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Stalemate[2][3][4]

Muslims
Muslims
receive significant losses, however the Meccans (Makkans) fail to take Medina
Medina
(Madīnah).

Belligerents

Muslims
Muslims
of Medina Quraish of Mecca

Commanders and leaders

Muhammad Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib
Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib
Musab ibn Umayr
Musab ibn Umayr
ⱶ Abu Sufyan Khalid ibn al-Walid 'Amr ibn al-'As

Strength

700 infantry; 50 archers, 4 cavalry 3,000 infantry; 3,000 camels, 200 cavalry

Casualties and losses

70-75 killed 22-37 killed

v t e

Campaigns of Muhammad

Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)

Abwa Buwat Safwan Dul 1st Badr Kudr Sawiq Qaynuqa Thi Bahran Uhud Asad Nadir 2nd Nejd 2nd Badr Jandal Trench Qurayza Lahyan Mustaliq Treaty Khaybar Fadak Qura Dhat Baqra Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if Tabouk

The Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
(Arabic: غزوة أحد‎ Ġhazwat 'Uḥud) was a battle between the early Muslims
Muslims
and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula. Many Muslims
Muslims
were killed and the battle was considered a setback for the Muslims. The battle was fought on Saturday, 22 December 624 (7 Shawwal AH 3 in the Islamic calendar) at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud.[5] It occurred between a force from the Muslim
Muslim
community of Medina
Medina
led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a force led by Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from which many of the Muslims
Muslims
had previously emigrated. The Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
was the second military encounter between the Meccans and the Muslims, preceded by the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
in 624, where a small Muslim
Muslim
army had defeated a larger Meccan army. Marching out from Mecca
Mecca
towards Medina
Medina
on 10 December AD 624, the Meccans desired to avenge their losses at Badr and strike back at Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers. The Muslims
Muslims
readied for war soon afterwards and the two armies fought on the slopes and plains of Mount Uhud. Whilst outnumbered, the Muslims
Muslims
gained the early initiative and forced the Meccan lines back, thus leaving much of the Meccan camp unprotected. When the battle looked to be only one step away from a decisive Muslim
Muslim
victory, a serious mistake was committed by a part of the Muslim
Muslim
army, which altered the outcome of the battle. A breach of Muhammad's orders by the Muslim
Muslim
archers, who left their assigned posts to despoil the Meccan camp, allowed a surprise attack from the Meccan cavalry, led by Meccan war veteran Khalid ibn al-Walid, which brought chaos to the Muslim
Muslim
ranks. Many Muslims
Muslims
were killed, and Muhammad himself was badly injured. The Muslims
Muslims
had to withdraw up the slopes of Uhud. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims
Muslims
further, but marched back to Mecca
Mecca
declaring victory. For the Muslims, the battle was a significant setback. Although they had been close to routing the Meccans a second time, their breach of Muhammad's orders in favor of collecting Meccan spoils reaped severe consequences. The two armies would meet again in AD 627 at the Battle of the Trench.[6]

Contents

1 Background 2 Meccan force sets out 3 Encounter at Uhud 4 Aftermath

4.1 Muslim
Muslim
reaction 4.2 Further conflict

5 Islamic primary sources

5.1 Quran 5.2 Hadith 5.3 Biographical literature 5.4 Names of the Muslims
Muslims
killed in the battle

6 Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
in warfare 7 Modern references 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Background[edit] Muhammad
Muhammad
had preached the religion of Islam
Islam
in Mecca
Mecca
from 613 to 622. He had attracted a small community of followers, but also drew staunch opposition from the rest of the Quraysh, the tribe that ruled Mecca and to which he belonged. The Muslims
Muslims
fled Mecca
Mecca
in 622 after years of persecution and established themselves at Medina
Medina
(formerly known as Yathrib; Medina
Medina
means City). The Quraysh
Quraysh
had seized the properties and families of Muslims
Muslims
in Mecca
Mecca
and dispatched caravans to Damascus
Damascus
which the Muslims
Muslims
intercepted and raided. The Meccans sent out a small army to punish the Muslims
Muslims
and stop their raiding. At the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
in 623, a small Muslim
Muslim
force defeated the much larger Meccan army.[7] Many Muslims
Muslims
considered this unexpected victory a proof that they had been favored by God
God
and believed they were assured such victories in the future.[8] A number of the leading tribesmen of Quraysh
Quraysh
had been killed at Badr and so leadership passed to Abu Sufyan. He forbade the mourning of the losses at Badr, for he was eager to exact revenge upon Muhammad, vowing to conduct a retaliatory raid on the city of Medina. Several months later, Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
accompanied a party of 200 men to the city, obtaining temporary residence with the chief of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
and learning more of the current situation in Medina. He and his party then left Medina, burning down two houses and laying waste to some fields in fulfillment of his vow. Further skirmishes between the Meccans and the Muslims
Muslims
would occur thereafter.[9] The reason for the battle was to retaliate against the Muslims
Muslims
for the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
[10] Meccan force sets out[edit]

