The BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE (/ˌtɪpikəˈnuː/ _TIP-ee-kə-NOO_ ) was
fought on November 7, 1811, in what is now
Battle Ground, Indiana ,
between American forces led by Governor
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison of the
Indiana Territory and Native American warriors associated with the
Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa
(commonly known as "The Prophet") were leaders of a confederacy of
Native Americans from various tribes that opposed US expansion into
Native territory . As tensions and violence increased, Governor
Harrison marched with an army of about 1,000 men to disperse the
confederacy's headquarters at Prophetstown , near the confluence of
the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers.
Tecumseh, not yet ready to oppose the
United States by force, was
away recruiting allies when Harrison's army arrived. Tenskwatawa, a
spiritual leader but not a military man, was in charge. Harrison
camped near Prophetstown on November 6 and arranged to meet with
Tenskwatawa the following day. Early the next morning, however,
warriors from Prophetstown attacked Harrison's army. Although the
outnumbered attackers took Harrison's army by surprise, Harrison and
his men stood their ground for more than two hours. The Native
Americans were ultimately repulsed when their ammunition ran low.
After the battle, they abandoned Prophetstown and Harrison's men
burned it to the ground, destroying the food supplies stored for the
winter, and then returned home.
Harrison, having accomplished his goal of destroying Prophetstown,
proclaimed he had won a decisive victory. He gained the nickname
"Tippecanoe", which was popularized in the campaign song "Tippecanoe
and Tyler too " during the election of 1840 , which Harrison won and
became president . The defeat was a setback for Tecumseh's confederacy
from which it never fully recovered. Public opinion blamed the
violence on British interference in American affairs through financial
and munitions support for the Indians. This led to a further
deterioration of relations with Britain and was a catalyst of the War
of 1812 , which began six months later. By the time the US declared
war on the
United Kingdom in June 1812, Tecumseh's confederacy was
ready to launch its war against the
United States in alliance with the
British. In preparation, the Natives soon rebuilt Prophetstown, and
frontier violence in the region increased after the battle until
Tecumseh was finally killed in 1813 during the
Battle of the Thames
Battle of the Thames .
* 1 Background
* 2 Battle
* 3 Aftermath
* 4 Memorial
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 Footnotes
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
Main article: Tecumseh\'s War
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison as painted
Rembrandt Peale in 1814
After being appointed governor of the newly formed
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison sought to secure title to Native
American lands to open more land for settlers; in particular, he hoped
Indiana Territory would attract enough settlers to qualify for
statehood. Harrison negotiated numerous land cession treaties with
American Indians, including the Treaty of Fort Wayne on September 30,
1809, in which Miami ,
Lenape , and other tribal
leaders sold 3,000,000 acres (approximately 12,000 km²) to the United
Tecumseh , by Benson Lossing in 1848 based on 1808
Tenskwatawa , by
Charles Bird King
Tenskwatawa , known as the Prophet, had been leading a religious
movement among the northwestern tribes, calling for a return to the
ancestral ways. His brother,
Tecumseh , was outraged by the Treaty of
Fort Wayne, and thereafter emerged as a prominent leader. Tecumseh
revived an idea advocated in previous years by the
Shawnee leader Blue
Jacket and the Mohawk leader
Joseph Brant , which stated that Native
American land was owned in common by all tribes, and land could not be
sold without agreement by all the tribes. Not yet ready to confront
United States directly, Tecumseh's primary adversaries were
initially the Native American leaders who had signed the treaty. He
began by intimidating them and threatening to kill anyone and their
followers who carried out the terms of the treaty.
Tecumseh began to
travel widely, urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist chiefs
and to join the resistance at Prophetstown.
Tecumseh insisted that the
Fort Wayne treaty was illegitimate. In an 1810 meeting with Harrison,
he demanded that Harrison nullify the treaty and warned that settlers
should not attempt to settle the lands sold in the treaty. Harrison
rejected his demands and insisted that the tribes could have
individual relations with the United States.
In the meeting
Tecumseh warned Harrison that he would seek an
alliance with the British if hostilities broke out. Tensions between
United States and Britain had been high for several months as a
result of British interference in U.S. commerce with France . As early
as 1810, British agents had sought to secure an alliance with Native
Americans to assist in the defense of
Canada should hostilities break
out, but the Natives had been reluctant to accept their offer, fearing
they had little to benefit from such an arrangement.
