Westphalia, Hesse, Lower Saxony
Valencia de Alcántara
Vila Velha de Ródão
Fort St Philip
Bay of Biscay
In the Battle of Leuthen, fought on 5 December 1757, Frederick the
Prussian army used maneuver and terrain to decisively defeat a
much larger Austrian force commanded by Prince Charles of Lorraine and
Count Leopold Joseph von Daun, thus ensuring Prussian control of
Silesia during the
Third Silesian War
Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The battle was fought at the Silesian town of Leuthen, 10 kilometers
(6 mi) northwest of Breslau. By exploiting the training of his
troops and his superior knowledge of the terrain, Frederick created a
diversion at one end of the battlefield, and moved most of his small
army behind a series of low hillocks. The surprise attack in the
oblique order on the unsuspecting Austrian flank baffled Prince
Charles; the Prince took several hours to realize that the main action
was to his left, and not to his right. Within seven hours, the
Prussians destroyed the Austrian force, erasing any advantage the
Austrians had gained throughout the campaigning in the preceding
summer and autumn. Within 48 hours, Frederick had laid siege to
Breslau, which resulted in that city's surrender on 19–20 December.
Leuthen was the last battle at which Prince Charles commanded the
Austrian Army, before his sister-in-law, Empress Maria Theresa,
appointed him as governor of the
Habsburg Netherlands and placed
Leopold Joseph von Daun
Leopold Joseph von Daun in command of the army. The battle also
established beyond doubt Frederick's military reputation in European
circles. After Rossbach (5 November), the French had refused to
participate further in Austria's war with Prussia; and after Leuthen
(5 December), Austria could not continue it by herself.
1 Seven Years' War
Terrain and dispositions
2.1 Habsburg dispositions
2.2 Prussian dispositions
3.1 Oblique maneuver
3.3 Battle in maps
Seven Years' War
Further information: Seven Years' War
Europe in the years after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Austria is
shown in yellow and
Prussia with the province of
Silesia is in purple.
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War was a global conflict, it acquired a
specific intensity in the European theater as a result of the
competition between Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick
the Great, and
Maria Theresa of Austria. Their rivalry dated from
1740, when, upon her ascension, Frederick had attacked and annexed the
prosperous province of Silesia. The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle,
War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) between
Prussia and Maria Theresa's allies, awarded
Silesia to Prussia.
Maria Theresa had signed the treaty to gain time to rebuild
her military forces and forge new alliances. She intended to regain
her ascendancy in the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire and to reacquire Silesia.
Similarly, France sought to break the British dominance of Atlantic
trade. In 1754, escalating tensions between Britain and France in
North America offered the Empress the opportunity to regain her lost
territories and to limit Prussia's ever growing power. France and
Austria put aside their old rivalry to form a coalition of their own;
Maria Theresa agreed that one of her daughters, Maria Antonia, would
marry the Dauphin of France, and her chief ministers negotiated a
military and political pact advantageous to both parties. That drove
Britain to align herself with George II's nephew, the King of Prussia;
their alliance also involved the Electorate of Hanover, which was held
in personal union by George, along with George's and Frederick's
relatives who ruled the
Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and
the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel. This series of political manoeuvrers
became known as the Diplomatic Revolution.
When war broke out in 1756, Frederick overran Saxony then campaigned
in Bohemia. There he defeated the Austrians on 6 May 1757 at the
Battle of Prague. Learning that French forces had invaded his ally's
territory of Hanover, Frederick moved west. On 5 November 1757, an
infantry regiment of about 1,000 men and 1,500 of his cavalry defeated
the combined French and Austrian force of 30,000 at the Battle of
Rossbach in a 90-minute battle. In his absence, though, the Austrians
had managed to retake Silesia: the Empress's brother-in-law, Prince
Charles, took the city of
Schweidnitz and moved on
Breslau in lower
While heading back to Silesia, Frederick learned of the fall of
Breslau in late November. He and his 22,000 men covered 274 km
(170 mi) in 12 days and, at Liegnitz, joined up with the Prussian
troops who had survived the fighting at Breslau. The augmented army of
about 33,000 troops (with approximately 167 cannons) arrived near
Leuthen (now Lutynia, Poland), 27 km (17 mi) west of
Breslau, to find 66,000 Austrians in possession.
Terrain and dispositions
Leuthen stands in rolling grasslands and Charles distributed his
troops in a long line across fields, to the village, visible in the
distance. Charles directed his operations from the tower of one of the
Most of Lower
Silesia is a rolling plain of fertile land. It
includes black and alluvial soils near
Breslau (Wrocław) and in river
valleys, mixed with more sandy soils. Located between the
and the foot of the Sudeten Mountains, its mild climate, fertile soils
and extensive water network made it a coveted agricultural
In the area northwest of Breslau, the absence of steep hills made
observation of an approaching enemy easy, and the relative flatness
limited hiding maneuvers. The presence of alluvial soils guaranteed
relatively soft ground – not as soft as Frederick would face at
Kunersdorf in 1758, but soft enough to provide the occasional natural
bogs to bar the passage of troops in some locations, or to muffle the
sound of marching and horses' hooves. The area around Leuthen included
several hamlets and villages: principally, Nippern, about 5.6 km
(3 mi) north; Frobelwitz, also to the north, about halfway
between Leuthen and Nippern; Gahla, 3 km (2 mi) to the
southeast; and Lissa, 6.1 km (4 mi) to the east. A roadway
connected the villages of Borna, Leuthen, and Lissa with Breslau,
Oder river and its tributaries.
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great and his staff develop their battle plan,
as illustrated by Hugo Ungewitter
Aware of Frederick's approach, Charles and his second in command,
Count Leopold Joseph von Daun, positioned the army facing west on a
8 km (5 mi) front in country of undulating plains. The
Prince deployed his troops in two lines, the right wing at his
northernmost point, anchored at Nippern. Leuthen served as the
Austrian center. Charles established his command post there, using a
church tower as his observation post, and stationing seven battalions
in the village itself. The majority of Charles' forces stood on his
right wing. A small advanced post stood at Borna, but with
Frederick's arrival in force, they withdrew immediately to the east.
The Austrian position intersected at right angles with the principal
road between Borna and Breslau, passing through Frobelwitz and Lissa.
He secured Nippern with eight grenadier companies and placed his
cavalry at Guckerwitz (present-day Kokorzyce (pl)). The Austrian
line extended as far south as Sagschütz (present-day Zakrzyce).
There, his cavalry stood at right angles to the infantry, creating a
line between Sagschütz and Gahla. The positions were secured with
additional grenadiers and pickets. Troops filled villages and woods,
and hastily made abatis and redoubts. Pickets guarded all
communication points as well as road and path crossings. The left wing
was his shortest, with cavalry placed at the far end, near a stream by
the village of Gahla. Charles had an amalgamated force of Habsburg
troops, including several contingents from the military frontier, and
imperial troops from the duchies Württemberg and Bavaria.
Frederick had learned the countryside by heart on previous maneuvers.
On 4 December 1757, from his position on the Schönberg, a knoll about
1.5 km (1 mi) west of Borna, he surveyed the familiar
landscape with his generals. A plan emerged. In front of him, a
cluster of low hills dotted the landscape along an axis approximately
parallel to the Austrian line. He knew the names of the hills:
Schleierberg, Sophienberg, Wachberg, Butterberg. They were hardly
hills, more like hillocks, but they were high enough to provide a
screen for his troops. Facing an army twice his size, he had to rely
on his own army's tactical training and use the terrain to maneuver
his men into optimal position. Frederick had one of the finest
armies in Europe: his troops—any company—fired at least four
volleys a minute, and some of them could fire a phenomenal five, twice
the rate of fire of most European armies. Only the Russians could come
close to achieving this rate. The Prussians could maneuver better than
any of the armies in Europe and march faster, and they had just come
from a resounding success at Rossbach. His artillery could quickly
deploy and redeploy to support his infantry; his cavalry, superbly
trained, could maneuver and charge horse's flank to flank and rider's
knee to knee, while moving at a full gallop.
The foggy weather made it difficult to see positions from either side,
but Frederick and his commanders used the fog to their advantage.
Leaving a cavalry unit and a cluster of infantry in front of the
northernmost end of the Austrian line (the Austrian right), Frederick
deployed the remainder (and bulk) of his forces toward Leuthen itself;
Charles saw them start their redeployment, and may have interpreted
the maneuver as withdrawal, at least for a while.
