Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Tippecanoe (/ˌtɪpikəˈnuː/ TIP-ee-kə-NOO) was
fought on November 7, 1811, in what is now Battle Ground, Indiana,
between American forces led by Governor
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison of the
Indiana Territory and Native American warriors associated with the
Shawnee leader Tecumseh.
Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa
(commonly known as "The Prophet") were leaders of a confederacy of
Native Americans from various tribes that opposed US expansion into
Native territory. As tensions and violence increased, Governor
Harrison marched with an army of about 1,000 men to disperse the
confederacy's headquarters at Prophetstown, near the confluence of the
Tippecanoe and Wabash rivers.
Tecumseh, not yet ready to oppose the
United States by force, was away
recruiting allies when Harrison's army arrived. Tenskwatawa, a
spiritual leader but not a military man, was in charge. Harrison
camped near Prophetstown on November 6 and arranged to meet with
Tenskwatawa the following day. Early the next morning, however,
warriors from Prophetstown attacked Harrison's army. Although the
outnumbered attackers took Harrison's army by surprise, Harrison and
his men stood their ground for more than two hours. The Native
Americans were ultimately repulsed when their ammunition ran low.
After the battle, they abandoned Prophetstown and Harrison's men
burned it to the ground, destroying the food supplies stored for the
winter. The soldiers returned to their homes.
Harrison, having accomplished his goal of destroying Prophetstown,
proclaimed he had won a decisive victory. He gained the nickname
"Tippecanoe", which was popularized in the campaign song "Tippecanoe
and Tyler too" during the presidential election of 1840, which
Harrison won. The defeat was a setback for Tecumseh's confederacy from
which it never fully recovered.
American public opinion blamed the violence on British interference in
American affairs through financial and munitions support for the
Indians. This led to a further deterioration of relations with Britain
and was a catalyst of the War of 1812, which began six months later.
By the time the US declared war on the
United Kingdom in June 1812,
Tecumseh's confederacy was ready to launch its war against the United
States in alliance with the British. In preparation, the Natives soon
rebuilt Prophetstown. Frontier violence in the region would continue
until well after the War of 1812, although
Tecumseh was killed in 1813
during the Battle of the Thames.
5 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Main article: Tecumseh's War
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison as painted by
Rembrandt Peale in 1814
After being appointed governor of the newly formed
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison sought to secure title to Native
American lands to open more land for settlers; in particular, he hoped
Indiana Territory would attract enough settlers to qualify for
statehood. Harrison negotiated numerous land cession treaties with
American Indians, including the Treaty of Fort Wayne on September 30,
1809, in which Miami, Pottawatomie, Lenape, and other tribal leaders
sold 3,000,000 acres (approximately 12,000 km²) to the
Tecumseh, by Benson Lossing in 1848 based on 1808 drawing
Tenskwatawa, by Charles Bird King, 1872
Tenskwatawa, known as the Prophet, had been leading a religious
movement among the northwestern tribes, calling for a return to the
ancestral ways. His brother, Tecumseh, was outraged by the Treaty of
Fort Wayne, and thereafter emerged as a prominent leader. Tecumseh
revived an idea advocated in previous years by the
Shawnee leader Blue
Jacket and the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, which stated that Native
American land was owned in common by all tribes, and land could not be
sold without agreement by all the tribes.
Not yet ready to confront the
United States directly,
that he was opposed by those Native American leaders who had signed
the treaty. He threatened to kill anyone and their followers who
carried out the terms of the treaty.
Tecumseh began to travel widely,
urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist chiefs and to join his
resistance at Prophetstown.
Tecumseh insisted that the Fort Wayne
treaty was illegitimate. In an 1810 meeting with Governor Harrison,
he demanded that Harrison nullify the treaty and warned that settlers
should not attempt to settle the lands sold in the treaty. Harrison
rejected his demands and insisted that the tribes could have
individual relations with the United States.
In the meeting
Tecumseh warned Harrison that he would seek an alliance
with the British if hostilities broke out. Tensions between the
United States and Britain had been high for several months as a result
of British interference in U.S. commerce with France. As early as
1810, British agents had sought to secure an alliance with Native
Americans to assist in the defense of
Canada should hostilities break
out, but the Natives had been reluctant to accept their offer, fearing
they had little to benefit from such an arrangement.
