus's father-in-law, the future governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola , was on Suetonius's staff at the time and may have reported it fairly accurately.

Boudica led her army forward across the plain and into the narrowing field in a massive frontal attack. As they advanced, they were channeled into a tightly packed mass. When the Romans had exhausted their missiles, they rushed out in a wedge-like column. The Romans, with a clear advantage in armour, weapons, and discipline, had a decisive advantage in the close quarters fighting against the tightly packed Britons. The Roman cavalry, lances extended, then entered the battle. As the Britons' losses increased, the Britons tried to retreat, but their flight was blocked by the ring of wagons and the Britons were massacred. The Romans killed not only the warriors but also the women, children, and even pack animals. Tacitus relates a rumour that 80,000 Britons fell for the loss of only 400 Romans. However the figures quoted for the campaign in the ancient sources are regarded by modern historians as extravagant.

Boudica is said by Tacitus to have poisoned herself; Cassius Dio says Boudica fell ill and died and was given a lavish burial. Poenius Postumus , prefect of the 2nd legion, which had failed to join the battle, having robbed his men of a share of the glory, committed suicide by falling on his sword.

LOCATION

The site of the battle is not given by either historian, although Tacitus gives a brief description. A wide variety of sites, all consistent with an army attacking from the area of London toward the Roman forces concentrating from the direction of Cornwall and Wales, has been suggested. One legend places it at Battle Bridge Road in King\'s Cross, London , although from reading Tacitus it is unlikely Suetonius
Suetonius
returned to the city.

Most historians favour a site in the Midlands, probably along the Roman road of Watling Street between Londinium
Londinium
and Viroconium ( Wroxeter in Shropshire
Shropshire
), now the A5 . Plausible suggestions include Manduessedum ( Mancetter ), near Atherstone in Warwickshire
Warwickshire
, a site close to High Cross in Leicestershire
Leicestershire
, and a small dip at Cuttle Mill, two miles south-east of Lactodorum ( Towcester ) in Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
, where human bones have been found over a wide area. In 2009 Arbury Banks , near Ashwell (Herts.) was suggested as a location.

In March 2010 evidence was published suggesting the site may be located at Church Stowe , Northamptonshire. The Kennet valley, close to Silchester
Silchester
has also been suggested as a candidate site for the battle.

More recently a suggestion has been made that the battlefield was on the A5 just south of Dunstable
Dunstable
, Bedfordshire.

AFTERMATH

It is said that the emperor Nero
Nero
was so shaken by these events that he considered withdrawing from Britain altogether, but with the revolt brought to a decisive end, the occupation of Britain continued.

Fearing Suetonius's punitive policies would provoke further rebellion, Nero
Nero
replaced the governor with the more conciliatory Publius Petronius Turpilianus .

The defeat of Boudica ensured Roman rule in southern Britain; however, northern Britain remained volatile. In AD 69 Venutius , a Brigantes noble would lead another less well documented revolt, initially as a tribal rivalry but soon becoming anti-Roman.

REFERENCES

* ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 62.8.2 * ^ Webster, Graham (1978). Boudica the British revolt against Rome, AD 60. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415226066 . * ^ A B C Bulst, Christoph M. (October 1961). "The Revolt of Queen Boudicca in A.D. 60". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. 10 (4): 496–509. JSTOR 4434717 . * ^ Cassius Dio , Roman History 19-22 * ^ Tacitus , Agricola 14 * ^ Tacitus Annals 14.31 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 62.2 * ^ Tacitus, Annals 14.29-39, Agricola 14-16; Cassius Dio, Roman History 62.1-12 * ^ Tacitus, Annals 14.31-32 * ^ Tacitus, Annals 14.33 * ^ A B Tacitus, Annals 14.34 * ^ A B C D E Tacitus, Annals 14.37 * ^ A B Tacitus, Annals 14.32 * ^ Tacitus, Annals * ^ Florus , Epitome of Roman History 1.38; Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
1.51 * ^ Tacitus, Annals 14.36 * ^ Cassius Dio (Roman History 9-11) gives Suetonius
Suetonius
a quite different speech. * ^ Townend, G. B. (1964). "Some Rhetorical Battle-Pictures in Dio". Hermes. 92 (4): 479–80. * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 62.12.6 * ^ Frere, Sheppard (1967). Britannia: a History of Roman Britain. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 91. * ^ Carroll, Kevin K. (1979). "The Date of Boudicca's Revolt". Britannia. 10: 197. JSTOR 526056 . doi :10.2307/526056 . * ^ Rogers, Byron (11 October 2003). "The original Iron Lady rides again". Daily Telegraph. * ^ Evans, Martin Marix. "Boudica\'s last battle". Osprey Publishing. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. * ^ Appleby, Grahame A. (2009). "The Boudican Revolt: countdown to defeat". Hertfordshire Archaeology and History. 16: 57–65. * ^ Pegg, John (2010). "Landscape Analysis and Appraisal: Church Stowe, Northamptonshire, as a Candidate Site for the Battle of Watling Street" (PDF). craft:pegg. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. * ^ Steve, Kaye (September–October 2010). "Can Computerised Terrain Analysis Find Boudica\'s Last Battlefield?". British Archaeology (114). * ^ Kaye, Steve (February 2015). "Finding the site of Boudica\'s last battle: multi-attribute analysis of sites identified by template matching" (PDF). Banda Arc Geophysics. * ^ Horne, Barry (2014). "Did Boudica and Paulinus meet south of Dunstable". South Midlands Archaeology. 44: 89–93. * ^ Suetonius
Suetonius
, Nero
Nero
18, 39-40 * ^ Tacitus, Annals 38-39 * ^ Tacitus, Histories , 3.45

EXTERNAL LINKS

* BBC: