HOME
The Info List - Battle Of Ulm



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The BATTLE OF ULM on 16–19 October 1805 was a series of skirmishes, at the end of the Ulm Campaign
Ulm Campaign
, which allowed Napoleon I to trap an entire Austrian army under the command of Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich with minimal losses and to force its surrender near Ulm
Ulm
in the Electorate of Bavaria .

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Battle * 3 Aftermath * 4 Notes * 5 References

BACKGROUND

In 1805, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the Austrian Empire , Sweden
Sweden
, and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
formed the Third Coalition to overthrow the French Empire . When Bavaria
Bavaria
sided with Napoleon
Napoleon
, the Austrians, 72,000 strong under Mack, prematurely invaded while the Russians were still marching through Poland
Poland
. The Austrians expected the main battles of the war to take place in northern Italy , not Germany, and intended only to protect the Alps
Alps
from French forces.

A popular but apocryphal legend has it that the Austrians used the Gregorian calendar , the Russians were still using the Julian calendar . This meant that their dates did not correspond, and the Austrians were brought into conflict with the French before the Russians could come into line. This simple but implausible explanation for the Russian army being far behind the Austrian is dismissed by scholar Frederick Kagan as "a bizarre myth."

Napoleon
Napoleon
had 177,000 troops of the Grande Armée at Boulogne , ready to invade England. They marched south on August 27 and by September 24 were ready to cross the Rhine from Mannheim
Mannheim
to Strasbourg
Strasbourg
. After crossing the Rhine, the greater part of the French army made a gigantic right wheel so that its corps reached the Danube simultaneously, facing south. On October 7, Mack learned that Napoleon planned to cross the Danube
Danube
and march around his right flank so as to cut him off from the Russians who were marching via Vienna
Vienna
. He accordingly changed front, placing his left at Ulm
Ulm
and his right at Rain , but the French went on and crossed the Danube
Danube
at Neuburg , Donauwörth , and Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
. Unable to stop the French avalanche, Michael von Kienmayer 's Austrian corps abandoned its positions along the river and fled to Munich
Munich
. The II Corps in Augsburg.

On 8 October 1805, Franz Auffenberg's division was cut to pieces by Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
's Cavalry Corps and Jean Lannes ' V Corps at the Battle of Wertingen . The following day, Mack attempted to cross the Danube and move north. He was defeated in the Battle of Günzburg by Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher 's division of Michel Ney 's VI Corps which was still operating on the north bank. During the action, the French seized a bridgehead on the south bank. After first withdrawing to Ulm, Mack tried to break out to the north. His army was blocked by Pierre Dupont de l\'Etang 's VI Corps division and some cavalry in the Battle of Haslach-Jungingen on 11 October.

By the 11th, Napoleon's corps were spread out in a wide net to snare Mack's army. Nicolas Soult 's IV Corps reached Landsberg am Lech and turned east to cut off Mack from the Tyrol . Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte 's I Corps and Louis Nicolas Davout
Louis Nicolas Davout
's III Corps converged on Munich. Auguste Marmont 's II Corps was at Augsburg
Augsburg
. Murat, Ney, Lannes, and the Imperial Guard began closing in on Ulm. Mack ordered the corps of Franz von Werneck to march northeast, while Johann Sigismund Riesch covered its right flank at Elchingen . The Austrian commander sent Franz Jellacic 's corps south toward the Tyrol and held the remainder of his army at Ulm.

BATTLE

Mack surrenders to Napoleon
Napoleon
at Ulm
Ulm
by Paul-Émile Boutigny

On 14 October, Ney crushed Riesch's small corps at the Battle of Elchingen and chased its survivors back into Ulm. Murat detected Werneck's force and raced in pursuit with his cavalry. Over the next few days, Werneck's corps was overwhelmed in a series of actions at Langenau , Herbrechtingen , Nördlingen , and Neresheim . On 18 October he surrendered the remainder of his troops. Only Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este and a few other generals escaped to Bohemia with about 1,200 cavalry. Meanwhile, Soult secured the surrender of 4,600 Austrians at Memmingen and swung north to box in Mack from the south. Jellacic slipped past Soult and escaped to the south only to be hunted down and captured in the Capitulation of Dornbirn in mid-November by Pierre Augereau 's late-arriving VII Corps . By 16 October, Napoleon
Napoleon
had surrounded Mack's entire army at Ulm, and three days later Mack surrendered with 25,000 men, 18 generals, 65 guns, and 40 standards.

