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V Amphibious Corps

2nd Marine Division 4th Marine division 147th Infantry Regiment

Additional Support units

31st Army

29th Infantry Division

50th Inf. Regiment

Additional Support units

Strength

41,364 Marines[1]:34 8,039[1]:89

Casualties and losses

326 killed 1,593 wounded[1]:88 5,542 killed 252 captured rest (2,265) missing[1]:88

Up to 4,000 Japanese civilians killed (including many suicides)[1]:89

v t e

Mariana and Palau Islands campaign

Saipan Philippine Sea Guam Tinian Peleliu Angaur

Marines mopping up Tinian
Tinian
Island

Marines check out a Japanese tank knocked out of action.

A wrecked Japanese plane in a hangar on Tinian
Tinian
Island, 30 July 1944

The Battle of Tinian
Tinian
was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Tinian
Tinian
in the Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
from 24 July until 1 August 1944. The 9,000-man Japanese garrison was eliminated, and the island joined Saipan
Saipan
and Guam
Guam
as a base for the Twentieth Air Force.[1]:72

Contents

1 Background 2 Battle 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Background[edit]

Map of the battle

A two-prong attack through the Central Pacific and the Philippines
Philippines
was adopted at the 1943 Cairo Conference.[1]:8 Operation Granite II, was a U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
devised strategy of island hopping, calling for the seizure of Saipan, Tinian
Tinian
and Guam.[1]:8 The Gilbert and Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
had been seized by the summer of 1944, while some Japanese garrisons were left to starve.[1]:7 Tinian
Tinian
was part of Japan's South Pacific Mandate. By June 1944 it had a population of 15,700 Japanese civilians, including 2,700 ethnic Koreans and 22 ethnic Chamorro. The Japanese defending the island, the 50th Infantry Regiment, which was originally part of 29th division, were commanded by Colonel Kiyochi Ogata[1]:31 and his subordinate Goichi Oya. Vice-Admiral Kakuji Kakuta, commander of First Air Fleet, was headquartered in Manila, but on Tinian
Tinian
on an inspection tour when the invasion started.[1]:31[2] The US naval bombardment commenced on 16 July, with three battleships, five cruisers and sixteen destroyers.[1]:75 The battleship Colorado and the destroyer Norman Scott were both hit by 150mm Japanese shore batteries. Colorado was hit 22 times, killing 43 men and wounding 198. Norman Scott was hit six times, killing the captain, Seymore Owens, and 18 of his seamen, plus wounding 47.[1]:76 Battle[edit] The 4th Marine Division landed on 24 July 1944, supported by naval bombardment and marine artillery firing across the strait from Saipan.[1]:72 With the help of Seabee
Seabee
ingenuity the Marines were able to land where the Japanese did not expect, along the Northwest coast with its water's edge small coral cliffs.[3] A successful feint for the major settlement of Tinian
Tinian
Town diverted defenders from the actual landing site on the north of the island.[1]:76 They withstood a series of night counterattacks supported by tanks, and the 2nd Marine Division landed the next day.[1]:80 The weather worsened on 28 July, damaging the pontoon causeways, and interrupting the unloading of supplies.[1]:81 By 29 July, the Americans had captured half the island, and on 30 July the 4th Marine Division occupied Tinian
Tinian
Town and Airfield No. 4.[1]:81 Japanese remnants made a final stand in the caves and ravines of a limestone ridge on the south portion of the island, making probes and counterattacks into the Marine line.[1]:85 Resistance continued through 3 August, with some civilians murdered by the Japanese.[1]:87 Aftermath[edit] By 10 August 1944, 13,000 Japanese civilians were interned, but up to 4,000 were dead through suicide, murdered by Japanese troops or killed in combat.[1]:89 The garrison on Aguijan
Aguijan
Island off the southwest cape of Tinian, commanded by Lieutenant Kinichi Yamada, held out until the end of the war, surrendering on 4 September 1945. The last holdout on Tinian, Murata Susumu, was captured in 1953.[4] After the battle, Tinian
Tinian
became an important base for further Allied operations in the Pacific campaign. Camps were built for 50,000 troops. Fifteen thousand Seabees turned the island into the busiest airfield of the war, with six 7,900-foot (2,400 m) runways for attacks by United States
United States
Army Air Forces B-29 Superfortress
B-29 Superfortress
bombers on enemy targets in the Philippines, the Ryukyu Islands, and mainland Japan, including the March 9/10 1945 Operation Meetinghouse firebombing of Tokyo and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki.[1]:89 North Field was built over Airfields No. 1 and 3, and became operational in February 1945, while West Field was built over Airfield No. 2, and became operational in March 1945.[1]:89 Four 1000-bed hospitals (110,111,112,113) were planned and located in preparation for the invasion of Japan. None were actually built, as the Japanese surrendered after the atomic bombs were dropped, which thus ended the need for the hospitals. See also[edit]

North Field (Tinian) West Field (Tinian)

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Rottman, Gordon L. & Gerrard, Howard (2004). Saipan
Saipan
& Tinian
Tinian
1944: Piercing the Japanese Empire. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1841768049.  ^ Klemen, L. (1999–2000). "Rear-Admiral Kakaji Kakuta". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.  ^ https://seabeemuseum.wordpress.com/tag/doodlebug/ ^ "Registry". No Surrender Japanese Holdouts. 

Harwood, Richard (1994). Frank, Benis M., ed. A Close Encounter: The Marine Landing on Tinian. World War II
World War II
Commemorative Series. Washington, D.C.: United States
United States
Marine Corps. 19000312700. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008.  Western Pacific. U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II. United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 72-29.  " Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
Campaign and the Great Turkey Shoot". World War II Database.  Hoffman, Carl W. The Seizure of Tinian. USMC Historical Monograph – via HyperWar Foundation. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Battle of Tinian
Tinian
at Wikimedia Commons Battle for the Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
on YouTube

Coordinates: 15°00′N 145°38′E / 15.000°N 145.633°E / 15.

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