Ravine of Mount Uhud
Mount Uhud
(bifurcated mount just seen below in line of tower structure) where Muhammed was taken for rest after injury

The following year on 10 December 624, with Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
at the helm, the Meccans—anxious to avenge their defeat at Badr—raised another force numbering 3,000 and set out for the Muslim
Muslim
base in Medina. Rather than attacking Medina
Medina
itself, which was populated by numerous strongholds that would have required long sieges to overcome, they camped on the pastures north of the city, hoping that the Muslims would come out to meet them.[11][12] According to the early Muslim historian Ibn Ishaq, a number of Meccan women are said to have accompanied Abu Sufyan's army to provide vocal support, including Hind bint Utbah, his wife.[13] A scout alerted Muhammad
Muhammad
of the Meccan army's presence and numbers late on Thursday March 21.[citation needed] The next morning, a Muslim conference of war convened, and there was dispute over how to best repel the Meccans. Muhammad
Muhammad
and many of the senior figures suggested that it would be safer to fight within Medina
Medina
and take advantage of its heavily fortified strongholds.[citation needed] Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying their crops, and that huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim
Muslim
prestige. Muhammad
Muhammad
eventually conceded to the wishes of the latter, and readied the Muslim
Muslim
force for battle.[citation needed] Encounter at Uhud[edit]

Map of the battle, showing the Muslim
Muslim
and Meccan lines respectively.

A group of approximately 1,000 Muslim
Muslim
men set out on late Friday from Medina
Medina
and managed to circle around the Meccan forces. Early the next morning, they took a position on the lower slopes of the hill of Uhud. Shortly before the battle commenced, ' Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy (the chief of the Khazraj tribe) and his followers withdrew their support for Muhammad
Muhammad
and returned to Medina, with reports suggesting Ibn Ubayy's discontent with the plan to march out from Medina
Medina
to meet the Meccans. Ibn Ubayy and his followers would later receive censure in the Qur'an for this act.[14]

What ye suffered on the day the two armies Met, was with the leave of Allah, in order that He might test the believers,- And the Hypocrites also. These were told: "Come, fight in the way of Allah, or (at least) drive (The foe from your city)." They said: "Had we known how to fight, we should certainly have followed you." They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith, saying with their lips what was not in their hearts but Allah
Allah
hath full knowledge of all they conceal. (They are) the ones that say, (of their brethren slain), while they themselves sit (at ease): "If only they had listened to us they would not have been slain." Say: "Avert death from your own selves, if ye speak the truth." — Qur'an, sura 3 (Al-i-Imran), ayat 166-168[15]

The Muslim
Muslim
force, now numbering around 700, was stationed on the slopes of Uhud, facing Medina
Medina
with the rear being protected by the towering mount itself.[citation needed] Before the battle, Muhammad had assigned 50 archers on a nearby rocky hill at the West side of the Muslim
Muslim
camp. This was a strategic decision in order to shield the vulnerable flanks of the outnumbered Muslim
Muslim
army; the archers on the hill were to protect the left flank, while the right flank was to be protected by the Mount of Uhud situated on the east side of the Muslim camp.[citation needed] Protecting the flanks of the Muslim
Muslim
army meant that the Meccan army would not be able to turn around the Muslim
Muslim
camp, and thus the Muslim
Muslim
army wouldn't be surrounded or encircled by the Meccan cavalry, keeping in mind that the Meccan cavalry outnumbered the Muslim
Muslim
cavalry with a 50:1 ratio.[citation needed] Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered the Muslim
Muslim
archers to never under any circumstances leave their positions on the hill unless ordered to do so by him only, he made this order very clear by uttering these words to the archers, "If you saw us prevail and start to take spoils, do not come to assist us. And if you saw us get vanquished and birds eat from our heads, do not come to assist us."[16] The Meccan army positioned itself facing the Muslim
Muslim
lines, with the main body led by Abu Sufyan, and the left and right flanks commanded by Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl and Khalid ibn al-Walid
Khalid ibn al-Walid
respectively. 'Amr ibn al-'As was named the commander of cavalry and his task was to coordinate attack between the cavalry wings.[17][18]