In August 1811,
Tecumseh again met with Harrison at Vincennes.
Tecumseh assured Harrison that the
Shawnee brothers meant to remain at
peace with the United States.
Tecumseh traveled to the Southeast on
a mission to recruit allies among the "Five Civilized Tribes". Most of
the southern nations rejected his appeals, but a faction of the Creek,
who came to be known as the Red Sticks, answered his call to arms.
They led the Creek War, an internal war among factions that were
divided over adoption of some European-American ways. This became a
part of the War of 1812, as the
Red Sticks opposed the United
States. By contrast, the Creek of the Lower Towns were more
integrated with American culture and supported the US against Britain.
Harrison left the territory for business in
Kentucky shortly after the
meeting with Tecumseh, and secretary John Gibson was acting governor.
Gibson, who had lived among the Miami tribe for many years, was quick
to learn of Tecumseh's plans for war; he immediately called out the
territory's militia and sent emergency letters calling for the return
of Harrison. By mid-September, most of the militia regiments had
formed. By then, Harrison had returned, accompanied by a small force
of army regulars, and had taken command of the militia. Harrison had
already communicated with his superiors in Washington, D.C., and he
had been authorized to march against the confederacy in a show of
force, in the hopes that its members would accept peace.
Harrison gathered the scattered militia companies at Fort Knox
near a settlement on Maria Creek, north of Vincennes. There he
was joined by the sixty-man company called the Yellow Jackets, so
named for their bright yellow coats, from Corydon, Indiana, as well as
Indiana Rangers.[note 1]
The entire force of about 1000 men set out northward towards
Prophetstown. The force consisted of about 250 army regulars from
the 4th US
Infantry Regiment, 100
Kentucky volunteers, and near 600
Indiana militia, including two companies of the
The army reached the site of modern Terre Haute, Indiana, on October
3, where they camped and built Fort Harrison while waiting for
supplies to be delivered. A scouting party of Yellow Jackets was
ambushed by Native Americans on October 10, resulting in several
casualties. The Americans stopped foraging, and supplies quickly began
to run low. By October 19, officers cut the rations, and the men
survived on low rations until October 28, when fresh supplies arrived
Wabash River from Vincennes. With the army resupplied,
Harrison resumed his advance to Prophetstown on October 29.
Further information: Tippecanoe order of battle
As Harrison's forces approached Prophetstown late on November 6, they
were met by one of Tenskwatawa's followers waving a white flag. He
carried a message from Tenskwatawa, requesting a ceasefire until the
next day when the two sides could hold a peaceful meeting. Harrison
agreed to a meeting, but was wary of Tenskwatawa's overture, believing
that the negotiations would be futile. Harrison moved his army to a
nearby hill near the confluence of the upper Wabash and Tippecanoe
rivers. There he camped his men in battle array, and kept sentinels on
duty during the night.
A map showing the layout of the battlefield
On the west side of the hill was a shallow creek (Burnett Creek), and
on the east side a very steep embankment. Because of the nature of the
position, Harrison did not order temporary works to be created around
the position, as was ordinarily done by encamped armies. The
Yellow Jacket company, with Captain
Spier Spencer in command, was
posted on the southern end of the camp perimeter. The rest of the
militia formed a rectangular formation along the edges of the bluff
surrounding the camp. Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Bartholomew commanded
Indiana militia units guarding the steep bluff on the eastern side
of the formation. The regulars, commanded by Major Floyd, and the
dragoons, commanded by Maj. Joseph Daveiss and former congressman
Capt. Benjamin Parke, were kept behind the main line in
In an 1816 conversation with Lewis Cass, the Governor of Michigan,
Tenskwatawa denied that he ordered his warriors to attack Harrison. He
Ho-Chunk (also known as Winnebago) warriors in his camp for
launching the attack. Other accounts also credit the
encouraging the attack and suggest that
Tenskwatawa was unable to
control his followers as panic set in. Tenskwatawa's followers
were worried by the nearby army and feared an imminent attack. They
had begun to fortify the town, but not completed their defenses.
During the evening,
Tenskwatawa consulted with the spirits and decided
that sending a party to murder Harrison in his tent was the best way
to avoid a battle. He assured the warriors that he would cast spells
that would prevent them from being harmed and confuse Harrison's army
so they would not resist. The warriors moved out and began to surround
Harrison's army, looking for a way to enter the camp undetected.
African-American wagon driver traveling with Harrison's army,
had deserted to the
Shawnee during the expedition. He agreed to lead a
small group of warriors through the line to Harrison's tent. During
the late night hours, he was captured by the camp sentries, taken back
to the camp and bound. He was later convicted of treason but pardoned
Although existing accounts are unclear about exactly how the battle
began, Harrison's sentinels encountered advancing warriors in the
pre-dawn hours of November 7. Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Bartholomew
was appointed officer of the day and had ordered the troops to sleep
with their weapons loaded. Around 4:30 a.m., the soldiers awoke
to scattered gunshots and found they were nearly encircled by
Tenskwatawa's forces. Contact was first made on the northern end of
the perimeter, but the movement was probably intended as a diversion.
Shortly after the first shots, fierce fighting broke out on the
opposite end as the warriors charged Harrison's line on the southern
corner. The militia's small-caliber rifles had little effect on the
warriors as they rushed the defenders. Spencer was among the first to
be killed, being shot in each thigh. Governor Harrison later recorded
his death in a dispatch to Washington saying,
... Spencer was wounded in the head. He exhorted his men to fight
valiantly. He was shot through both thighs and fell; still continuing
to encourage them, he was raised up, and received [another] ball
through his body, which put an immediate end to his
Lieutenants Nuge and Klaus, the other two Yellow Jacket commanding
officers, were also soon shot and killed. The Yellow Jackets began to
fall back from the main line, retreating with the sentinels. The
warriors followed the retreating unit and entered the camp. Colonel
Bartholomew requested a detachment of 25 regular troops and led a
bayonet charge that repulsed the warriors. During the charge
Bartholomew was shot through the lower arm, breaking both bones. He
was still clutching his sword when he was treated hours later. For his
leadership during the Battle of Tippecanoe, Bartholomew was promoted
to brigadier general.
Indiana territorial legislature passed a resolution on December 4,
1811, which read,
Resolved… that the thanks of this house be presented to Col. Luke
Decker and Col. Joseph Bartholomew, the officers, non-commissioned
officers and men composing the militia corps under their command…for
the distinguished valor, heroism and bravery displayed by them in the
brilliant battle fought with the
Shawnee Prophet and his confederates
on the morning of the 7th of Nov, 1811 by the Army under the command
of His Excellency William Henry Harrison.
Bartholomew County, Indiana
Bartholomew County, Indiana was named in his honor.
The soldiers regrouped under the command of future United States
Senator, ensign John Tipton, and with the help of two reserve
companies under the command of Captain Robb and sealed the breach in
The second charge by the Native Americans was made against both the
north and south ends of the camp, with the far southern end again
being the hardest hit. Over half of Harrison's casualties were
suffered among the companies on the southern end, including Captain
Spencer and five other men in his company, and seven other men in the
adjoining company.[note 3] With the regulars reinforcing that critical
section of the line, and the surprise over, the men held their
position as the attacks continued. On the northern end of the camp,
Major Daveiss led the dragoons on a counter charge that punched
through the Native Americans' line before being repulsed. Most of
Daveiss' company retreated to Harrison's main line, but Daveiss was
killed.[note 4] Throughout the next hour, Harrison's troops fought off
several more charges. When the warriors began to run low on ammunition
and the sun rose, revealing the small size of Tenskwatawa's forces,
the warriors began to slowly withdraw. A second charge by
the dragoons forced the remaining Native Americans to flee.
Prophet's Rock near the Tippecanoe battleground about 1902.
Tenskwatawa is believed to have sung or chanted from this rock to
exhort his warriors against Harrison's forces.