At 4:00 am on that Sunday morning, Frederick moved toward the Austrian
right wing in four columns, with infantry in the inner two and cavalry
in the outer two columns. Using the knolls to block his movements,
Frederick shifted the two columns of infantry and one of cavalry
obliquely to his own right. The leftmost column of cavalry remained
behind to convince the Austrians that they were still approaching
directly at the latter end of the Austrian line, near Frobelwitz.
Their visible distraction screened Frederick's intent, which was to
execute an oblique maneuver similar to that he had used to win only
weeks earlier at the Battle of Rossbach. Prince Charles, watching from
his vantage point, moved his entire reserve to his right flank. This
not only weakened the left flank, but also stretched his front from
Leuthen past Frobelwitz and on to Nippern, extending it well beyond
its original 4 km (2 mi). While a single column of cavalry
mesmerized Charles at his farthest right flank, the rest of the
Prussians continued undetected, behind those hills, across the
Austrian front, and overreached (passed) the Austrian left wing.
Prussians advance at Leuthen – as imagined and illustrated by Carl
The Prussian infantry marched southward, remaining out of Austrian
sight, behind a line of low hills. When the heads of the two superbly
drilled Prussian columns—the distances between the marching platoons
remaining exactly the width of each platoon's front—had passed the
Austrian left flank, the columns veered left toward the enemy and
continued their march until they had passed beyond the left Austrian
flank. Then, on command, the platoons of the columns faced left at
Lobetinz, and the whole
Prussian army stood in line of battle, two to
three men deep, at nearly a right angle to the weakest point of the
Austrian left. Similarly, Hans Joachim von Zieten's cavalry had
traversed the entire Austrian front, and positioned itself at a
45-degree angle to the Austrian flank. The Prussian artillery perched
the reverse slopes of the Butterberg, hidden from Austrian view but
prepared to move to the crest to time their bombardment with the
infantry's attack. The bulk of the repositioned
Prussian army now
faced the smallest component of the Austrian line. The one column of
Prussian cavalry and the small reserve of infantry remaining at the
Austrian far right continued to demonstrate in front of the Austrians,
even moving further north, as if an attack would occur at that
The Austrians were astonished at the Prussian appearance on their left
flank. The objective was soon clear: the Prussian infantry, now
arrayed in the conventional two lines of battle, advanced on the
weakest part of the Austrian line, intending to roll up the flank. The
Austrian colonels on the scene did the best they could: by turning
their own lines 90 degrees, they tried to take advantage of a shallow
ditch facing the Prussian line. Franz Leopold von Nádasdy, commanding
the flank, asked Charles for support, a request the Prince ignored:
even at late morning, with most of the
Prussian army on his left
flank, he still believed that any attack would come at the northern
flank. Most of the men in the first Austrian line were
Württembergers, Protestant troops whose willingness to fight the
Lutheran Prussians had been called into question by the Austrian
command. The Württembergers held out, maintaining steady musket fire
until the mass of Prussians emerged through the haze of gunpowder.
Then they ran for their lives, sweeping the Bavarians Nádasdy had
deployed to support his flank with them.
The first wave of Prussian infantry, supported by Frederick's
artillery now pounding away from the crest of one of the hillocks,
pushed steadily toward Leuthen. Commanded by Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau,
the seasoned infantry and grenadiers went into battle with 60 rounds
per man, according to Prussian regulation; by the time they
overwhelmed the first Austrian line, they already were out of
ammunition. Nádasdy sent his own small cavalry against the
Prussian grenadier column and its infantry support, but to no avail.
Nádasdy withdrew his men in chaos, his troops disarrayed. Prince
Charles and Daun finally realized that they had been tricked and
rushed troops from the right to the left, but they had extended the
front, originally about 4 km (2 mi) long, to almost
10 km (6 mi), when they repositioned forces earlier in the
day to meet Frederick's diversion. As the Austrians withdrew, the
Prussian artillery raked them with enfilade fire. The Prussian
infantry and grenadiers reached the village in 40 minutes, pushing the
Austrian troops into the village. Prussian grenadiers breached the
wall first and stormed the church, where many of the defenders were
killed. Hand-to-hand fighting raged throughout the village.