In August 1811,
Tecumseh again met with Harrison at Vincennes , where
Tecumseh assured Harrison that the
Shawnee brothers meant to remain at
peace with the United States.
Tecumseh then traveled to the south on
a mission to recruit allies among the "
Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes ". Most
of the southern nations rejected his appeals, but a faction of the
Creeks , who came to be known as the
Red Sticks , answered his call to
arms, leading to the
Creek War , which also became a part of the War
Harrison left the territory for business in
Kentucky shortly after
the meeting with Tecumseh, leaving secretary John Gibson as acting
governor. Gibson, who had lived among the Miami tribe for many years,
was quick to learn of Tecumseh's plans for war and immediately called
out the territory's militia and sent emergency letters calling for the
return of Harrison. By mid-September, most of the militia regiments
had formed. By then, Harrison had returned, accompanied by a small
force of army regulars, and had taken command of the militia. Harrison
had already been in communication with his superiors in Washington,
D.C. , and he had been authorized to march against the confederacy in
a show of force, hoping that they would accept peace. Site of
Fort Knox, the rendezvous point for Harrison's army
Harrison gathered the scattered militia companies at
Fort Knox near
a settlement on Maria Creek, north of Vincennes; There he was joined
by the sixty-man company called the Yellow Jackets , so named for
their bright yellow coats, from Corydon,
Indiana , as well as the
Indiana Rangers . From there the entire force of about 1000 men set
out northward towards Prophetstown. The force consisted of about 250
army regulars from the 4th US
Infantry Regiment, 100 Kentucky
volunteers, and near 600
Indiana militia including two companies of
Indiana Rangers. The army reached the site of modern Terre Haute,
Indiana , on October 3 where they camped and built Fort Harrison while
they waited for supplies to be delivered. A scouting party of Yellow
Jackets was ambushed by Native Americans on October 10 causing several
casualties and preventing the men from continuing to forage. Supplies
quickly began to run low. By October 19, rations were cut and remained
so until October 28 when fresh supplies arrived via the Wabash River
from Vincennes. With the army resupplied, Harrison resumed his advance
to Prophetstown on October 29.
Tippecanoe order of battle
As Harrison's forces approached Prophetstown late on November 6, they
were met by one of Tenskwatawa's followers waving a white flag. He
carried a message from Tenskwatawa, requesting a ceasefire until the
next day when the two sides could hold a peaceful meeting. Harrison
agreed to a meeting, but was wary of Tenskwatawa's overture, believing
that the negotiations would be futile. Harrison moved his army to a
nearby hill near the confluence of the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers .
There he camped his men in battle array, and kept sentinels on duty
during the night. A map showing the layout of the battlefield
On the west side of the hill on which he encamped was a shallow creek
(Burnett Creek), and on the east side a very steep embankment. Because
of the nature of the position, Harrison did not order any temporary
works to be created around the position as was ordinarily done by
encamped armies. The Yellow Jacket company, with Captain Spier
Spencer in command, was posted on the southern end of the camp
perimeter. The rest of the militia formed a rectangular formation
along the edges of the bluff surrounding the camp. Lieutenant Colonel
Joseph Bartholomew commanded the
Indiana militia units guarding the
steep bluff on the eastern side of the formation. The regulars,
commanded by Major Floyd, and the dragoons , commanded by Maj. Joseph
Daveiss and former congressman Capt.
Benjamin Parke , were kept behind
the main line in reserve.
In an 1816 conversation with
Lewis Cass , the
Governor of Michigan
Governor of Michigan ,
Tenskwatawa denied that he ordered his warriors to attack Harrison,
and blamed the
Ho-Chunk (also known as Winnebago) warriors in his camp
for launching the attack. Other accounts also point to the
the responsible party for encouraging the attack and suggest that
Tenskwatawa was unable to control his followers as panic set in.
Tenskwatawa's followers were worried by the nearby army and feared an
imminent attack. They had begun to fortify the town, but the defenses
were not yet completed. During the evening,
Tenskwatawa consulted with
the spirits and decided that sending a party to murder Harrison in his
tent was the best way to avoid a battle. He assured the warriors that
he would cast spells that would prevent them from being harmed and
confuse Harrison's army so they would not resist. The warriors then
moved out and began to surround Harrison's army looking for a way to
sneak into the camp. Ben, an
African-American wagon driver traveling
with Harrison's army, had deserted to the
Shawnee during the
expedition. He agreed to lead a small group of warriors through the
line to Harrison's tent. During the late night hours, he was captured
by the camp sentries, taken back to the camp and bound. He was later
convicted of treason but pardoned by Harrison.