The battle lasted about two hours and Harrison lost 62 men (37 killed
in action and 25 mortally wounded); about 126 were less seriously
hurt. The Yellow Jackets suffered the highest casualties of
the battle, with 30% of their numbers killed or wounded. The number of
Native American casualties is still the subject of debate, but it was
certainly lower than that of the
United States forces. Historians
estimate that as many as 50 were killed and about 70–80 were
The warriors retreated to Prophetstown where, according to one chief's
account, the warriors confronted Tenskwatawa. They accused him of
deceit because of the many deaths, which his spells were supposed to
have prevented. He blamed his wife for desecrating his magic medicine
and offered to cast a new spell; he insisted that the warriors launch
a second attack, but they refused.
Fearing Tecumseh's imminent return with reinforcements, Harrison
ordered his men to fortify their camp with works for the rest of the
day. As the sentries moved back out, they discovered and scalped the
bodies of 36 warriors. The following day, November 8, Harrison
sent a small group of men to inspect the
Shawnee town and found it was
deserted except for one elderly woman too sick to flee. The remainder
of the defeated Natives had evacuated the village during the night.
Harrison ordered his troops to spare the woman, but to burn down
Prophetstown and destroy the Native Americans' cooking implements,
without which the confederacy would be hard pressed to survive the
winter. Everything of value was confiscated, including 5,000 bushels
of corn and beans stored for winter. Some of Harrison's soldiers
dug up bodies from the graveyard in Prophetstown to scalp.
Harrison's troops buried their own dead on the site of their camp.
They built large fires over the mass grave in an attempt to conceal it
from the Native Americans.[note 5] After Harrison's troops departed
the area, the Native Americans returned to the grave site, digging up
many of the corpses in retaliation and scattering the bodies.
Indiana in the War of 1812
Document released to the public featuring information on the "hostile
Indians" of the Wabash after the battle
The day after the battle the American wounded were loaded onto wagons
and carried back to Fort Harrison for medical care. Most of the
militia was released from duty on November 9 and returned home, but
many of the long-time soldiers remained in the area a bit longer.
In his initial report to Secretary William Eustis, Harrison informed
him of a battle having occurred near the Tippecanoe River, giving the
battle the river's name; he added that he feared an imminent reprisal.
The first dispatch did not make clear which side had won the conflict,
and the secretary interpreted it as a defeat. The follow-up dispatch
United States victory clear, and the defeat of Tecumseh's
confederacy became more certain when no second attack occurred. Eustis
replied with a lengthy note demanding to know why Harrison had not
taken adequate precautions in fortifying his camp. Harrison replied
that he had considered the position strong enough without
fortification. This dispute was the catalyst of a disagreement between
Harrison and the Department of War; as a result, he resigned from the
army in 1814.
At first, the newspapers carried little information about the battle,
as they were focused on the highlights of the ongoing Napoleonic Wars
in Europe. A Louisville newspaper printed a copy of Harrison's first
dispatch and characterized the battle as a defeat for the United
States. But, by December, most of the major papers in the United
States began to carry stories about the battle. Public outrage quickly
grew and many citizens blamed the British for inciting the tribes to
violence and supplying them with firearms.
Andrew Jackson was at the
forefront of those calling for war, saying that
Tecumseh and his
allies were "excited by secret British agents". Other western
governors called for action:
Willie Blount of
Tennessee called on the
government to "purge the camps of Indians of every Englishmen to be
found ..." Acting on popular sentiment, the
War Hawks in
Congress passed resolutions condemning the British for interfering in
the United States' domestic affairs. This popular connection between
Tecumseh's rise and British influence, sentiment which peaked
following Tippecanoe, helped
War Hawks such as
Felix Grundy and
Speaker of the House
Henry Clay to justify the War of 1812. They
capitalized on the pathos generated by the death of Joseph
Until recently historians have accepted an account of the time that
Tecumseh was furious with
Tenskwatawa for losing the battle, and that
Tecumseh had threatened to kill his brother for making the attack.
According to this story, the Prophet lost prestige after the battle
and no longer served as a leader of the confederacy. In their
subsequent meetings with Harrison, several Native leaders claimed that
the Prophet's influence was destroyed; some accounts said that he was
being persecuted by other leaders. Historians
Alfred A. Cave and
Robert Owens have argued that the Natives were probably trying to
mislead Harrison, in an attempt to calm the situation, and that
Tenskwatawa continued to play an important role in the
Having accomplished his goal of dispersing the Natives of
Prophetstown, Harrison proclaimed that he had won a decisive victory.