Charles-Joseph Lamoral, eventually Prince de Ligne, was then a captain
in an Austrian regiment of foot:
Colonel fell[,] killed almost at the first; beyond this
we lost our Major, and indeed all the Officers but three ... We
had crossed two successive ditches, which lay in an orchard to the
left of the first houses in Leuthen; and were beginning to form in
front of the village. But there was no standing of it. Besides a
general cannonade such as can hardly be imagined, there was a rain of
case-shot upon this Battalion, of which I, as there was no Colonel
left, had to take command.[Note 1]
Leuthen was not a big village. Troops were so closely packed they
stood 30 to 100 ranks deep and the killing was terrible. Lamoral
commented later that his battalion, usually some 1,000 strong, plus
some Hungarians and some grenadiers who had been separated from their
own companies, gave him almost (and only) 200 men. He drew them back
to the height at the edge of the village, where there was a windmill
around which they could shelter. Eventually, though, the Prussian Life
Guards, commanded by Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf, then a
captain, broke through the village cemetery, and forced them to
abandon their post.
The Austrians briefly took the advantage when they moved a battery
from the ridge north of the village to cover their infantry; the fire
from the battery allowed the infantry to deploy at right angles to
their original front. Frederick responded by ordering the last of his
reserved left wing to advance, but the Austrian battery drove it back.
Finally, Frederick's heavy cannons on the Butterberg, a small knoll to
the west of town, laid down a barrage. Some participants said it was
this barrage, more than the Prussian infantry, which won the
The assault on the wall briefly exposed General Wolf Frederick von
Retzow's infantry line. More than two hours elapsed since the Prince
had ordered his cavalry back to Leuthen, but they arrived opportunely.
Commanded by Joseph Count Lucchesi d’ Averna[Note 2] the cavalry
hurried to take them in the flank: a successful cavalry charge at this
critical point could have turned the tide of battle. Unfortunately for
the Austrians, 40 squadrons of Zieten's cavalry awaited them at
Radaxdorf and charged their flank; another 30 squadrons commanded by
Georg Wilhelm von Driesen charged their front; the Bayreuth Dragoons
hit their other flank; and the Puttkammer Hussars charged the rear.
Lucchessi was killed—decapitated by a cannonball—and his
troopers were scattered. The cavalry mêlée soon swirled into the
Austrian infantry line behind Leuthen, causing more confusion. Overrun
by the Prussian horse, the Austrian infantry broke. First the
infantry, then the cavalry retreated toward Breslau, where they
Schweidnitz river, then called the "Black Water".
Battle in maps
Solid red lines indicate Habsburg positions. Solid blue lines indicate
Prussian positions. Dotted lines show movement. Rectangles with a
diagonal line indicate cavalry.
The Battle in Four Maps
Upon Frederick's approach, Charles' advanced post (dotted red line)
withdrew to Nippern. From Borna, Frederick evaluated the size and
disposition of the Austrian force (solid red line); he organized his
troops for the oblique maneuver. Note the village of Lissa to the far
right. That is where Frederick ends his day.
While Charles sent most of his reserve north (red dotted lines) to
protect his flank from the Prussian advance Frederick maneuvered his
troops past the Austrians and surprised them on their left flank.
Charles finally realized his danger and tried to bring his cavalry and
troops from his right flank into the fray. The length of his line
(solid red), extended for 8 km (5 mi), meant that the troops
had to march too far. The Prussians (dotted blue line) pushed the
Charles' troops withdrew from the field. Frederick entered the small
castle at Lissa.
Wilhelm Camphausen's 19th century depiction of Frederick and his
troops after the battle. The troops reportedly sang Nun danket alle
Gott (Now Thank we all our God), known widely as the Leuthen
Richard Knötel's depiction of Frederick's arrival at the Schloss von
Lissa after the Battle of Leuthen; he was greeted by astonished
Austrian officers (the men wearing the white jackets).
As the smoke cleared, the Prussian infantry reformed its lines,
preparing to pursue the fleeing Austrians. Snow began to fall and
Frederick halted the pursuit. A few soldiers, perhaps only one,
started to sing the well-known chorale,
Nun danket alle Gott
Nun danket alle Gott (Now
Thank We All Our God); eventually the entire army may have joined in
the song, although this story is likely apocryphal.[Note 3]
Frederick pushed toward Lissa. Refugees from the battle had filled the
town, and he found the courtyard of the local castle crowded with
startled Austrian officers. Reportedly, after he dismounted, he
addressed them politely, "Good evening, Gentlemen, I dare say you did
not expect me here. Can one get a night's lodging along with you?"
