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Cumberland
Cumberland
(/ˈkʌmbərlənd/ KUM-bər-lənd; locally /ˈkʊmbələnd/ KUUM-bə-lənd) is a historic county of North West England
North West England
that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. It was bordered by Northumberland
Northumberland
to the east, County Durham
County Durham
to the southeast, Westmorland
Westmorland
and Lancashire
Lancashire
to the south, and the Scottish counties of Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
and Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire
to the north. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 (excluding Carlisle from 1914) and now forms part of Cumbria.

Contents

1 Early history 2 Boundaries and subdivisions

2.1 Division into wards 2.2 Ward of Cumberland

3 Local government from the 19th century

3.1 Poor law
Poor law
and municipal reform 3.2 Local boards and sanitary districts 3.3 Local government acts of 1888 and 1894 3.4 Reform in 1934

4 Legacy 5 Surnames 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Early history[edit] The first record of the term "Cumberland" appears in 945, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
recorded that the area was ceded to Malcolm I by King Edmund of England. At the time of the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
in 1086 most of the future county remained part of Scotland
Scotland
although some villages in the ancient district of Millom, which were the possessions of the Earl of Northumbria, were included in the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
section with the Furness
Furness
region.[1] In 1092 King William Rufus
William Rufus
of England
England
invaded the Carlisle district, settling it with colonists. He created an Earldom of Carlisle, and granted the territory to Ranulf Meschyn. In 1133 Carlisle was made the see of a new diocese, largely identical with the area of the earldom. However, on the death of King Henry I in 1135, the area was regained by Scotland's King David I. He was able to consolidate his power and made Carlisle one of his chief seats of government, while England descended into a lengthy civil war. In 1157 Henry II of England resumed possession of the area from Malcolm IV
Malcolm IV
of Scots, and formed two new counties from the former earldom: Westmorland
Westmorland
and "Carliol" although Westmorland
Westmorland
also included areas the former Honour or Earldom of Lancaster. The lead and silver-mining area of Alston, previously associated with the Liberty of Tynedale was later also added to the new county of Carliol for financial reasons.[2] By 1177 the county of Carliol was known as Cumberland.[3] The border between England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
was made permanent by the Treaty of York
Treaty of York
in 1237. Boundaries and subdivisions[edit]

Map of Cumberland
Cumberland
showing wards, 1824

The boundaries formed in the 12th century did not change substantially over the county's existence. It bordered four English counties and two Scottish counties. These were Northumberland
Northumberland
and County Durham
County Durham
to the east; Westmorland
Westmorland
to the south, the Furness
Furness
part of Lancashire
Lancashire
to the southwest; Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
to the north and Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire
to the northeast. To the west the county was bounded by the Solway Firth
Solway Firth
and the Irish Sea. The northern boundary was formed by the Solway Estuary and the border with Scotland
Scotland
running east to Scotch Knowe at Kershope Burn. The boundary ran south from Scotch Knowe along the Cheviot Hills, then followed a tributary of the River Irthing
River Irthing
and crossed Denton Fell to the River Tees. From Tees Head the boundary crossed the Pennines
Pennines
to descend Crowdundale Beck, from where it followed the rivers Eden and Eamont to the centre of Ullswater. The line then followed the Glencoin Beck to the top of the Helvellyn
Helvellyn
ridge, thence to Wrynose Pass
Wrynose Pass
and along the River Duddon
River Duddon
to the sea near Millom. The highest point of the county was Scafell Pike, at 3,208 feet (978 m) the highest mountain in England. Carlisle was the county town. Division into wards[edit] The Earldom of Carlisle was divided into baronies, but on the creation of the county these were replaced by wards. These took the place of hundreds found in most other English counties, and originated in military subdivisions organised for the defence of the county from incursions by Scottish troops.[4] Each ward was composed of a number of parishes, areas originally formed for ecclesiastical administration. In common with other counties of northern England, many parishes in Cumberland
Cumberland
were very large, often consisting of a number of distinct townships and hamlets. Many of these subdivisions were eventually to become civil parishes and form the lowest level of local government. The wards and their constituent parishes in 1821 were:[5]

Ward Parishes Notes

Allerdale
Allerdale
above Derwent

Arlecdon

Beckermet
Beckermet
St John Included part of township of Calder & Beckermet
Beckermet
or Calderbridge

Beckermet
Beckermet
St Bridget Included townships of Ennerdale & Kinniside, Eskdale & Wasdale

Bootle

Brigham Included townships of Blindbothel, Buttermere, Cockermouth, Eaglesfield, Embleton, Greysouthen, Mosser, Setmurthey, Whinfell

Cleator

Corney

Crosthwaite (part) Included township of Borrowdale

Dean

Drigg
Drigg
and Carlton

Egremont

Gosforth Included township of Bolton

Haile

Harrington

Irton with Santon Included township of Santon & Murthwaite

Lamplugh Included townships of Kelton & Winder, Murton

Lorton Included townships of Brackenthwaite, Wythop

Loweswater

Millom Included hamlet of Birker with Austhwaite, township of Ulpha

Moresby Included township of Parton

Muncaster

Ponsonby Included part of township of Calder & Beckermet
Beckermet
or Calderbridge

St Bees Include townships of Hensingham, Lowside Quarter, Netherwasdale, Preston Quarter, Rottington, Sandwith, Wheddicarr, Whitehaven

Waberthwaite

Whicham

Whitbeck

Workington Included townships of Great Clifton, Little Clifton, Stainburn, Winscales

Allerdale
Allerdale
below Derwent Allhallows

Aspatria Including townships of Hayton & Mealo, Oughterside & Allerby

Bassenthwaite

Bolton Including townships of Bolton Gate, Bolton Wood & Quarry Hill, Bolton Lowside, Isel Old Park, Sunderland

Bridekirk Including townships of Dovenby, Great Broughton, Little Broughton

Bromfield (part) Including townships of Allonby, Langrigg & Mealrigg, Papcastle, Tallentire, Westnewton

Caldbeck
Caldbeck
(part)

Cammerton Including township of Seaton

Crosscanonby Including townships of Birkby & Canonby, Blennerhasset & Kirkland, Crosby, Maryport

Crosthwaite (part) Included townships of Castlerigg St John's & Wythburn, Keswick, Ribton, Underskiddaw

Dearham Including township of Ellenborough & Ewanrigg

Flimby

Gilcrux

Holme Cultram Including townships of Abbey Quarter (or Holme Abbey), Holme East Waver Quarter, Holme St Cuthbert's Quarter, Holme Low Quarter

Ireby Including townships of High Ireby, Low Ireby

Isel Including township of Blindcrake and Redmain

Plumbland

Torpenhow Including townships of Bewaldeth and Snittlegarth, Bothel & Thrupland

Uldale

West Ward

Cumberland Aikton

Beaumont

Bowness Included townships of Anthorn, Drumburg, Fingland

Bromfield (part) Included townships of Blencogo, Dundraw

Burgh by Sands

Carlisle, St Mary's (part)* Townships of Caldewgate Quarter, Cummersdale Quarter, Wreay

Carlisle St Mary Within* Included township of Rickergate Quarter

Carlisle St Cuthbert's Within*

Carlisle St Cuthbert's Without*

Dalston

Eaglesfield Abbey *

Grinsdale

Kirkandrews upon Eden

Kirkbampton

Kirkbride

Orton Included township of Baldwinholme

Rockcliffe

Sebergham Low and High Quarters

Thursby

Warwick

Wetheral

Wigton Included townships of Oulton Water, Waverton High & Low, Woodside Quarter

Eskdale

Arthuret Included townships of Braconhill, Lineside, Longtown, Netherby

Bewcastle

Brampton

Castlecarrock

Crosby High & Low

Cumrew Outside and Inside

Cumwhitton Included township of Northsceugh

East Farlam

Hayton Included townships of Little Crosby, Fenton & Faugh, Talkin

Irthington Included townships of Kingwater, Laversdale, Newby, Newtown

Kingmoor
Kingmoor
(hamlet) Extra-parochial liberty belonging to the Corporation of Carlisle

Kirkandrews upon Esk Included townships of Kirkandrews Moat, Kirkandrews Nether Quarter, Kirkandrews Upper Quarter, Nichol Forest

Kirklinton Included townships of Hethersgill, Westlinton
Westlinton
(or Levington)

Lanercost Included townships of Askerton, Burtholme & Banks, Lineside

Nether Denton

Scaleby East and West

Stanwix

Stapleton Included townships of Belbank, Solport Quarter, Trough

Upper Denton

Walton High and Low

West Farlam

Leath

Addingham Included townships of Gamblesby, Glassonby, Hunsonby
Hunsonby
& Winskill