Although existing accounts are unclear about exactly how the battle
began, Harrison's sentinels encountered advancing warriors in the
pre-dawn hours of November 7. Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Bartholomew
was appointed officer of the day and ordered the troops to sleep with
their weapons loaded. Around 4:30 a.m., the soldiers awoke to
scattered gunshots and discovered themselves almost encircled by
Tenskwatawa's forces. Contact was first made on the northern end of
the perimeter, but the movement was probably intended as a diversion.
Shortly after the first shots, fierce fighting broke out on the
opposite end of the perimeter as the warriors charged Harrison's line
on the southern corner. The militia's small caliber rifles had little
effect on the warriors as they rushed the defenders. Spencer was among
the first to be killed, being shot in each thigh. Governor Harrison
later recorded his death in a dispatch to Washington saying, "...
Spencer was wounded in the head. He exhorted his men to fight
valiantly. He was shot through both thighs and fell; still continuing
to encourage them, he was raised up, and received ball through his
body, which put an immediate end to his existence."
Lieutenants Nuge and Klaus, the other two Yellow Jacket commanding
officers, were also soon wounded and killed. The Yellow Jackets began
to fall back from the main line, retreating with the sentinels. The
warriors followed the retreating unit and entered the camp. Colonel
Bartholomew requested a detachment of 25 regular troops and led a
bayonet charge that repulsed the warriors. During the charge
Bartholomew was shot through the lower arm breaking both bones. He was
still clutching his sword when he was treated hours later. For his
leadership during the Battle of Tippecanoe, Bartholomew was promoted
to brigadier general.
Indiana territorial legislature passed a resolution on December
4, 1811, which read, "Resolved… that the thanks of this house be
presented to Col. Luke Decker and Col. Joseph Bartholomew, the
officers, non-commissioned officers and men composing the militia
corps under their command…for the distinguished valor, heroism and
bravery displayed by them in the brilliant battle fought with the
Shawnee Prophet and his confederates on the morning of the 7th of Nov,
1811 by the Army under the command of His Excellency William Henry
Indiana was named in his honor.
The soldiers regrouped under the command of future United States
Senator , ensign
John Tipton , and with the help of two reserve
companies under the command of Captain Robb and sealed the breach in
The second charge by the Native Americans targeted both the north and
south ends of the camp, with the far southern end again being the
hardest hit. Over half of Harrison's casualties were suffered among
the companies on the southern end, including Captain Spencer and five
other men in his company, and seven other men in the adjoining
company. With the regulars reinforcing that critical section of the
line, and the surprise over, the men were able to hold their position
as the attacks continued. On the northern end of the camp, Major
Daveiss led the dragoons on a counter charge that punched through the
Native Americans' line before being repulsed. Most of Daveiss's
company retreated back to Harrison's main line, but Daveiss himself
was killed. Throughout the next hour Harrison's troops fought off
several more charges. When the warriors began to run low on ammunition
and the sun rose, revealing the small size of Tenskwatawa's army, the
Indian forces finally began to slowly withdraw. A second charge by
the dragoons forced the remaining Native Americans to flee.
The battle lasted about two hours and Harrison lost 62 men (37 killed
in action and 25 mortally wounded); about 126 were less seriously
hurt. The Yellow Jackets suffered the highest casualties of the
battle, with 30% of their numbers killed or wounded. The number of
Native American casualties is still the subject of debate, but it was
certainly lower than that of the
United States forces. Historians
estimate that as many as 50 were killed and about 70–80 were
wounded. Prophet's Rock near the Tippecanoe battleground about
1902. From this point
Tenskwatawa is believed to have sung or chanted
to exhort his warriors against Harrison's forces.
The warriors retreated to Prophetstown where, according to one
chief's account, the warriors confronted
Tenskwatawa and accused him
of deceit because of the many deaths, which his spells were supposed
to have prevented. He blamed his wife for desecrating his magic
medicine and offered to cast a new spell and insisted that warriors
launch a second attack, but they refused.