After a day of rest, on 7 December Frederick sent half his cavalry
with Zieten, chasing Charles' retreating army, now heading toward
Königgrätz by Schweidnitz; they captured another 2,000 men and
baggage. With the rest of his army, Frederick marched on
Breslau. By chasing Charles' army into Bohemia, the Prussians
guaranteed the isolation of the Allied garrison holding Breslau.
The Austrian general left in command of the city, Lieutenant Field
Marshal Salman Sprecher von Bernegg,[Note 4] had a combined force of
French and Austrian men, 17,000 strong.
Breslau itself was a
well-fortified city of walls and moats. The Austrians were determined
to hold Breslau, not only because losing it would cost them control of
Silesia and considerable diminution of prestige, but also for the
immense quantities of stores the city held. The Austrian commander,
recognizing his grim plight, posted placards on gallows and poles
throughout the city, warning that anyone who spoke of surrender would
be hanged immediately. On 7 December, Frederick laid siege to the city
and the future of Austrian control of
Breslau and the region looked
Breslau surrendered on 19–20 December.
Out of an army of approximately 66,000 men, the Austrians lost 22,000,
including 3,000 dead, 7,000 wounded, and an astonishing 12,000
captured. Of the dead and wounded, Austrian demographer and historian
Gaston Bodart estimated that almost five percent were officers; he
also placed such other losses as capture and desertion at 17,000,
almost 26 percent. Charles lost entire regiments, either scattered
in the first attacks or overrun at the end; they simply dissolved in
the waves of Prussian blue coats. The Prussians also captured 51
standards and 116 of the 250 Austrian cannons. Of the
Prussian army of
36,000, Frederick lost 6,344, including 1,141 dead, 5,118 wounded and
85 captured. He lost none of his artillery. Despite the victory,
its cost was high: Frederick lost one fifth of the men he had taken
into battle, including two of his major generals.[Note 5]
The battle presented a severe blow to Austrian morale. The army had
been soundly beaten by an army half its size, with fewer guns, and
tired after a long march over 12 days. Charles and his second in
command, Count Leopold Joseph von Daun, sank "in the depths of
despondency", and the Prince could not fathom what had happened.
Charles had a mixed-to-poor record against Frederick in past
encounters but had never fared so badly as at Leuthen. After this
Maria Theresa replaced him with Daun; Charles retired
from military service and later served as the governor of the Habsburg
Netherlands. The Austrians also learned some lessons, such as not
to fight the Prussians in open fields; they had to choose their own
ground for battle, and they employed this lesson in the future.
Memorial to the Battle, erected in 1854 and demolished in 1945
Frederick had benefited from an obliging enemy. First, Charles saw
what he wanted to see regarding the principal attack instead of using
his efficient light cavalry to figure out what the Prussians really
intended. Frederick commented later that a lone patrol could have
uncovered the truth. The cavalry he had left demonstrating in front of
the northernmost position of the Austrian line was simply a screen, a
diversion, to hide his real movements. Second, the Austrians obliged
him by their failure to post pickets on their unprotected flank south
of Leuthen. Nádasdy's omission of outposts on his open flank south of
Leuthen was a surprising failure for a man with his long years of
experience against the Prussians; he should have considered the
possibility of an attack from an unexpected direction because this was
Frederick's modus operandi. Third, even when confronted with the
attack on his left, the diversion on the right flank near Frobelwitz
continued to mesmerize Charles. By the time the Prince moved cavalry
to support the faltering troops south of, and in, Leuthen, they had
too far to travel in too little time.
The battle of Leuthen was Frederick's greatest victory so far, perhaps
his greatest tactical masterpiece ever, and showed Europeans the
superiority of Prussian infantry. In one day, Frederick wiped out
the victories the Austrians had achieved earlier in the year at
Breslau and Schweidnitz, and the inroads the Austrians had made into
reclamation of Silesia. The battle also demonstrated 18th century
linear tactics at their best. Furthermore, Frederick had learned some
valuable lessons at the Battles of Prague and of Kolin, where his
infantry had run out of ammunition and lost the initiative. At
Leuthen, ammunition wagons moved with the advancing lines of
grenadiers and infantry battalions. Troops could be resupplied
quickly, without losing their momentum. Consequently, although
some infantrymen fired as many as 180 rounds, the advance never bogged
down for lack of ammunition. The Prussian cavalry successfully
protected the flanks, especially important with Nádasdy's assault on
the Prussian grenadiers at the village church, and provided tactically
important charges, which eventually turned the defeat into a rout.