But some of Harrison's contemporaries, as well as some subsequent
historians, raised doubts about Harrison's claimed success. "In none
of the contemporary reports from Indian agents, traders, and public
officials on the aftermath of Tippecanoe can we find confirmation of
the claim that Harrison had won a decisive victory", wrote historian
Alfred Cave. The defeat was a setback for Tecumseh's confederacy,
but the Natives soon rebuilt Prophetstown. Frontier violence by
Natives increased after the battle. Adam Jortner says the battle
was a disaster for both sides, except in strengthening Tenskwatawa's
On December 16, 1811, the first of the New Madrid earthquakes shook
the South and the Midwest. Many Indians took the earthquake as a
sign that Tenskwatawa's predictions of doom were coming true, and they
Tecumseh in greater number, including many of his former
detractors. They increased their attacks against European-American
settlers and isolated outposts in the
Indiana and Illinois
Territories, resulting in the deaths of many civilians. The
Shawnee partially rebuilt Prophetstown over the next year, but it was
destroyed by a second US campaign in 1812.
Tecumseh continued to play
a major role in military operations on the frontier. By the time the
U.S. declared war on Great Britain in the War of 1812, Tecumseh's
confederacy was ready to launch its own war against the United States,
this time with British allies. Tecumseh's warriors made up nearly
half of the British forces that captured Detroit from the United
States in the War of 1812. It was not until Tecumseh's death at the
Battle of the Thames
Battle of the Thames in
Ontario that his confederacy ceased to
threaten the interests of the United States.
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison ran for President of the United States
during the election of 1840, he used the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler
Too" to remind people of his heroism during the battle.
It shall be the duty of the General Assembly,
to provide for the permanent enclosure and
preservation of the Tippecanoe Battle Ground.
Indiana Constitution, Article 15, Section 10.
The participants in the battle received the Thanks of Congress. The
resolution originally included
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison by name, but his
name was removed from the resolution before passage. Harrison
considered this to be an insult, thinking Congress implied he was the
one person in the campaign not worthy of accolades, and he expressed
the opinion that it held him up to obloquy and disrespect. He was
later awarded the
Thanks of Congress and a
Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal in
1818 for victory at the Battle of the Thames.
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison returned to the battlefield in 1835 to give
speeches during his first presidential campaign. He called for the
creation of a memorial to preserve the battle site.
John Tipton later
purchased the land to preserve it. The
Methodist Church purchased the
mission school on the hill and used it as a seminary. Tipton left the
battlefield to the seminary in his will, and they maintained it for
many years, building a larger facility at the location in 1862. The
Battle and Harrison were memorialized by two
Ohio towns being named
Tippecanoe; one changed its name to Tipp City in 1938.
Monument near the battle site
In 1908, the
Indiana General Assembly
Indiana General Assembly commissioned the creation of an
80-foot (24 m) high obelisk memorial at the battleground. By the
1920s, the site was used primarily as a Methodist youth retreat. On
October 9, 1960, the Tippecanoe Battlefield was named by the
Department of Interior as a National Historic Landmark, in a program
to recognize and preserve important sites to American history. In
1961, a large commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the battle was
held and attended by an estimated 10,000 people.
In the following years, the battle site attracted fewer visitors and
fell into disrepair. It was later taken over by the Tippecanoe County
Historical Association, which now maintains the battleground and the
seminary building, housing a museum about the battle. They added an
amphitheater to the memorial in 1986. In 1989–90, the
amphitheater was used for performances of The Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Wild Cat Creek
Curse of Tippecanoe
List of battles fought in Indiana
Indiana in the War of 1812
USS Tippecanoe name of several
United States Navy ships
USNS Tippecanoe (T-AO-199)
Indiana Rangers had been formed in the early days of the
territory to protect the settlers from raids by Native Americans, but
had seen little action in the previous five years.
Spencer County, Indiana
Spencer County, Indiana was later named in honor of Capt. Spier
^ Jacob Warrick, the captain of the adjoining company was also killed
in the charge;
Warrick County, Indiana
Warrick County, Indiana was named in his honor.