Some 20,000 escaped, 10,000 were killed or wounded, and the rest made prisoner. About 500 French were killed and 1,000 wounded, a low number for such a decisive battle. In less than 15 days the Grande Armée neutralized 60,000 Austrians and 30 generals. At the surrender (known as the Convention of Ulm), Mack offered his sword and presented himself to Napoleon
Napoleon
as, "the unfortunate General Mack." Bonaparte smiled and replied, "I give back to the unfortunate General his sword and his freedom, along with my regards to give to his Emperor." Francis II was not as kind, however. Mack was court-martialed and sentenced to two years' imprisonment.

AFTERMATH

Napoleon I saluting the wounded Austrians.

The Ulm Campaign
Ulm Campaign
is considered one of the finest examples of a strategic victory. The campaign was won with no major battle. The Austrians fell into the same trap Napoleon
Napoleon
had set at the Battle of Marengo , but with greater success. Everything was made to confuse the enemy.

In his proclamation in the Bulletin de la Grande Armée of the 21 October 1805 Napoleon
Napoleon
said, "Soldiers of the Grande Armée, I announced you a great battle. But thanks to the bad combinations of the enemy, I obtained the same success with no risk... In 15 days we have won a campaign."

By defeating the Austrian army, Napoleon
Napoleon
secured his conquest of Vienna
Vienna
, which was to be taken one month later.

Like the Battle of Austerlitz , The Ulm Campaign
Ulm Campaign
is still taught in military schools worldwide. The Ulm Campaign
Ulm Campaign
September–October 1805.

NOTES

* ^ http://dcjack.org/kagan%20on%20ulm.html * ^ Blond, G. La Grande Armée. Castle Books, 1979. pg.59. * ^ Haythornwaite, Philip J. (1990). The Napoleonic Source Book. London: Guild Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1854092878 . * ^ Nafziger, George F. (2002). Historical Dictionary of the Napoleonic Era. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 282.

REFERENCES

* Chandler, David G. (1966). The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York, NY: Macmillan. * Horne, Alistair (1979). Napoleon
Napoleon
Master of Europe 1805-1807. New York, NY: William Morrow & Co. ISBN 0-688-03500-0 . * Kagan, Frederick W. (2006). The End of the Old Order: Napoleon
Napoleon
and Europe, 1801-1805. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81137-5 . * Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Data Book. London: Greenhill. ISBN 1-85367-276-9 .

* v * t * e

Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars

* THIRD COALITION * FOURTH COALITION * PENINSULAR WAR * FIFTH COALITION * FRENCH INVASION OF RUSSIA * SIXTH COALITION * SEVENTH COALITION

Belli- gerents

France, client states and allies

* France * Polish Legions * Italy * Holland * Etruria * Swiss Confederation * Naples

* Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine

* Bavaria
Bavaria
* Saxony * Westphalia * Württemberg

* Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
* Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Persia * Spain

Coalition forces

* United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Austria * Russia * Prussia * Spain * Portugal * Sicily * Papal States
Papal States
* Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Persia * Sardinia * Sweden
Sweden
* Netherlands * Brunswick * Hanover * Nassau * French Royalists

Major battles

PRELUDE

* French Revolution * First Coalition * Second Coalition * 18 Brumaire * Planned invasion of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Duc d\'Enghien Execution * Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon

1805

* Diamond Rock * Cape Finisterre * Wertingen * Günzburg * Haslach-Jungingen * Elchingen * Ulm * Verona * Trafalgar * Caldiero * Cape Ortegal * Amstetten * Dürenstein * Schöngrabern * Austerlitz

1806

* Gaeta * Campo Tenese * Maida * Schleiz * Saalfeld * Jena–Auerstedt * Erfurt * Halle * Magdeburg * Prenzlau * Pasewalk * Stettin * Waren-Nossentin * Lübeck * Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising * Hameln * Czarnowo * Golymin * Pułtusk

1807

* Mohrungen * Stralsund * Eylau * Ostrołęka * Kolberg * Danzig * Mileto * Guttstadt-Deppen * Heilsberg * Friedland * Copenhagen * Invasion of Portugal

1808

* Dos de Mayo * Bruch * Rosily Squadron * Cabezón * 1st Zaragoza * Valencia * Medina de Rioseco * Bailén * Roliça * Vimeiro * Pancorbo * Valmaseda * Burgos * Espinosa * Tudela * Somosierra * 2nd Zaragoza * Sahagún * Benavente