Mount Uhud
Mount Uhud
seen from cemetery of Uhud martyrs

The Meccans attacked with their initial charge led by the Medinan exile Abu ‘Amir. Thwarted by a shower of stones from the Muslims, Abu ‘Amir and his men were forced to retire and tend to the camps behind the Meccan lines. The Meccan standard-bearer, Talhah ibn Abi Talhah al-‘Abdari, advanced and challenged the enemy to a duel. Ali ( Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib), the young cousin of Muhammad, rushed forth and struck Talhah down in a single blow. Talhah's brother, `Uthman, ran forward to pick up the fallen banner — the Meccan women willing him on with songs and the loud beating of timbrels. Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib emerged from the Muslim
Muslim
ranks, bringing him to a similar fate as Talhah. It was their family that was responsible for the Meccan army's standard-bearing, and thus one by one, Talhah's brothers and sons went to retrieve the Meccan banner and fight unsuccessfully, until they all eventually perished.[19] Following the duels, general engagement between the two armies commenced. Meccan confidence quickly began to dissolve as the Muslims
Muslims
swept through their ranks. The Meccan army was pushed back, and repeated attempts by its cavalry to overrun the left Muslim
Muslim
flank were negated by the Muslim
Muslim
archers.[20] Enjoying the best of these early encounters, the Muslims
Muslims
pierced through the Meccan lines, with victory appearing certain. However, it was the detachment of the Muslim
Muslim
archers, disobeying Muhammad's strict orders to remain stationary, that would shift the outcome of the battle, as they ran downhill to join in the advance and despoil the Meccan camp, leaving the flank vulnerable.[11][18]

Grave of Hamza, Mount Uhud, Medina

At this critical juncture, the Meccan cavalry led by Khalid ibn al-Walid exploited this move and attacked the remaining minority of Muslim
Muslim
archers who refused to disobey Muhammad's orders and were still positioned on the hill. From there, the Meccans were then able to target and overrun the Muslim
Muslim
flank and rear. Confusion ensued, and numerous Muslims
Muslims
were killed.[11][18] Most notably was Hamza, who had been thrown down in a surprise attack by the javelin of the Ethiopian slave of Hind, Wahshi ibn Harb. While the Meccan riposte strengthened, rumors circulated that Muhammad
Muhammad
too had perished. It emerged, however, that Muhammad
Muhammad
had only been wounded—due to missiles of stone which resulted in a gash on his forehead and lip. It is recorded that Ali ibn Abi Talib alone remained, fending off the assaults of Khalid's cavalrymen. According to Ibn Atheer, "The Prophet became the object of the attack of various units of the army of Quraish from all sides. Ali attacked, in compliance with Muhammad's orders, every unit that made an attack upon him and dispersed them or killed some of them, and this thing took place a number of times in Uhud."[21]

Muslim
Muslim
archers positioned on a hill during the Battle of Uhud, as depicted in Moustapha Akkad's 1976 film The Message