Finally, Frederick's redoubtable horse artillery, sometimes called the
flying artillery for its ability to move rapidly, maintained its fire
and kept pace with the army; the artillery deployed and redeployed its
guns as needed; the distinctive bellow of the 12-pounders, sometimes
called Brummers, heightened Prussian morale and wrought havoc on the
The victory also changed the attitude of Frederick's enemies. Before
the battle, he was often referred to in unflattering, even demeaning,
ways; after Leuthen, he was widely called the King of Prussia, in both
polite and general (popular) circles. This victory, plus the one at
Rossbach, earned for Frederick some respect and fear that even his
most bitter of enemies held for the rest of the war and the subsequent
peace. Furthermore, Leuthen, combined with the earlier Rossbach,
in all probability saved
Prussia from extinction. A half century
later, Napoleon called it "a masterpiece of movements, maneuvers and
A memorial erected in 1854 honored the
Prussian army at Leuthen.
Frederick's great-great nephew, King
Frederick William IV
Frederick William IV ordered a
victory column with a gilded goddess of victory at Heidau—5 km
(3 mi) southeast of Lissa. The
Berlin architect Friedrich August
Stüler provided the design for the monument, and Christian Daniel
Rauch created the goddess of victory. The sculptor Heinrich Menzel
from Neisse constructed the column in his workshop, in local
white-gray stone. Moritz Geiss executed the plinth and the goddess in
zinc casting and gilded the statue Victoria for better effect.
Befitting its importance in the establishment of the Prussian state
and the mythos of Frederick the Great, the monument reached 20 meters
(66 ft). During or after World War II, soldiers or partisans
dynamited the monument, and only ruins of its pedestal remain.
^ For a full text of Charles-Joseph Lamoral's account, see Thomas
Carlyle, History of Frederick Second, Harper, 1901. pp. 202–203.
^ Lucchesi had been promoted 25 March 1741 to Generalfeldwachtmeister
(master general of field guards). This is an obsolete rank, above
colonel. It was superseded by the rank of major general. Additional
promotions occurred on 5 July 1745 to lieutenant field marshal; 12
June 1754 with rank retroactive to 3 December 1748 General of the
Cavalry. See Josef Wuk, Technisches polyglott-onomasticum: Oder
Wörterbuch in sieben ... 1864. p. 150, entry:
"Generalfeldwachmeister, V. Generalmajor" and, for biographical
information, Österreichisches Staatsarchiv/A. Schmidt-Brentano, 2006
Kaiserliche und k.k. Generale (1618–1815) (PDF; 443 kB).
^ Modern historians and musicologists question whether or not the
Prussian army did indeed sing the chorale, but the story has become
the stuff of legend. See (in German) Achim Hofer, "Joseph Goldes
(1802–1886) Fest-Reveille (1858) über den Choral 'Nun danket alle
Gott' für Militärmusik" in Peter Moormann, Albrecht Riethmüller,
Rebecca Wolf eds., Paradestück Militärmusik: Beiträge zum Wandel
staatlicher Repräsentation durch Musik, Transcript Verlag (2012), pp.
217–38. ISBN 978-3-8376-1655-2 and (in German) Bernhard R.
Kroener, "'Nun danket alle Gott.' der Choral von Leuthen und Friedrich
der Große als protestantischer Held; die Produktion politischer
Mythen im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert" in Hartmut Lehmann & Gerd
Krumeich eds. "Gott mit uns": Religion, Nation und Gewalt im 19. und
frühen 20. Jahrhundert, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (2000), pp.
105–34, ISBN 9783525354780. Regardless of the veracity,
certainly the officer depicted in Wilhelm Camphausen's picture was
more likely to have been Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau, whose responsibility
it was to conduct the clean up operations and to settle the troops
appropriately for the night.
^ Salmon (also spelled Solomon, Saloman) Sprecher von Bernegg,
1697–1758, descended from the Davoser line of Sprecher von Bernegg.