Fearing Tecumseh's imminent return with reinforcements, Harrison
ordered his men to fortify the camp with works for the rest of the
day. As the sentries moved back out, they discovered and scalped the
bodies of 36 warriors. The following day, November 8, he sent a small
group of men to inspect the town and found it was deserted except for
one elderly woman too sick to flee; the rest of the defeated Natives
had evacuated the village during the night. Harrison ordered his
troops to spare the woman, but to burn down Prophetstown and destroy
the Native Americans' cooking implements, without which the
confederacy would be hard pressed to survive the winter. Everything of
value was confiscated, including 5,000 bushels of corn and beans.
Some of Harrison's soldiers dug up bodies from the graveyard in
Prophetstown to scalp. Harrison's troops buried their own dead on the
site of their camp. They built large fires over the mass grave in an
attempt to conceal it from the Native Americans. However, after
Harrison's troops departed the area, the Native Americans returned to
the grave site, digging up many of the corpses and scattering the
bodies in retaliation.
Indiana in the
War of 1812
War of 1812 Document released to the
public featuring information on the "hostile Indians" of the Wabash
after the battle
The day after the battle the wounded were loaded onto wagons and
carried back to Fort Harrison for medical care. Most of the militia
was released from duty on November 9 and returned home, but many of
the long-time soldiers remained in the area a bit longer. In his
initial report to Secretary
William Eustis , Harrison informed him of
a battle having occurred near the Tippecanoe River, giving the battle
the river's name, and added that he feared an imminent reprisal. The
first dispatch did not make clear which side had won the conflict, and
the secretary interpreted it as a defeat. The follow-up dispatch made
United States victory clear, and the defeat of Tecumseh's
confederacy became more certain when no second attack materialized.
Eustis replied with a lengthy note demanding to know why Harrison had
not taken adequate precautions in fortifying his camp. Harrison
responded that he considered the position strong enough to not require
fortification. This dispute was the catalyst of a disagreement between
Harrison and the Department of War that later caused him to resign
from the army in 1814.
At first, the newspapers carried little information about the battle,
instead focusing on the highlights of the ongoing
Napoleonic Wars .
One Louisville newspaper even printed a copy of the original dispatch
and called the battle a defeat for the United States. However, by
December, most of the major papers in the
United States began to carry
stories about the battle. Public outrage quickly grew and many
citizens blamed the British for inciting the tribes to violence and
supplying them with firearms.
Andrew Jackson was at the forefront of
those calling for war, claiming that
Tecumseh and his allies were
"excited by secret British agents". Other western governors called
Willie Blount of
Tennessee called on the government to
"purge the camps of Indians of every Englishmen to be found ..."
Acting on popular sentiment, the
War Hawks in Congress passed
resolutions condemning the British for interfering in the United
States' domestic affairs. This popular connection between Tecumseh's
rise and British influence, sentiment which peaked following
War Hawks like
Felix Grundy and Speaker of the
Henry Clay justify the
War of 1812
War of 1812 , particularly capitalizing
on the pathos generated by Joseph Daveiss 's death.
Until recently historians have accepted the story that
Tenskwatawa for losing the battle, and that
threatened to kill his brother for allowing the attack to take place.
According to this story, the Prophet lost prestige after the battle
and no longer served as a leader of the confederacy. In their
subsequent meetings with Harrison, several Native leaders claimed that
the Prophet's influence was destroyed; in some accounts it was said he
was being persecuted. Historians
Alfred A. Cave and Robert Owens have
argued that the Natives were probably trying to mislead Harrison in an
attempt to calm the situation and that
Tenskwatawa actually continued
to play an important role in the confederacy.
Harrison, having accomplished his goal of dispersing the Natives of
Prophetstown, proclaimed that he had won a decisive victory. But some
of Harrison's contemporaries, as well as some subsequent historians,
raised doubts about whether the battle was as successful as Harrison
claimed. "In none of the contemporary reports from Indian agents,
traders, and public officials on the aftermath of Tippecanoe can we
find confirmation of the claim that Harrison had won a decisive
victory", wrote historian Alfred Cave. The defeat was a setback for
Tecumseh's confederacy, but the Natives soon rebuilt Prophetstown, and
frontier violence actually increased after the battle. Adam Jortner
says the battle was a disaster for both sides, although it did make
Tenskwatawa's religious movement stronger.
On December 16, 1811, the first of the New Madrid earthquakes shook
the South and the Midwest . Many Indians took the earthquake as a
sign that Tenskwatawa's predictions of doom were coming true, leading
many to support Tecumseh, including many of his former detractors.
