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Ottoman Empire

Crimean Khanate

Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Croatia Crown of Bohemia  Holy Roman Empire Duchy of Bavaria  Papal States Kingdom of Poland

Commanders and leaders

Suleiman I Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha Malkoçoğlu Bali Bey Devlet I Giray Gazi Hüsrev Bey Behram Pasha Louis II of Hungary † Pál Tomori † György Zápolya † Stephen VII Báthory

Strength

55,000–70,000 men[2][3][4] 200 guns 25,000–30,000 men[3][4] 80 guns (only 50 arrived on time)

Casualties and losses

~ 1,500[5] ~ 14,000 to 20,000+[6][7]

v t e

Ottoman–Hungarian wars

Nicopolis (1396) Doboj (1415) Radkersburg (1417) Golubac (1428) Lower Danube
Danube
War  Smederevo (1441) Hermannstadt (1442) Iron Gate (1442) Niš (1443) Zlatitsa (1443) Kunovica (1444) Várna (1444) Kosovo (1448) Kruševac (1454) Belgrade (1456) Travnik (1463) Bobovac (1463) Ključ (1463) Jajce (1463) Jajce (1464) Vaslui (1475) Breadfield (1479) Jajce (1480) Otranto (1480–81) Krbava Field (1493) Belgrade (1521) Mohács (1526)

see also: Ottoman– Habsburg
Habsburg
wars

v t e

Ottoman– Habsburg
Habsburg
wars

Hungary
Hungary
and the Balkans

Mohács (1526) Hungarian Campaign (1527–28) Croatia (1527-93) Balkans (1529) Vienna (1529) Little War in Hungary (1530–52) Klis (1536–37) Temesvár (1552) Eger (1552) Szigetvár (1566) Long War (1593–1606) Bocskai insurrection (1604–1606) Austro-Turkish War (1663–64) Great Turkish War (1683–1699) Austro-Turkish War (1716–18) Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) Austro-Turkish War (1787–91)

Mediterranean

Cephalonia (1500) Balearics (1501) Pantelleria (1515) Algiers (1516) Tlemcen (1517) Algiers (1529) Formentera (1529) Coron (1532-34) Tunis (1535) Mahón (1535) Preveza (1538) Castelnuovo (1539) Girolata (1540) Alborán (1540) Algiers (1541) Nice (1543) Mahdiye (1550) Gozo (1551) Tripoli (1551) Ponza (1552) Corsica (1553-59) Bougie (1555) Oran (1556) Balearics (1558) Mostaganem (1558) Djerba (1560) Orán and Mers-el-Kébir (1563) Vélez de la Gomera (1564) Malta (1565) Lepanto (1571) Tunis (1574) Fez (1576) Cape Corvo (1613) Żejtun (1614) Cape Celidonia (1616)

The Battle of Mohács
Mohács
(Hungarian: [ˈmohaːt͡ʃ]; Hungarian: Mohácsi csata, Turkish: Mohaç Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526
1526
near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, led by Louis II, and those of the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent. The Ottoman victory led to the partition of Hungary
Hungary
for several centuries between the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, and the Principality of Transylvania. Further, the death of Louis II as he fled the battle marked the end of the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
in Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia, whose dynastic claims passed to the House of Habsburg. The Battle of Mohács
Mohács
marked the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in Hungary.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Decline of royal power (1490–1526) 1.2 European events, and the Franco-Ottoman alliance

2 Preparations 3 Battle 4 Aftermath 5 Legacy 6 Notes 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Background[edit] Decline of royal power (1490–1526)[edit]

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After the death of the absolutist King Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
in 1490, the Hungarian magnates, who did not want another heavy-handed king, procured the accession of Vladislaus II (reigned 1490–1516), King of Bohemia, because of his notorious weakness. He was known as King Dobře, or Dobzse in Hungarian orthography (meaning "good" or, loosely, "OK"), for his habit of accepting, without question, every petition and document laid before him.[8] The freshly elected King Vladislaus II donated most of the royal estates, régales and royalties to the nobility. By this method, the king tried to stabilize his new reign and preserve his popularity amongst the magnates. After the naive fiscal and land policy of the royal court, the central power began to experience severe financial difficulties, largely due to the enlargement of feudal lands at his expense. The noble estate of the parliament succeeded in reducing their tax burden by 70-80%, at the expense of the country's ability to defend itself.[9] Vladislaus became the magnates' helpless "prisoner"; he could make no decision without their consent.[10] The standing mercenary army (the Black Army) of Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
was dissolved by the aristocracy. The magnates also dismantled the national administration systems and bureaucracy throughout the country. The country's defenses sagged as border guards and castle garrisons went unpaid, fortresses fell into disrepair, and initiatives to increase taxes to reinforce defenses were stifled.[11] Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, and social progress was deadlocked. The early appearance of Protestantism
Protestantism
further worsened internal relations in the country. The strongest nobles were so busy oppressing the peasants and quarreling with the gentry class in the parliament that they failed to heed the agonized calls of King Louis II against the Turks. In 1514, the weakened and old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by John Zápolya. After the Dózsa Rebellion, the brutal suppression of the peasants greatly aided the 1526
1526
Turkish invasion as the Hungarians
Hungarians
were no longer a politically united people. The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. King Louis II of Hungary
Louis II of Hungary
married Mary of Habsburg
Mary of Habsburg
in 1522. The Ottomans saw that alliance as a threat to their power in the Balkans and worked to break it. After Suleiman I came to power, the High Porte made the Hungarians
Hungarians
at least one and possibly two offers of peace. It is unclear why Louis refused. It is possible that King Louis was well aware of Hungary's situation (especially after the Battle of Chaldiran and Polish-Ottoman peace from 1525) and he believed that war was a better option than peace. Even in peacetime the Ottomans raided Hungarian lands and conquered small territories (with border castles), but a final battle still offered a glimmer of hope. To such ends, in June 1526, an Ottoman expedition advanced up the Danube. European events, and the Franco-Ottoman alliance[edit] King Francis I of France
Francis I of France
was defeated at the Battle of Pavia
Battle of Pavia
on 24 February 1525 by the troops of the Habsburg
Habsburg
Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. After several months in prison, Francis I was forced to sign the Treaty of Madrid. In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis formed a formal Franco-Ottoman alliance
Franco-Ottoman alliance
with Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
as an ally against Charles V. The French-Ottoman strategic, and sometimes tactical, alliance lasted for about three centuries.[12] It did, however, cause quite a scandal in the Christian world. To relieve the Habsburg
Habsburg
pressure on France, Francis asked Suleiman to make war on the Holy Roman Empire, and the road from Turkey to the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
led across Hungary. The request of the French king coincided nicely with the ambitions of Suleiman in Europe and gave him an incentive to attack Hungary
Hungary
in 1526, leading to the Battle of Mohács.[12]

Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
before 1526, and the 3 parts into which it was divided after the Battle of Mohács: Royal Hungary, Transylvania, and the part that was annexed by the Ottoman Empire.

Preparations[edit]

Louis II of Hungary, who died at the Battle of Mohács, painted by Titian

The Hungarians
Hungarians
had long opposed Ottoman expansion in southeastern Europe, but in 1521 the Turks advanced up the Danube
Danube
River and took Nándorfehérvár
Nándorfehérvár
(present-day Belgrade, Serbia) – the strongest Hungarian fortress on the Danube
Danube
– and Szabács (now Šabac, Serbia). This left most of southern Hungary
Hungary
indefensible. The loss of Nandorfehervar caused great alarm in Hungary, but the huge 60,000 strong royal army – led by the king, but recruited too late and too slowly – neglected to take food along. Therefore, the army disbanded spontaneously under pressure from hunger and disease without even trying to recapture Belgrade
Belgrade
from the newly installed Turkish garrisons. In 1523, Archbishop Pál Tomori, a valiant priest-soldier, was made Captain of Southern Hungary. The general apathy that had characterized the country forced him to lean on his own bishopric revenues when he started to repair and reinforce the second line of Hungary's border defense system. Pétervárad
Pétervárad
fell to the Turks on July 15, 1526
1526
due to the chronic lack of castle garrisons. For about 400 km along the Danube
Danube
between Pétervárad
Pétervárad
and Buda
Buda
there was no single Hungarian town, village, or fortification of any sort. Three years later, an Ottoman army set out from Istanbul
Istanbul
on 16 April 1526, led by Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
personally. The Hungarian nobles, who still did not realize the magnitude of the approaching danger, did not immediately heed their King's call for troops. Eventually, the Hungarians
Hungarians
assembled in three main units: the Transylvanian army under John Zápolya, charged with guarding the passes in the Transylvanian Alps, with between 8,000 and 13,000 men; the main army, led by Louis himself (beside numerous Spanish, German, Czech and Serbian mercenaries); and another smaller force, commanded by the Croatian count Christoph Frankopan, numbering around 5,000 men. The Ottomans
The Ottomans
deployed the largest field artillery of the era, comprising some 300 cannons, while the Hungarians
Hungarians
had only 85 cannons,[13] though even this number was greater than other contemporary Western European armies deployed in the battlefields. The geography of the area meant that the Hungarians
Hungarians
could not know the Ottomans' ultimate goal until the latter crossed the Balkan Mountains, and when they did, the Transylvanian and Croatian forces were farther from Buda
Buda
than the Ottomans were. Contemporary historical records, though sparse, indicate that Louis preferred a plan of retreat, in effect ceding the country to Ottoman advances, rather than directly engaging the Ottoman army in open battle. The Hungarian war council – without waiting for reinforcements from Croatia
Croatia
and Transylvania only a few days march away – made a serious tactical error by choosing the battlefield near Mohács, an open but uneven plain with some swampy marshes. The Ottomans
The Ottomans
had advanced toward Mohács
Mohács
almost unopposed. While Louis waited in Buda, they had besieged several towns (Petervarad, Ujlak, and Eszek), and crossed the Sava
Sava
and Drava
Drava
Rivers. At Mohács
Mohács
the Hungarians
Hungarians
numbered some 25,000 to 30,000 soldiers. The only external help was a small contingent of Polish troops (1,500 soldiers and knights) led by the royal captin Lenart Gnoiński (but organized and equipped by the Papal State).[14] The Ottoman army numbered perhaps 50,000,[3][4] though military history books from the 21st century put the number of the Ottoman troops closer to 100,000.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Most of the Ottoman Balkan forces registered before this battle were described as Bosnians or Croats.[22] The Hungarian army was arrayed to take advantage of the terrain and hoped to engage the Ottoman army piecemeal. They had the advantage that their troops were well-rested, while the Turks had just completed a strenuous march in scorching summer heat. But rather than attacking the fatigued enemy immediately, the Hungarians
Hungarians
let them struggle through the marshy terrain. It would have been "unchivalrous" to attack the enemy when they were not yet ready for battle.[23] Battle[edit]

The battle of Mohács, on an Ottoman miniature

General Pál Tomori, the captain of the army, in his golden renaissance armour (1526)

Discovery of the Corpse of King Louis II

Hungary
Hungary
built up an expensive but obsolete army, structured similarly to that of King Francis I at the Battle of Pavia
Battle of Pavia
and mostly reliant on old fashioned heavily armoured knights on armoured horses (gendarme knights). The Hungarian battlefront consisted of two lines. The first had a center of mercenary infantry and artillery and the majority of the cavalry on either flank. The second was a mix of levy infantry and cavalry.[24] The Ottoman army was a more modern force built around artillery and the elite, musket-armed Janissaries. The remainder consisted of feudal Timarli cavalry and conscripted levies from Rumelia
Rumelia
and the Balkans.[25] The length of the battle is as uncertain as the number of combatants. It started between 1:00 PM and 2:00 PM, but the endpoint is difficult to ascertain. While some historians[who?] have placed the length of the battle at two to three hours, this seems unlikely given several important factors. The Ottoman army did not retreat from the field to camp after the battle; instead, they remained on the field all night without food, water, or shelter. Since the Ottoman historians all note that it was raining, it seems likely that had the battle ended early in the afternoon, the sultan would have ordered his army to camp or at least to return to their baggage. The few reliable sources indicate that Louis left the field at twilight and made his escape under cover of darkness. Since the sun would not have set until 6:27 PM on 29 August 1526,[26] this would imply that the battle lasted significantly longer than two to three hours (perhaps as long as four or five).[citation needed] As the first of Suleiman's troops, the Rumelian army, advanced onto the battlefield, they were attacked and routed by Hungarian troops led by Pál Tomori. This attack by the Hungarian right caused considerable chaos among the irregular Ottoman troops, but even as the Hungarian attack pressed forward, the Ottomans rallied with the arrival of Ottoman regulars deployed from the reserves. While the Hungarian right advanced far enough at one time to place Suleiman in danger from Hungarian bullets that struck his cuirass, the superiority of the Ottoman regulars and the timely charge of the Janissaries, the elite troops of the Ottomans, probably overwhelmed the attackers, particularly on the Hungarian left. The Hungarians
Hungarians
took serious casualties from the skillfully handled Turkish artillery and musket volleys. The Hungarians
Hungarians
could not hold their positions, and those who did not flee were surrounded and killed or captured. The result was a disaster, with the Hungarians
Hungarians
advancing into withering fire and flank attacks, and falling into the same trap that John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi
had so often used successfully against the Ottomans.[27] The king left the battlefield sometime around twilight but was thrown from his horse in a river at Csele and died, weighed down by his heavy armor. Some 1,000 other Hungarian nobles and leaders were also killed. It is generally accepted that more than 14,000 Hungarian soldiers were killed in the initial battle.[6][7] Suleiman could not believe that this small, suicidal army was all that the once powerful country could muster against him, so he waited at Mohacs for a few days before moving cautiously against Buda.[28][better source needed] Aftermath[edit] Main article: Ottoman Hungary