Some sources mis-identify the commander of
Breslau as Johann Andreas
Sprecher von Bernegg. See Sprecher, Daniel, "Sprecher", Neue Deutsche
Biographie 24 (2010), S. 745–746.
^ Lorenz Ernst von Münchow died of his injuries in January 1758;
Kaspar Friedrich von Rohr was hit by a cannon ball and died at
Radaxdorf 12 December 1757. See Anton Balthasar König, Lorenz Ernst
von Münchow, Biographisches Lexikon aller Helden und
Militairpersonen, welche sich in Preußischen Diensten berühmt
gemacht haben. Band 3. Arnold Wever,
Berlin 1790, S. 75, and Neue
genealogisch-historische Nachrichten von den vornehmsten
Begebenheiten, welche sich an den europäischen Höfen zugetragen, vol
54, Heinsius, 1759, pp. 608–609.
^ Peter H. Wilson, The Heart of Europe: A History of the Holy Roman
Empire. Penguin Publishing, 2016, pp. 478–479.
^ D.B. Horn, "The Diplomatic Revolution" in J.O. Lindsay, ed., The New
Cambridge Modern History vol. 7, The Old Regime: 1713–63 (1957): pp
449–64. Jeremy Black, Essay and Reflection: On the 'Old System' and
the Diplomatic Revolution' of the Eighteenth Century, International
History Review (1990) 12:2, pp. 301–323.
^ a b Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War and the
Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766. Knopf Doubleday
Publishing Group, 2007, p. 302.
^ a b c d e f Spencer Tucker, Battles that Changed History: An
Encyclopedia of World Conflict. ABC-CLIO, 2010, pp. 233–235.
^ "Silesia; Geography". New York Times. 23 December 1981. Retrieved 2
^ Gerard Kosmala, Geographical Characteristics of Silesia, Academy of
Physical Education in Katowice, 2015, pp. 2–4, 20.
^ a b c d e Herbert J. Redman,
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great and the Seven
Years' War, 1756–1763, McFarland, 2014, pp. 161–167.
^ Cormac O'Brien, Outnumbered: Incredible Stories of History's Most
Surprising Battlefield Upsets, Fair Winds Press, 2010, pp. 164–167.
^ Saul David (ed.), War: The Definitive Visual History, Penguin
Publishing, 2009, p. 174.
^ a b c Richard Overy, A History of War in 100 Battles, Oxford
University Press, 2014, p. 115.
^ Dennis E. Showalter, The Early Modern World: Soldiers' Lives,
Greenwood, 2007, p. L.
^ a b Showalter, p. xiviii.
^ Showalter, p. xlix.
^ Tucker, pp. 233–235.
^ a b c d e f J. F. C. Fuller, A Military History of the Western
World, Da Capo Press, 1987, pp. 212–215.
^ O'Brien, p. 171.
^ Fuller, pp. 212–215; Showalter, p. xlix; Tucker, pp. 233–235.
^ Redman, p. 161.
^ Salomon Sprecher von Bernegg, Diarium der Belagerung von Breslau;
und Capitulations-Puncte von der Übergabe an Se. Königl. Majestät
in Preussen: Nebst einem Verzeichniß mit Nahmen, derer Generals,
Staabs-Officiers und andern Officiers, dann vom Feldwebel an
summariter derer Kayserl. Königl. Trouppen, so den 21ten
December ...; 21 Dec 1757. pp. 5–14. Berlin, 1758.
^ a b c Showalter, p. L.
^ Gaston Bodart, Losses of Life in Modern Wars, Clarendon Press, 1916,
^ Bodart, p. 37.
^ a b c Robert Asprey, Frederick the Great: A Magnificent Enigma,
Ticknor & Fields, 1986, p. 43
^ Tim Blanning, Frederick the Great, Random House, 2016, pp.
^ L. Douglas Keeney, The Pointblank Directive: Three Generals and the
Untold Story of the Daring Plan that Saved D-Day, Bloomsbury
Publishing, 2012, page.
^ a b Showalter, p. L–Li.
^ a b Redman, p. 166.
^ "Battle of Leuthen". Leipziger Illustrirte Zeitung (593). 11
^ Roger Moorhouse, The Historian at Large: The Forgotten Battlefield
at Leuthen. 5 December 2014 version. Accessed 7 February 2017.
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Coordinates: 51°08′N 16°48′E / 51.133°N 16.800°E /