Attacks against settlers increased in the aftermath. Numerous settlers
and isolated outposts in the
Indiana and Illinois Territories were
targeted, leading to the deaths of many civilians. Prophetstown was
partially rebuilt over the next year, though it was again destroyed by
a second campaign in 1812.
Tecumseh continued to play a major role in
military operations on the frontier, and by the time the U.S. declared
war on Great Britain in the
War of 1812
War of 1812 , Tecumseh's confederacy was
ready to launch its own war against the United States, this time with
British allies. Tecumseh's warriors made up nearly half of the
British army that captured Detroit from the
United States in the War
of 1812. It was not until Tecumseh's death at the 1813 Battle of the
Ontario that his confederation ceased to threaten the
interests of the United States.
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison ran for President of the United States
during the election of 1840 , he used the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler
Too " to remind people of his heroism during the battle.
It shall be the duty of the General Assembly,
to provide for the permanent enclosure and
preservation of the Tippecanoe Battle Ground. “ ” -- Indiana
Constitution , Article 15, Section 10.
The participants in the battle received the
Thanks of Congress . The
resolution originally included
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison by name, but his
name was removed from the resolution before passage. Harrison
considered this to be an insult, thinking Congress implied he was the
one person in the campaign not worthy of accolades, and he expressed
the opinion that it held him up to obloquy and disrespect. He was
later awarded the
Thanks of Congress and a
Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal in
1818 for victory at the
Battle of the Thames
Battle of the Thames .
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison returned to the battlefield in 1835 to give
speeches during his first presidential campaign . Part of his speech
called for the creation of a memorial to preserve the battle site.
John Tipton later purchased the land to preserve it. The mission
school on the hill was purchased by the
Methodist Church to be used as
a seminary. Tipton left the battlefield to the seminary in his will
and they maintained it for many years and built a larger facility at
the location in 1862. The Battle and Harrison were memorialized by two
Ohio towns being named Tippecanoe ; one changed its name to Tipp City
in 1938. Monument near the battle site
In 1908, the
Indiana General Assembly commissioned the creation of an
80-foot (24 m) high obelisk memorial. By the 1920s the site had become
primarily a Methodist youth retreat. On October 9, 1960, the
Tippecanoe Battlefield was named a
National Historic Landmark . In
1961, a large commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the battle was
held and attended by an estimated 10,000 people. In the following
years, the battle site became less trafficked and fell into disrepair.
It was later taken over by the Tippecanoe County Historical
Association which now maintains the battleground and the seminary
building, which houses a museum about the battle. An amphitheater was
added to the memorial in 1986. From 1989–90, the amphitheater was
used for performances of The _
Battle of Tippecanoe Outdoor Drama _.
Battle of Wild Cat Creek
* List of battles fought in
* Category:People from
Indiana in the
War of 1812
War of 1812
USS Tippecanoe name of several
United States Navy ships
USNS Tippecanoe (T-AO-199)
* ^ The
Indiana Rangers had been formed in the early days of the
territory to protect the settlers from raids by the Native Americans,
but had seen little action in the previous five years.
* ^ Spencer County,
Indiana was later named in honor of Capt. Spier
Spencer for his sacrifice in the battle.
Jacob Warrick , the captain of the adjoining company was also
killed in the charge; Warrick County,
Indiana was named in his honor.
* ^ Daviess County,
Indiana was later named in honor of Maj. Joseph
Daveiss 's sacrifice at the battle.
* ^ It is implied that Harrison feared the Native Americans would
dig up his dead soldiers to avenge the act of Harrison's men
desecrating the Prophetstown graveyard. (See: Cave, p. 122 and
Langguth, p. 169)
* ^ Sugden, facing 211.
* ^ Tunnell p.xvi
* ^ Lossing, Benson (1868). _The Pictorial Field-Book of the War of
1812_. Harper & Brothers, Publishers. p. 205.
* ^ Blaine T. Brownell; Robert C. Cottrell (2010). _Lives and
Times: Individuals and Issues in American History: To 1877_. Rowman &
Littlefield. p. 130. ISBN 9781442205581 .
* ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2014). _Battles That Changed American
History: 100 of the Greatest Victories and Defeats_. ABC-CLIO. p. 83.