Battle Monument in Mohács

Markers at the Mohacs Monument show where bodies of nobles, knights, soldiers, and horses were found

The victory did not give the Ottomans the security they wanted. Buda was left undefended; only the French and Venetian ambassadors waited for the Sultan to congratulate him on his great victory.[23] Though they entered the unguarded evacuated Buda
Buda
and pillaged the castle and surroundings, they retreated soon afterwards. It was not until 1541 that the Ottomans finally captured and occupied Buda
Buda
following the 1541 Siege of Buda. However, for all intents and purposes, the Battle of Mohács
Mohács
meant the end of the independent Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
as a unified entity. Amid political chaos, the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, John Zápolya
John Zápolya
in 1526
1526
and Ferdinand of Austria in 1527. The Ottoman occupation was contested by the Habsburg
Habsburg
Archduke of Austria, Ferdinand I, Louis's brother-in-law and successor by treaty with King Vladislaus II. Bohemia
Bohemia
fell to the Habsburgs, who also dominated the northern and western parts of Hungary
Hungary
and the remnants of the Kingdom of Croatia, while the Ottomans held central Hungary
Hungary
and suzerainty over semi-independent Transylvania. This provided the Hungarians
Hungarians
with sufficient impetus to continue to resist the Ottoman occupation, which they did for another seventy years. The Austrian branch of Habsburg
Habsburg
monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary
Hungary
for the Ottoman wars. During the Ottoman wars the territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
shrunk by around 70%. Despite these territorial and demographic losses, the smaller, heavily war-torn Royal Hungary
Royal Hungary
had remained economically more important than Austria or the Kingdom of Bohemia
Bohemia
even at the end of the 16th century.[29] Out of all his countries, the depleted Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
was, at that time, Ferdinand’s largest source of revenue.[30] The subsequent near constant warfare required a sustained commitment of Ottoman forces, proving a drain on resources that the largely rural and war-torn kingdom proved unable to repay. Christian armies besieged Buda
Buda
several times during the 16th century, and Suleiman himself died of natural causes in Hungary
Hungary
during the Battle of Szigetvár
Battle of Szigetvár
in 1566. There were also two unsuccessful Ottoman sieges of Eger, which did not fall until 1596, seventy years after the Ottoman victory at Mohács. The Turks proved unable to conquer the northern and western parts of Hungary, which belonged to the Habsburg
Habsburg
monarchs. A book on the Turkish culture was written by Georgius Bartholomaeus with information obtained from Christian troops released by the Ottomans after the battle.[31][32][33] Legacy[edit] Mohács
Mohács
is seen by many Hungarians
Hungarians
as the decisive downward turning point in the country's history, a national trauma that persists in the nation's folk memory. For moments of bad luck, Hungarians
Hungarians
still say: "more was lost at Mohács" (Több is veszett Mohácsnál). Hungarians view Mohács
Mohács
as marking the end of an independent and powerful European nation. Whilst Mohács
Mohács
was a decisive loss, it was the aftermath that truly put an end to independent Hungary. The ensuing two hundred years of near constant warfare between the two empires, Habsburg
Habsburg
and Ottoman, turned Hungary
Hungary
into a perpetual battlefield. The countryside was regularly ravaged by armies moving back and forth, in turn devastating the population. Only in the 19th century would Hungary
Hungary
regain some degree of autonomy, with full independence coming only after the First World War; however, the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
awarded much of its former land to other states (such as Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia), and Hungary
Hungary
has never regained its former political power. In the 464 years from 1525 to 1989, Hungary
Hungary
spent the vast majority of the time under the direct or indirect domination of a foreign power. These foreign powers were, successively, the Ottoman Empire (1525-1686), the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(1686-1804), the Austrian Empire (1804-1867), and the Soviet Union (1945–1989); furthermore, between 1867 and 1918 Hungary
Hungary
was widely considered the "junior" partner in the Austro-Hungarian Empire: autonomy was granted, but stopped well short of independence. The battlefield, beside the village of Sátorhely, became an official national historical memorial site in 1976 on the 450th anniversary of the battle. The memorial was designed by architect György Vadász.[34] A new reception hall and exhibition building, also designed by Vadász and partially funded by the European Union, was completed in 2011.[35] Notes[edit]