Daviess County, Indiana
Daviess County, Indiana was later named in honor of Maj. Joseph
^ It is implied that Harrison feared the Native Americans would dig up
his dead soldiers to avenge his men having desecrated the Prophetstown
graveyard. (See: Cave, p. 122 and Langguth, p. 169)
^ Sugden, facing 211.
^ Tunnell p.xvi
^ Blaine T. Brownell; Robert C. Cottrell (2010). Lives and Times:
Individuals and Issues in American History: To 1877. Rowman &
Littlefield. p. 130. ISBN 9781442205581.
^ Spencer C. Tucker (2014). Battles That Changed American History: 100
of the Greatest Victories and Defeats. ABC-CLIO. p. 83.
^ a b c Langguth, p. 164
^ Owens, p. 210
^ Owens, p. 211
^ Langguth, pp. 164–165
^ a b Langguth, pp. 165–166
^ Langguth, p. 166
^ a b Langguth, p. 167
^ Owens, p. 212
^ a b c d Langguth, p. 168
^ a b Owens, p. 214
Fort Knox II", not the better known
Fort Knox in Kentucky
^ a b Funk, p. 27
Fort Knox II".
Indiana State Museum. 2009. Archived from the
original on 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
^ Funk, p. 28
^ Owens, p. 216
^ Funk, p. 29
^ a b Owens, p. 219
^ a b Owen, p. 217
^ a b Cave, p. 121
^ Dillon, p. 471
^ a b c Funk, p. 30
^ a b c d Owen, p. 218
^ a b c d e Langguth, p. 169
^ Tucker, vol. 1, p. 786, col. 2.
^ Funk, p. 31
^ Owens, pp. 219–220
^ Owens, p. 220
^ Owens, p. 221
^ a b c Owens, p. 222
^ Annals of Congress. pp. 12th Congress, 1st session, pt. 1, pp.
425–6, 446 (Grundy); 602, 914 (Clay) – via
^ Cave, p. 122
^ Cave, p. 127
^ Sugden, pp. 260–61
^ Jortner, 196.
^ Sugden, p. 249
^ Sugden, p. 275
^ Langguth, p. 214
^ Carnes, p. 41
^ Burr, Samuel Jones (1840) The life and times of William Henry
Harrison, p. 237.
^ Stathis, Stephen. "Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2008" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-03.
^ "Tippecanoe Battlefield". National Historic Landmarks program.
National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
^ a b "Tippecanoe Battlefield History". Tippecanoe County Historical
Association. Archived from the original on 2009-04-17. Retrieved
^ Welcome Page, The
Battle of Tippecanoe Outdoor Drama 1990 Souvenir
Program, Summer 1990.
Carnes, Mark C.; Mieczkowski, Yanek (2001). The Routledge Historical
Atlas of Presidential Campaigns. New York, NY: Routledge.
Cave, Alfred A (2006). Prophets of the Great Spirit. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1555-X.
Dillon, John Brown (1859). "Letters of William Henry Harrison". A
History of Indiana. Bingham & Doughty.
Funk, Arville (1983) . A Sketchbook of
Indiana History (revised
ed.). Rochester, Indiana: Christian Book Press.
Jortner, Adam. (2011). The Gods of Prophetstown: The Battle of
Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780199765294
Langguth, A. J. (2006). Union 1812: The Americans Who Fought the
Second War of Independence. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Owens, Robert M. (2007). Mr. Jefferson's Hammer: William Henry
Harrison and the Origins of American Indian Policy. Norman, Oklahoma:
University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3842-8.
Sugden, John (1999). Tecumseh: A Life. New York: Macmillan.
Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2011). The Encyclopedia of North American
Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History.
Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-8510-9603-5.
Tunnell, IV, H.D. (1998). To Compel with Armed Force: A Staff Ride
Handbook for the Battle of Tippecanoe. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat
Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
Archived from the original on 2003-11-05.
Edmunds, David R (1983). The
Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln, Nebraska:
University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1850-8.
Feldman, Jay (2005). When the Mississippi Ran Backwards. Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-4278-5.
Pirtle, Alfred. (1900). The Battle of Tippecanoe. Louisville: John P.
Morton & Co./ Library Reprints. p. 158.