ISBN 9781440828621 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Langguth, p. 164
* ^ Owens, p. 210
* ^ Owens, p. 211
* ^ Langguth, pp. 164–165
* ^ _A_ _B_ Langguth, pp. 165–166
* ^ Langguth, p. 166
* ^ _A_ _B_ Langguth, p. 167
* ^ Owens, p. 212
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Langguth, p. 168
* ^ _A_ _B_ Owens, p. 214
* ^ "
Fort Knox II", not the better known
Fort Knox in
* ^ _A_ _B_ Funk, p. 27
* ^ "
Fort Knox II".
Indiana State Museum . 2009. Archived from the
original on 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
* ^ Funk, p. 28
* ^ Owens, p. 216
* ^ Funk, p. 29
* ^ _A_ _B_ Owens, p. 219
* ^ _A_ _B_ Owen, p. 217
* ^ _A_ _B_ Cave, p. 121
* ^ Dillon, p. 471
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Funk, p. 30
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Owen, p. 218
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Langguth, p. 169
* ^ Tucker, vol. 1, p. 786, col. 2.
* ^ Funk, p. 31
* ^ Owens, pp. 219–220
* ^ Owens, p. 220
* ^ Owens, p. 221
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Owens, p. 222
* ^ _Annals of Congress_. pp. 12th Congress, 1st session, pt. 1,
pp. 425–6, 446 (Grundy); 602, 914 (Clay) – via
* ^ Cave, p. 122
* ^ Cave, p. 127
* ^ Sugden, pp. 260–61
* ^ Jortner, 196.
* ^ Sugden, p. 249
* ^ Sugden, p. 275
* ^ Langguth, p. 214
* ^ Carnes, p. 41
* ^ Burr, Samuel Jones (1840) _The life and times of William Henry
Harrison_, p. 237.
* ^ Stathis, Stephen. "Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2008" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-03.
* ^ "Tippecanoe Battlefield". _National Historic Landmarks
program_. National Park Service. Archived from the original on
2015-04-02. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
* ^ "Tippecanoe Battlefield History". Tippecanoe County Historical
Association. Archived from the original on 2009-04-17. Retrieved
* ^ Welcome Page, The
Battle of Tippecanoe Outdoor Drama 1990
Souvenir Program, Summer 1990.
* Carnes, Mark C.; Mieczkowski, Yanek (2001). _The Routledge
Historical Atlas of Presidential Campaigns_. New York, NY: Routledge.
ISBN 0-415-92139-2 .
* Cave, Alfred A (2006). _Prophets of the Great Spirit_. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1555-X .
* Dillon, John Brown (1859). "Letters of William Henry Harrison". _A
History of Indiana_. Bingham & Doughty. ISBN 0-253-20305-8 .
* Funk, Arville (1983) . _A Sketchbook of
Indiana History_ (revised
ed.). Rochester, Indiana: Christian Book Press.
* Jortner, Adam. (2011). _The Gods of Prophetstown: The Battle of
Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier_. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780199765294
* Langguth, A. J. (2006). _Union 1812: The Americans Who Fought the
Second War of Independence_. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN
* Owens, Robert M. (2007). _Mr. Jefferson\'s Hammer: William Henry
Harrison and the Origins of American Indian Policy_. Norman, Oklahoma:
University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 978-0-8061-3842-8 .
* Sugden, John (1999). _Tecumseh: A Life_. New York: Macmillan .
ISBN 0-8050-6121-5 .
* Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2011). _The Encyclopedia of North
American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military
History_. Santa Barbara:
ABC-CLIO . ISBN 1-8510-9603-5 .
* Tunnell, IV, H.D. (1998). _To Compel with Armed Force: A Staff
Ride Handbook for the Battle of Tippecanoe_. Fort Leavenworth, KS:
Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College
. Archived from the original on 2003-11-05.
* Edmunds, David R (1983). _The
Shawnee Prophet_. Lincoln, Nebraska:
University of Nebraska Press . ISBN 0-8032-1850-8 .
* Feldman, Jay (2005). _When the Mississippi Ran Backwards_. Simon &
Schuster . ISBN 0-7432-4278-5 .
* Pirtle, Alfred. (1900). _The Battle of Tippecanoe_. Louisville:
John P. Morton & Co./ Library Reprints. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7222-6509-3
. as read to the
Filson Club .
* J. Wesley Whickar, "Shabonee's Account of Tippecanoe," _Indiana
Magazine of History,_ vol. 17, no. 4 (Dec. 1921), pp. 353–363. In