^ Lokman (1588). " Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
and the Battle of Mohac (1526)". Hünernâme.  ^ Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Mohács, Battle of". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts on File. pp. 388–389.  ^ a b c Stavrianos, Balkans
Balkans
Since 1453, p. 26 "The latter group prevailed, and on 29 August 1526
1526
the fateful battle of Mohacs was fought: 25,000 to 30,000 Hungarians
Hungarians
and assorted allies on the one side, and on the other 45,000 Turkish regulars supported by 10,000 lightly armed irregulars." ^ a b c Nicolle, David, Hungary
Hungary
and the fall of Eastern Europe, 1000–1568, p. 13 " Hungary
Hungary
mustered some 25,000 men and 85 bore cannons (only 53 being used in actual battle), while for various reasons the troops from Transylvania
Transylvania
and Croatia
Croatia
failed to arrive. ^ Cathal J. Nolan, The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Vol. 2, (Greenwood Press, 2006), 602. ^ a b Turner & Corvisier & Childs, A Dictionary of Military History and the Art of War, pp. 365–366 "In 1526, at the battle of Mohács, the Hungarian army was destroyed by the Turks. King Louis II died, along with 7 bishops, 28 barons and most of his army (4,000 cavalry and 10,000 infantry)." ^ a b Minahan, One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups, p. 311 "A peasant uprising, crushed in 1514, was followed by defeat by the Ottoman Turks at the battle of Mohacs in 1526. King Louis II and more than 20,000 of his men perished in battle, which marked the end of Hungarian power in Central Europe." ^ "Hungary". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-21.  ^ Francis Fukuyama: Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution ^ http://www.history.com/topics/hungary/page4[permanent dead link] ^ "A Country Study: Hungary". Geography.about.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2010-08-29.  ^ a b Merriman, p.132 ^ Jeremy Black (2013). War and Technology. Indiana University Press. p. 85. ISBN 9780253009890.  ^ http://www.mohacs.hu/en/info/attractions/monument/lengyel-hosi-emlekmu.html ^ Spencer Tucker Battles That Changed History: An Encyclopedia of World Conflict, page: 166 (published 2010) ^ Gábor Ágoston,Bruce Alan Masters: Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, page: 583 (published: 2009 ^ Christian P. Potholm: Winning at war: seven keys to military victory throughout history, page 117 (published in 2009) ^ William J. Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel: World History, Volume: I page: 419, (published: 2006) ^ Stanley Lane-Poole: Turkey, page:179 (published 2004) ^ Stephen Turnbull: The Ottoman Empire, 1326–1699, page:46 ^ Battle of Mohács
Mohács
article Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Fine, John V. A. (5 February 2010). When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans: A Study of Identity in Pre-Nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early-Modern Periods. University of Michigan Press. p. 215. ISBN 0-472-02560-0.  ^ a b Zoltán Bodolai (1978). "9. Darkness After Noon". The Timeless Nation - The History, Literature, Music, Art and Folklore of the Hungarian Nation. Hungaria Publishing Company. Retrieved 19 November 2015.  ^ "The Battle of Mohacs: The Fall of the Hungarian Empire", by Richard H. Berg, published in Against the Odds, Volume 3, Number 1, September 2004 ^ Ottoman army page[circular reference] ^ Cornwall, C., Horiuchi, A., and Lehman, C. Sunrise/Sunset Calculator. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Accessed August 31, 2008, using the Gregorian date of the battle, September 8, 1526. Also entered were the coordinates 45° 56′ 29″ N, 18° 38′ 50″ E and a "time zone" of 1.243 hours before Greenwich, since at the time of the battle, time zones had not been invented. ^ David Nicolle and Angus McBride: Hungary
Hungary
and the fall of Eastern Europe 1000–1568 PAGE: 14 ^ ZOLTÁN BODOLAI: The timeless nation (Sydney, 1978) ^ Robert Evans, Peter Wilson (2012). The Holy Roman Empire, 1495-1806: A European Perspective Volume 1 van Brill's Companions to European History. BRILL. p. 263. ISBN 9789004206830.  ^ Dr. István Kenyeres: The Financial Administrative Reforms and Revenues of Ferdinand I in Hungary, English summary at page 92 Link1: [1] Link2: [2] ^ Georgius Bartholomaeus (1567). De Turcarum moribus epitome. apud Ioan. Tornaesium. pp. 26–.  ^ Alois Richard Nykl (1948). Gonzalo de Argote y de Molina's Discurso sobre la poesía castellana contenida en este libro (i.e. El libro de Patronio o El conde Lucanor) and Bartholomaeus Gjorgjević. J.H. Furst. p. 13.  ^ N. Melek Aksulu (2005). Bartholomäus Georgievićs Türkenschrift"De Turcarum ritu et caeremomiis"(1544) und ihre beiden deutschen Übersetzungen von 1545: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Türkenbildes in Europa. Verlag Hans-Dieter Heinz. p. 142. ISBN 978-3-88099-422-5.  ^ "Historical Memorial at Mohács". Hungarystartshere.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.  ^ "Visitors' center at Mohács
Mohács
battlefield memorial site inaugurated - Caboodle.hu". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 