1809

* Castellón * Uclés * Corunna * Valls * Tyrolean Rebellion * Villafranca * Yevenes/Yébenes * Ciudad Real * 1st Porto * Medellín * Bergisel * Sacile * Teugen-Hausen * Raszyn * Abensberg * Landshut * Eckmühl * Ratisbon * Neumarkt-Sankt Veit * Dalmatian Campaign * Ebelsberg * Gerona * Piave River * Grijó * 2nd Porto * Wörgl * Tarvis * Aspern-Essling * Alcañiz * Sankt Michael * Stralsund * Raab * María * Graz * Wagram * Korneuburg * Stockerau * Gefrees * Hollabrunn * Schöngrabern * Armistice of Znaim * Talavera * Walcheren Campaign * Ölper * Almonacid * Tamames * Ocaña * Alba de Tormes

1810

* Cádiz * Astorga * Ciudad Rodrigo * Barquilla * Côa * Almeida * Bussaco

1811

* Gebora * Barrosa * Pombal * Redinha * Casal Novo * Campo Maior * Sabugal * Almeida * Fuentes de Oñoro * Tarragona * Albuera * Usagre * Saguntum * Arroyo dos Molinos * Valencia

1812

* Ciudad Rodrigo * Badajoz * Villagarcia * Almaraz * Maguilla * Mir * Salamanca * García Hernández * Saltanovka * Ostrovno * Vitebsk * Klyastitsy * Majadahonda * Smolensk * 1st Polotsk * Valutino * Mesoten * Borodino * Burgos * Tarutino * 2nd Polotsk * Venta del Pozo * Maloyaroslavets * Chashniki * Vyazma * Smoliani * Krasnoi * Berezina

1813

* Castalla * Lützen * Bautzen * Tarragona * Luckau * Vitoria * San Sebastián * Pyrenees * Sorauren * Großbeeren * Katzbach * Dresden * 1st Kulm * San Marcial * Dennewitz * 2nd Kulm * Göhrde * Bidassoa * Leipzig * Hanau * Nivelle * Bornhöved * Sehested

1814

* Brienne * La Rothière * Mincio River * Champaubert * Montmirail * Château-Thierry * Vauchamps * Garris * Mormant * Montereau * Orthez * Bar-sur-Aube * Laon * Reims * Craonne * Arcis-sur-Aube * Fère-Champenoise * Saint-Dizier * Montmartre * Paris * Toulouse * Bayonne

1815

* Panaro * Occhiobello * Carpi * Casaglia * Ronco * Cesenatico * Pesaro * Scapezzano * Tolentino * Ancona * Castel di Sangro * San Germano * Gaeta * Quatre Bras * Ligny * Waterloo * Wavre * Rocheserviere * La Suffel * Rocquencourt * Issy

INFO

French and ally military and political leaders

* Napoleon
Napoleon
* Louis-Alexandre Berthier * Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
* Louis-Nicolas Davout * Jean Lannes * Auguste de Marmont * André Masséna
André Masséna
* Michel Ney * Jean-de-Dieu Soult * Marshal Victor * Jean-Baptiste Bessières
Jean-Baptiste Bessières
* Pierre-Charles Villeneuve * Joseph I * Louis Bonaparte
Louis Bonaparte
* Jérôme Bonaparte * Prince Poniatowski * Prince Eugène * Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria
Bavaria
* Frederick Augustus I of Saxony * Frederick I of Württemberg * Frederick VI of Denmark

Coalition military and political leaders

* Duke of Wellington * Rowland Hill * John Moore * Horatio Nelson * Thomas Cochrane * Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor * Manuel Lapeña * Archduke Charles * Prince von Schwarzenberg * Archduke John of Austria * Alexander I of Russia * Mikhail Kutuzov * Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly * Count Bennigsen * Pyotr Bagration * Frederick William III of Prussia * Gebhard von Blücher * Duke of Brunswick * Prince of Hohenlohe * Ferdinand VII of Spain * Miguel de Álava * Maria I of Portugal
Maria I of Portugal
* Prince Regent John of Portugal * Count of Feira * William, Prince of Orange * Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies * Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden
Sweden
* Prince Charles John of Sweden
Sweden
* Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII of France

Related conflicts

* Anglo-Spanish War

* English Wars

* Gunboat War * Dano-Swedish War

* Pomeranian War (Franco-Swedish War) * Russo-Persian War * Russo-Turkish War *