After fierce hand-to-hand combat, most of the Muslims
Muslims
managed to withdraw and regroup higher up on the slopes of Uhud.[citation needed] A small faction was cut off and tried to make its way back to Medina, though many of these were killed. The Meccans' chief offensive arm, its cavalry, was unable to ascend the slopes of Uhud in pursuit of the Muslims, and so the fighting ceased. Hind and her companions are said to have mutilated the Muslim
Muslim
corpses, cutting off their ears and noses and making the relics into anklets. Hind is reported to have cut open the corpse of Hamza, taking out his liver which she then attempted to eat.[22] Abu Sufyan, after some brief verbal exchanges with Muhammad's companion, Umar
Umar
( Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab),[23] decided to return to Mecca without pressing his advantage.[11][18] The battle is generally believed by scholars to be a defeat for the Muslims, as they had incurred greater losses than the Meccans. Chase F. Robinson, writing in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, states the notion that "the Muslims
Muslims
suffered a disheartening defeat is clear enough."[11] Other scholars such as William Montgomery Watt
William Montgomery Watt
disagree, noting that while the Muslims
Muslims
did not win, the Meccans had failed to achieve their strategic aim of destroying Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers; and that the Meccans' untimely withdrawal indicated weakness on their part.[24] The battle is also noted for the emergence of the military leadership and tactical military genius of Khalid ibn al-Walid, who would later become the most famous of all Arab
Arab
generals during the Islamic expansion era, in conquering the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and Byzantine held Syria.[25] Aftermath[edit] Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Muslims
Muslims
buried the dead on the battlefield, returning home that evening. The Meccans retired for the evening at a place called Hamra al-Asad, a few miles away from Medina. The next morning, Muhammad
Muhammad
sent out a small force to harass the Meccan army on their way home. According to Watt, this was because Muhammad
Muhammad
realized that a show of force was required to speed the Meccans away from Medinan territory. The Meccans, not wanting to be perceived as being chased away, remained nearby for a few days before leaving.[26] Muslim
Muslim
reaction[edit] For the Muslims, the battle held a religious dimension as well as a military one. They had expected another victory like at Badr, which was considered a sign of God's favor upon them. At Uhud, however, they had barely held off the invaders and had lost a great many men. A verse of the Qur'an
Qur'an
revealed soon after the battle cited the Muslims' disobedience and desire for loot as the cause for this setback:[6][27]

Allah
Allah
did indeed fulfil His promise to you when ye with His permission Were about to annihilate your enemy,-until ye flinched and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed it after He brought you in sight (of the booty) which ye covet. Among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you but He forgave you: For Allah
Allah
is full of grace to those who believe. — Qur'an, sura 3 (Al Imran), ayah 152[28]

According to the Qur'an, then, the misfortunes at Uhud — largely the result of the rear guard abandoning their position in order to seek booty — were partly a punishment and partly a test for steadfastness.[27] Firestone observes that such verses provided inspiration and hope to the Muslims, sacralizing future battles that they would experience. He adds that rather than demoralizing the Muslims, the battle seemed to reinforce the solidarity between them.[29] Further conflict[edit] Abu Sufyan, whose position as leader was no longer undisputed[citation needed], set about forging alliances with surrounding nomadic tribes in order to build up strength for another advance on Medina. The success of the Meccans' rousing of tribes against Muhammad
Muhammad
reaped disastrous consequences for him and the Muslims
Muslims
with two main losses: one was where a Muslim
Muslim
party had been invited by a chieftain of the Ma'unah tribe, who were then killed as they approached by the tribe of Sulaym; while the other was when the Muslims
Muslims
had sent out instructors to a tribe which stated it wanted to convert to Islam
Islam
— the instructors had been led into an ambush by the guides of the would-be Muslim
Muslim
tribe, and were subsequently killed.[30] Soon thereafter, Muhammad
Muhammad
became convinced that the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
harbored enmity towards him and were plotting to kill him. The Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
were expelled from Medina
Medina
after a fifteen-day siege, with some relocating to the oasis of Khaybar
Khaybar
and others to Syria.[31] Abu Sufyan, along with the allied confederate tribes, would attack Medina
Medina
in the Battle of the Trench, two years after the events at Uhud (in 627).[6] Islamic primary sources[edit]

This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Quran[edit] The event is mentioned in the Quran
Quran
verse [Quran 8:36] according to the Muslim
Muslim
scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri,[32] as well as [Quran 3:122], [Quran 3:167].[33] The Muslim
Muslim
Mufassir Ibn Kathir's commentary on this verse in his book Tafsir ibn Kathir
Tafsir ibn Kathir
is as follows:

Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ishaq narrated that Az-Zuhri, Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya bin Hibban, `Asim bin ` Umar
Umar
bin Qatadah, and Al-Husayn bin `Abdur-Rahman bin `Amr bin Sa`id bin Mu`adh said, "The Quraysh
Quraysh
suffered defeat at Badr and their forces went back to Makkah, while Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
went back with the caravan intact. This is when `Abdullah bin Abi Rabi`ah, `Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, Safwan bin Umayyah and other men from Quraysh who lost their fathers, sons or brothers in Badr, went to Abu Sufyan bin Harb. They said to him, and to those among the Quraysh
Quraysh
who had wealth in that caravan, `O people of Quraysh! Muhammad
Muhammad
has grieved you and killed the chiefs among you. Therefore, help us with this wealth so that we can fight him, it may be that we will avenge our losses.' They agreed. Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ishaq said, "This Ayah
Ayah
was revealed about them, according to Ibn `Abbas, (Verily, those who disbelieve spend their wealth...) until, (they who are the losers. )Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hakam bin `Uyaynah, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Abza said that this Ayah
Ayah
was revealed about Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
and his spending money in Uhud to fight the Messenger of Allah
Allah
. Ad-Dahhak said that this Ayah
Ayah
was revealed about the idolators of Badr. In any case, the Ayah
Ayah
is general, even though there was a specific incident that accompanied its revelation. Allah states here that the disbelievers spend their wealth to hinder from the path of truth. However, by doing that, their money will be spent and then will become a source of grief and anguish for them, availing them nothing in the least. They seek to extinguish the Light of Allah and make their word higher than the word of truth. However, Allah
Allah
will complete His Light, even though the disbelievers hate it. He will give aid to His religion, make His Word dominant, and His religion will prevail above all religions. This is the disgrace that the disbelievers will taste in this life; and in the Hereafter, they will taste the torment of the Fire. Whoever among them lives long, will witness with his eyes and hear with his ears what causes grief to him. Those among them who are killed or die will be returned to eternal disgrace and the everlasting punishment. —  Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
on Quran
Quran
8:36[34]

Hadith[edit] Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri mentions that this incident is also mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari.[35] Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:276 mentions:

The Prophet appointed 'Abdullah bin Jubair as the commander of the infantry men (archers) who were fifty on the day (of the battle) of Uhud. He instructed them, "Stick to your place, and don't leave it even if you see birds snatching us, till I send for you; and if you see that we have defeated the infidels and made them flee, even then you should not leave your place till I send for you." Then the infidels were defeated. By Allah, I saw the women fleeing lifting up their clothes revealing their leg-bangles and their legs. So, the companions of 'Abdullah bin Jubair said, "The booty! O people, the booty ! Your companions have become victorious, what are you waiting for now?" 'Abdullah bin Jubair said, "Have you forgotten what Allah's Apostle said to you?" They replied, "By Allah! We will go to the people (i.e. the enemy) and collect our share from the war booty." But when they went to them, they were forced to turn back defeated. At that time Allah's Apostle in their rear was calling them back. Only twelve men remained with the Prophet and the infidels martyred seventy men from us. — Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:276

It is also mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:30:108 that Quran
Quran
verse [Quran 4:88] was revealed about this event:

When the Prophet went out for (the battle of) Uhud, some of his companions (hypocrites) returned (home). A party of the believers remarked that they would kill those (hypocrites) who had returned, but another party said that they would not kill them. So, this Divine Inspiration was revealed: "Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties concerning the hypocrites." (4.88) The Prophet said, " Medina
Medina
expels the bad persons from it, as fire expels the impurities of iron." — Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:30:108

The event is also mentioned in Sahih Muslim, 4:2050 Biographical literature[edit] This event is mentioned in Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad.[34] Most of the information available about the events is derived from the sira—maghazi traditions (biographical narratives and documentation of military campaigns) of the early centuries of Islam. The general sequence of the events gained consensus early on, as demonstrated in the text of Ibn Ishaq, an early biographer of Muhammad. Accounts of the battle are derived mainly from descendants of the participants. Much of the basic narrative and chronology, according to Robinson, is reasonably authentic, although some of the more elaborate details — such as the exact scale of the Muslim
Muslim
defeat — may be doubtful or difficult to ascertain.[11] Names of the Muslims
Muslims
killed in the battle[edit] Ibn al-Athir gives the names of 85 Muslims
Muslims
killed in the battle of Uhud. Of these, 75 were Medinans (43 from the Banu Khazraj
Banu Khazraj
and 32 from the Banu Aws) and 10 were Muhajirun (Emigrants) from Mecca. Moreover, 46 of the 85 martyrs of Uhud had also participated in the earlier battle of Badr. The names of the martyrs of Uhud (in Arabic alphabetical order) are:

Anas bin an-Nadr al-Khazrajī Unays bin Qatādah bin Rabī‘ah al-Badrī al-Awsī Aws bin al-Arqam al-Khazrajī Aws bin Thābit bin al-Mundhir al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Iyās bin Aws al-Badrī al-Awsī Thābit bin ‘Amr bin Zayd al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Thābit bin Waqsh al-Awsī Tha‘labah bin Sa‘d al-Khazrajī Thaqf bin Farwah al-Khazrajī al-Hārith bin Aws bin Mu‘ādh al-Badrī al-Awsī al-Hārith bin‘Adī bin Kharashah al-Khazrajī al-Hārith bin ‘Uqbah bin Qābūs al-Muhājirī Hubāb bin Qayzī al-Awsī Habīb bin Zayd bin Tamīm al-Awsī Husayl bin Jābir al-Awsī, Abū Hudhayfa al-Yamān (father of Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman) Hamza bin ‘Abdul Muttalib al-Badrī al-Muhājirī Hanzala bin Abī ‘Āmir al-Awsī al-Hārith bin Anas bin Rāfi‘ al-Badrī al-Awsī Khārijah bin Zayd bin Abī Zuhayr al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Khidāsh bin Qatādah al-Badrī al-Awsī Khallād bin ‘Amr bin al-Jamūh al-Badrī, al-Khazrajī Khaythama bin al-Hārith al-Awsī Dhakwān bin ‘Abdi Qays al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Rāfi‘, mawla Ghaziyya bin ‘Amr al-Khazraj Rāfi‘ bin Mālik al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Rifā‘ah bin ‘Amr al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Rifā‘ah bin Waqsh al-Awsī Zayd bin Wadī‘ah al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Subay‘ bin Hātib al-Awsī Sa‘d al-Badrī, mawla Hātib bin Abī Balta‘ah al-Badrī al-Muhājirī Sa‘d bin ar-Rabī‘ bin ‘Amr al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Sa‘īd bin Suwayd al-Khazrajī Salamah bin Thābit bin Waqsh al-Badrī al-Awsī Sulaym bin al-Hārith al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Sulaym bin ‘Amr al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Sahl bin Rūmī al-Awsī Sahl bin ‘Adī bin Zayd al-Awsī Sahl bin Qays bin Abī Ka‘b al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Shammās bin ‘Uthmān al-Badrī al-Muhājirī Sayfī bin Qayzī al-Awsī Damrah bin ‘Amr al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Qurrah bin ‘Uqba al-Awsī Qays bin ‘Amr bin Zayd al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Qays bin Mukhallad al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Kaysān, mawla Banī ‘Adī bin an-Najjār al-Khazrajī ‘Āmir bin Umayya al-Badrī al-Khazrajī ‘Āmir bin Mukhallad al-Badrī al-Khazrajī ‘Āmir bin Yazīd bin as-Sakan al-Awsī ‘Abbād bin Sahl al-Awsī ‘Ubbād bin al-Khashkhāsh al-Badrī al-Khazrajī ‘Abbās bin ‘Ubāda al-Khazrajī ‘AbdAllāh bin Jubayr al-Badrī al-Awsī ‘AbdAllāh bin Jahsh al-Badrī al-Muhājirī ‘AbdAllāh bin Salamah al-Badrī al-Awsī ‘AbdAllāh bin ‘Amr al-Badrī al-Khazrajī (father of Jabir ibn Abd-Allah) ‘AbdAllāh bin ‘Amr bin Wahb al-Khazrajī ‘Ubayd bin at-Tayyihān al-Badrī al-Awsī ‘Ubayd bin al-Mu‘allā al-Khazrajī ‘Utbah bin Rabī‘ bin Rāfi‘ al-Khazrajī ‘Aqrabah al-Juhanī, Abū Bashīr al-Muhājirī ‘Umārah bin Ziyād bin as-Sakan al-Badrī al-Awsī ‘Amr bin Thābit bin Waqsh al-Awsī ‘Amr bin al-Jamūh al-Badrī al-Khazrajī ‘Amr bin Qays bin Zayd al-Badrī al-Khazrajī ‘Amr bin Mutarrif al-Khazrajī ‘Amr bin Mu‘ādh al-Badrī al-Awsī ‘Antarah as-Sulamī al-Badrī, mawla Sulaym bin ‘Amr al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Mālik bin Iyās al-Khazrajī Mālik bin Khalaf al-Muhājirī Mālik bin Sinān al-Khazrajī (father of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri) Mālik bin Numaylah al-Badrī al-Awsī al-Mujadhdhar bin Ziyād al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Mus‘ab bin ‘Umayr al-Badrī al-Muhājirī Nu‘mān bin Khalaf al-Muhājirī Nu‘mān bin ‘Abdi ‘Amr al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Nu‘mān bin Mālik al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Nawfal bin ‘Abdillāh al-Badrī al-Khazrajī Wahb bin Qābūs al-Muhājirī Yazīd bin Hātib al-Awsī Yazīd bin as-Sakan al-Badrī al-Awsī Yasār, mawla Abi’l Haytham bin at-Tayyihān al-Awsī Abū Ayman, mawla of ‘Amr bin al-Jamūh al-Khazrajī Abū Habbah bin ‘Amr bin Thābit al-Badrī al-Awsī Abū Sufyān bin al-Hārith al-Awsī (not the Meccan Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
ibn al-Harith) Abū Hubayrah bin al-Hārith al-Khazrajī