See also[edit]

Military history of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
portal

The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors Muslim conquests:Europe

References[edit]

Stavrianos, L.S. Balkans
Balkans
Since 1453, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000. Nicolle, David, Hungary
Hungary
and the fall of Eastern Europe, 1000–1568, Osprey Publishing, 1988. Stephen Turnbull, The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1326–1699, Osprey Publishing, 2003. Molnár, Miklós, A Concise History of Hungary, Cambridge University Press, 2001. Minahan, James B. One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups, Greenwood Press, 2000. Palffy, Geza. The Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
in the Sixteenth Century (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press, 2010) 406 pages; Covers the period after the battle of Mohacs in 1526
1526
when the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
was partitioned in three, with one segment going to the Habsburgs. History Foundation, Improvement of Balkan History Textbooks Project Reports (2001) ISBN 975-7306-91-6

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Mohács.

Battle of Mohács, HD video with realistic period dresses and military units, and English subtitles The Fall of The Medieval Kingdom of Hungary: Mohacs 1526
1526
- Buda
Buda
1541

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European 17th/18th- century wars

Thirty Years' War

Uskok War Battle of Sablat Siege of Heidelberg (1622) Sack of Magdeburg Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) Battle of Lützen (1632) Battle of Nördlingen (1634)

Seven Years' War

Battle of Lobositz Battle of Kolín Battle of Breslau (1757) Battle of Hochkirch Battle of Meissen Battle of Landeshut (1760) Battle of Liegnitz (1760)

19th-century wars

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

Battle of Castiglione Battle of Bassano Battle of Ostrach Battle of Stockach (1799) Battle of Marengo Battle of Caldiero (1805) Battle of Austerlitz Battle of Landshut (1809) Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit Battle of Sankt Michael Battle of Raab Battle of Graz Battle of Leipzig

Hungarian Revolution of 1848–49

Battle of Pákozd Vienna Uprising Battle of Schwechat Battle of Mór Battle of Kápolna Battles of Komárom

First battle) Second battle Third battle

Battle of Temesvár

Third Italian War of Independence

Battle of Custoza Battle of Vis

Austro-Hungarian – Bosnia-Herzegovinian War

Battle of Jajce (1878) Battle of Vitez (1878) Battle of Sarajevo (1878) Battle of Livno (1878)