ISBN 978-0-7222-6509-3. as read to the Filson Club.
J. Wesley Whickar, "Shabonee's Account of Tippecanoe," Indiana
Magazine of History, vol. 17, no. 4 (Dec. 1921), pp. 353–363.
"Battlefield History". Tippecanoe County Historical Association.
Archived from the original on 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
Conflicts of the War of 1812
Battles of the War of 1812
Burning of Washington
Battle of Fort Peter
Battle of New Orleans
Siege of Fort St. Philip
Battle of Baltimore
Battle of Bladensburg
Battle of Caulk's Field
Battle of North Point
Battle of St. Michaels
Raid on Havre de Grace
Battle of Hampden
Battle of Big Sandy Creek
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Ogdensburg
Battle of Plattsburgh
Capture of Fort Niagara
Raid on Black Rock
Second Battle of Sacket's Harbor
Battle of Fort Stephenson
Siege of Fort Meigs
Battle of Craney Island
Raid on Alexandria
Skirmish at Farnham Church
Battle of Rappahannock River
Battles of Fort Bowyer
Battle of Fort Dearborn
Battle of Rock Island Rapids
Siege of Prairie du Chien
Battle of the Mississinewa
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Wild Cat Creek
Siege of Fort Harrison
Siege of Fort Wayne
Battle of Brownstown
Battle of Frenchtown
Battle of Mackinac Island
Battle of Maguaga
Siege of Detroit
Siege of Fort Mackinac
Battle of Burnt Corn
Battle of Callabee Creek
Battle of Holy Ground
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Battle of Talladega
Battle of Tallushatchee
Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek
Fort Mims massacre
Battle of Credit Island
Battle of the Sink Hole
British North America
Battle of the Chateauguay
First Battle of Lacolle Mills
Second Battle of Lacolle Mills
Battle of Beaver Dams
Battle of Chippawa
Battle of Cook's Mills
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Battle of Fort George
Battle of Frenchman's Creek
Battle of Longwoods
Battle of Lundy's Lane
Battle of Malcolm's Mills
Battle of Queenston Heights
Battle of Stoney Creek
Battle of the Thames
Battle of York
Capture of Fort Erie
Raid on Elizabethtown
Raid on Port Dover
Raid on Gananoque
Siege of Fort Erie
Battle of Pensacola
Capture of HMS Boxer
Capture of HMS Cyane
Capture of HMS Epervier
Capture of HMS Frolic
Capture of HMS Penguin
Capture of HMS Dominica
Capture of USS Argus
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Capture of USS President
Chesapeake Bay Flotilla
USS Constitution vs HMS Java
Sinking of HMS Avon
Battle of Fayal
Sinking of HMS Peacock
Sinking of HMS Reindeer
USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere
United States vs HMS Macedonian
Battle of La Guaira
Battle of Lake Erie
Battle of Fort Oswego
Engagements on Lake Huron
Engagements on Lake Ontario
First Battle of Sacket's Harbor
Action of 13 December 1814
Battle of Lake Borgne
Action off James Island
Action off Charles Island
Nuku Hiva Campaign
Battle of Valparaiso (Capture of USS Essex)
See also: American Indian Wars, Creek War, Napoleonic Wars, and
Indiana in the War of 1812
William Henry Harrison
Tecumseh's War and Battle of Tippecanoe
History of Indiana
La Salle Expeditions
French and Indian War
George Rogers Clark
Northwest Indian War
Treaty of Vincennes
Treaty of Grouseland
Battle of Tippecanoe
War of 1812
Indiana Canal Company
Polly v. Lasselle
Treaty of St. Mary's
Fall Creek massacre
Bank of Indiana
Indiana Canal Company
Wabash and Erie Canal
Public Works and Bankruptcy
Eli Lilly & Company
Black Day of the General Assembly
Indiana Pi Bill
Golden Age of Literature
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
World War I
Indianapolis strike and riots
World War II
Freeman Field Mutiny
Shipp & Smith lynchings
Flood of 1937
Supreme Court Reorganization
Flood of 2008
Historical Political Strength
By city and locale
See also: History of the United States, History of the Midwestern
United States and Portal:Indiana