al-Badri = veteran of Badr al-Khazraji = tribesman of the Banu Khazraj al-Awsi = tribesman of the Banu Aws al-Muhajiri = emigrant from Mecca
Mecca
[36] Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
in warfare[edit] Muhammad
Muhammad
showed his ability as a general by choosing the battlefield of Uhud. He decided according to the will of Muslims
Muslims
to fight in open country but he was aware of the superior mobility of the Meccans. He knew an encounter in open country would expose the infantry wings to envelopment, so to neutralize the Meccan mobility factor, he decided to hold high ground with Mount Uhud
Mount Uhud
in their rear, which provided security from any attack from the rear. Moreover, as the front was of approximately of 800 to 900 yd (730 to 820 m)[37] and on one flank he rested Mount Einein and on other flank were the defiles of Mount Uhud
Mount Uhud
so in military language he refused both wings to the Meccan cavalry. The only approach from which they could be taken from the rear was protected by the deployment of archers.[38] Modern references[edit] The battle of Uhud is the second of the two main battles featured in Moustapha Akkad's 1976 film centering on the life of Muhammad, Mohammad, Messenger of God. The other battle featured is the battle of Badr.[39] The battle of Uhud is also depicted in the 2004 animated film, Muhammad: The Last Prophet, directed by Richard Rich,[40] and in the 2012 TV series Farouk Omar. The cave in Mount Uhud
Mount Uhud
where Muhammad rested temporarily during the battle has also received recent media attention in the light of proposals by some Islamic scholars for it to be destroyed.[41] See also[edit]

Book: Military career of Muhammad

Battle of Badr Abu Dujana Umm Hakim Hammanah bint Jahsh Nusaybah bint Ka'ab List of Sahaba List of battles of Muhammad Umm Ayman (Barakah) the woman who was present at the Battle of Uhud

Notes[edit]

^ Miniature from volume 4 of a copy of Mustafa al-Darir’s Siyar-i Nabi (Life of the Prophet). "The Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Muslim
Muslim
Army at the Battle of Uhud" Turkey, Istanbul; c. 1594 Leaf: 37.3 × 27 cm David
David
Collection. ^ Dr. Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah, The Battlefields of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, p. 111, ISBN 81-7151-153-8  ^ Peter Crawford, The War of the Three Gods: Romans, Persians and the Rise of Islam, Pen & Sword Books Limited, p. 83  ^ William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina, p. 27  ^ Watt (1974) p. 136 ^ a b c Cambridge History of Islam
Islam
1A (1977) pp. 47-48 ^ Peters (1994) pp. 211—214 ^ Watt (1974) pp. 142—143 ^ Watt (1974) pp. 132—135 ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 181. (online) ^ a b c d e f "Uhud", Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
Online ^ Watt (1974) p. 135 ^ Guillaume 813 ^ Watt (1974) p. 137 ^ Quran 3:166–168 ^ Review: The lesson of Uhud defeat (in Arabic)[permanent dead link] ^ Muir; Weir (1912) p. 258 ^ a b c d Watt (1974) pp. 138—139 ^ Muir; Weir (1912) p. 259 ^ Muir; Weir (1912) p. 260 ^ Syed, Akramulla. "History of Islam
Islam
and Muslims, The second battle of Islam
Islam
at Uhud, Battle of Ohod". www.ezsoftech.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ Ibn Ishaq (1955) 380—388, cited in Peters (1994) p. 218 ^ Ibn Ishaq records this exchange as follows:

When (the Quraysh
Quraysh
leader) Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
wanted to leave, he went to the top of the mountain and shouted loudly, saying, "You have done a fine work. Victory in war goes by turns: today is in exchange for the day of Badr. Show your superiority, Hubal", that is, vindicate your religion. The Messenger told Umar
Umar
to go up and answer him and say, " God
God
is most high and most glorious. We are not equal: our dead are in paradise, yours are in hell." At this answer Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
said to Umar, "Come up here to me." The Messenger told him to go and see what Abu Sufyan was up to. When he came Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
said, "I adjure you by God, Umar, have we killed Muhammad?""By God, you have not, he is listening to what you are saying right now", Umar
Umar
replied. Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
said, "I regard you as more truthful and reliable than Ibn Qami'a", referring to the latter's claim that he had killed Muhammad. — cf. Ibn Ishaq (1955) 380—388, cited in Peters (1994) p. 219

^ See:

Cambridge History of Islam
Islam
1A (1977) pp. 47—48 Firestone (1999) p.132

^ See:

Andrae; Menzel (1960) p. 150; Nafziger; Walton (2000) pp. 16-18; Watt (1974) p. 200

^ See:

Watt (1981) p. 432; An early Muslim
Muslim
historian, al-Waqidi, records 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
(a Meccan commander) as saying:

When we renewed the attack against them, we smote a certain number of them, and they scattered in every direction, but later a party of them rallied. Quraysh
Quraysh
then took counsel together and said, The victory is ours, let us depart. For we had heard that Ibn Ubayy had retired with a third of the force, and some of the Aws and the Khazraj had stayed away from the battle, and we were not sure that they would not attack us. Moreover we had a number of wounded, and all our horses had been wounded by the arrows. So they set off. We had not reached ar-Rawha until a number of them came against us and we continued on our way. — cited in Peters (1994) p. 219.

^ a b Watt(1974) p. 144 ^ Quran 3:152 ^ Firestone (1999) p. 132 ^ Watt (1974) pp. 147—148 ^ Nadir, Banu-l. Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
Online ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, p. 292. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, pp. 299-300. ^ a b Muhammad
Muhammad
Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
Juz' 9 (Part 9): Al-A'Raf 88 to Al-Anfal 40, p. 226, MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 1861795750. (online) ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, p. 296 (footnote 2). ^ Noormuhammad, Siddiq Osman. "Martyrs of the Battle of Uhud". www.iqra.net. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ Akram, Agha Ibrahim (2004), Khalid bin al-Waleed - His Life and Campaigns, Oxford University Press: Pakistan, ISBN 0-19-597714-9 ^ http://www.justislam.co.uk/The%20Sword%20of%20Allah/03.04.html ^ Review: The Message. Mark Campbell, 24 April 2004. ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
The Last Prophet": A Movie Below Expectations Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Islamonline.net. ^ Call to destroy Uhud cave rejected. 23 January 2006, ArabNews
ArabNews
. Retrieved 2007-06-07.

References[edit]

Books and journals

Andrae, Tor; Menzel, Theophil (1960). Mohammed: The Man and His Faith. New York: Harper Torchbook. OCLC 871364.  Firestone, Rueven (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512580-0.  Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
(1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1A. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29136-4.  I. Ishaq & A. Guillaume (October 2002). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford University Press, USA; New Impression edition. ISBN 0-19-636033-1.  Muir, William; Weir, T. H. (1912). The Life of Mohammad. Edinburgh: John Grant. OCLC 5754953.  Nafziger, George F.; Walton, Mark W. (2003). Islam
Islam
at War: a history. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98101-0.  Peters, F.E (1994). Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Origins of Islam. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1875-8.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1981). Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina. Oxford University Press; New edition. ISBN 0-19-577307-1. 

Encyclopedias

Robinson, C. F. "Uhud". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.  Vacca, V. "Nadir, Banu-l". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Uhud.

The battle of Uhud What were the reasons of the battle of Uhud? Abu Ammaar Yasir Qadhi The Battle of Uhud

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims
Muslims
of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book
Book
(Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book
Book
of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (titl

.