20th-century wars

World War I

Serbian Campaign Adriatic Campaign Battle of Galicia Battle of Soča Battle of Caporetto Bombardment of Ancona Second Battle of the Piave River Battle of Vittorio Veneto

World War II

Invasion of Yugoslavia Battle of Kozara Battle of Livno Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Neretva Operation Otto Battle of the Sutjeska Raid on Drvar Syrmian Front Battle of Knin Battle of Mostar Battle of Lijevče Field Battle of Sarajevo (1945)

Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995)

Pakrac clash Plitvice Lakes incident Borovo Selo killings Operation Stinger 1991 Yugoslav campaign in Croatia Dalj massacre Battle of Osijek Battle of Vukovar Vukovar massacre Battle of Gospić Battle of Šibenik Battle of Zadar Battle of Kusonje Battle of the Barracks Siege of Varaždin Barracks Siege of Bjelovar Barracks Battle of the Dalmatian Channels Gospić massacre Siege of Dubrovnik Operation Otkos 10 Operation Orkan 91 Operation Whirlwind Operation Baranja Operation Jackal Battle of the Miljevci Plateau Operation Tiger Operation Maslenica Operation Medak Pocket Operation Winter '94 Operation Flash Operation Summer '95 Operation Storm

War in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–1995)

Battle of Kupres (1992) Siege of Sarajevo Siege of Bihać Operation Vrbas '92 Operation Koridor Battle of Žepče Siege of Mostar Operation Neretva '93 Operation Tvigi 94 Battle of Kupres (Operation Cincar) Battle of Orašje Operation Maestral 2 Operation Una Operation Southern Move

21st-century conflicts

War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF) (2003–2014) Resolute Support Mission
Resolute Support Mission
Force (RS) (2015–present)

Golan Heights
Golan Heights
ceasefire after Yom Kippur War

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
(UNDOF) (2008–2013)

Category

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Battles involving the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
by era

Rise (1299–1453)

Land battles

Bapheus Dimbos Pelekanon Demotika Ihtiman Sırp Sındığı Maritsa Dubravnica Savra Pločnik Bileća Kosovo Kırkdilim Rovine Nicopolis Ankara Çamurlu Zlatitsa Kunovica Torvioll Varna Kosovo (2nd) Constantinople

Naval battles

Gallipoli

Classical Age (1453–1550)

Land battles

Albulena Târgoviște Jajce Ohrid Vaslui Valea Albă Shkodra Breadfield Otlukbeli Krbava Çaldıran Mercidabık Han Yunus Ridanieh Tlemcen Mohács Sokhoista

Naval battles

Zonchio Modon Diu Algiers (1516) Formentera Peñón of Algiers (1529) Tunis Preveza Alborán Algiers (1541) Ponza Djerba

Transformation (1550-1700)

Land battles

Mostaganem Szigeth Çıldır Torches Wadi al Laban Sisak Călugăreni Giurgiu Keresztes Urmia Cecora 1st Khotyn Candia Köbölkút Saint Gotthard Ładyżyn Krasnobród Niemirów 2nd Khotyn 2nd Vienna 2nd Mohács Slankamen Cenei Ustechko Lugos Ulaş Zenta

Naval battles

Lepanto Cape Corvo Cape Celidonia Focchies 1st Dardanelles 2nd Dardanelles 3rd Dardanelles 4th Dardanelles Oinousses Andros

Old Regime (1700–1789)

Land battles

Pruth Petrovaradin Banja Luka Grocka Stavunchany Aspindza Larga Yeghevārd Ganja Kars Kozludzha Kagul

Naval battles

Imbros Matapan Çeşme 1st Kerch Strait

Modernization (1789–1908)

Land battles

Focşani Rymnik Măcin Pyramids Abukir Arpachai Batin Al-Safra Jeddah Čegar Alamana Gravia Erzurum Valtetsi Doliana Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Peta Dervenakia Karpenisi Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Petra Kulevicha Algiers Konya Nezib Kurekdere Oltenița Eupatoria Kızıl Tepe Shipka Pass Plevna Philippopolis Taşkesen Novšiće Ulcinj Mouzaki Domokos

Naval battles

2nd Kerch Strait Kaliakra Athos Nauplia Samos Gerontas Navarino Sinop

For 20th-century battles before 1914 see List of Ottoman battles in the 20th century For the battles during World War I see List of Ottoman battles in World War I

Ottoman victories are in bold.

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