Ainstable
Ainstable
and Rushcroft

Alston with Garrigill Included the Chapelry of Garrigill

Caldbeck
Caldbeck
(part) Township of Mosedale

Carlisle, St Mary's (part) Township of Middlesceugh & Braithwaite

Castle Sowerby

Croglin

Dacre

Edenhall Included township of Langwathby

Great Salkeld

Greystoke Included townships of Berrier & Murrah, Bowscale, Hutton John, Hutton Roof, Hutton Soil, Matterdale, Mungrisdale, Threlkeld, Watermillock

Hesket in the Forest

Hutton in the Forest

Kirkland Included townships of Culgaith, Kirkland & Blencarn

Kirkoswald Included township of Staffield

Lazonby Included township of Plumpton Wall

Melmerby

Newton Reigny Included township of Catterlen

Ousby

Penrith

Renwick

Skirwith

Parts or all of these parishes and townships constituted the City of Carlisle, and were largely outside the jurisdiction of Cumberland Ward.

Ward of Cumberland[edit] The ward of Cumberland
Cumberland
was one of the ancient divisions of the historic county of Cumberland, England. In most other counties these divisions were called hundreds or Wapentakes. The ward included Carlisle and Wigton
Wigton
and took in parts of Inglewood Forest. It was bounded on the north and east by Eskdale Ward, on the south by Leath Ward and the west by Allerdale-below-Derwent Ward. The parish of Stanwix
Stanwix
just to the north of Carlisle was partly in both Eskdale and Cumberland
Cumberland
wards. Local government from the 19th century[edit] During the 19th century a series of reforms reshaped the local government of the county, creating a system of districts with directly-elected councils. Poor law
Poor law
and municipal reform[edit]

Map of Cumberland
Cumberland
in 1845 showing poor law unions and parliamentary divisions

The first changes concerned the administration of the poor law, which was carried at parish level. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
provided for the grouping of parishes into poor law unions, each with a central workhouse and an elected board of guardians. Cumberland
Cumberland
was divided into nine unions: Alston with Garrigill, Bootle, Brampton, Carlisle, Cockermouth, Longtown, Penrith, Whitehaven
Whitehaven
and Wigton. In the following year the Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
was passed, reforming boroughs and cities in England
England
and Wales as municipal boroughs with a uniform constitution. The corporation of the City of Carlisle was accordingly remodelled with a popularly elected council consisting of a mayor, aldermen and councillors. Local boards and sanitary districts[edit] Outside of municipal boroughs, there was no effective local government until the 1840s. In response to poor sanitary conditions and outbreaks of cholera, the Public Health Act 1848 and the Local Government Act 1858 allowed for the formation of local boards of health in populous areas. Local boards were responsible inter alia for water supply, drainage, sewerage, paving and cleansing. Eleven local boards were initially formed at Brampton, Cleator
Cleator
Moor, Cockermouth, Egremont, Holme Cultram, Keswick, Maryport, Millom, Penrith, Whitehaven, Wigton and Workington. Further reform under the Public Health Act 1875 saw the creation of sanitary districts throughout England
England
and Wales. The existing municipal boroughs and local boards became "urban sanitary districts", while "rural sanitary districts" were formed from the remaining areas of the poor law unions. Three more local boards were formed: Arlecdon
Arlecdon
and Frizington in 1882, Harrington in 1891 and Aspatria
Aspatria
in 1892. In addition Workington
Workington
and Whitehaven
Whitehaven
received charters of incorporation to become municipal boroughs in 1883 and 1894 respectively. Local government acts of 1888 and 1894[edit] Main article: Cumberland
Cumberland
County Council, England In 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888, the Cumberland
Cumberland
County Council was created as the county council for Cumberland, taking over administrative functions from the Court of Quarter Sessions. The Local Government Act 1894 reconstituted the existing sanitary districts as urban districts and rural districts, each with an elected council. The Act of 1888 also allowed any municipal borough with a population of 50,000 people or more to become a "county borough", independent of county council control. In 1914, Carlisle successfully applied for this status, ceasing to form part of the administrative county, although remaining within Cumberland
Cumberland
for the purposes such as Lieutenancy and shrievalty. Reform in 1934[edit] The Local Government Act 1929
Local Government Act 1929
imposed the duty on county councils of reviewing the districts within their administrative county so as to form more efficient units of local government. In general, this meant the merging of small or lightly populated areas into larger units. A review was carried in Cumberland
Cumberland
in 1934. The following table lists the urban and rural districts before and after the changes.

District 1894–1934 District 1934–1974

Alston with Garrigill
Alston with Garrigill
RD

Arlecdon
Arlecdon
& Frizington UD Part of Ennerdale RD

Aspatria
Aspatria
UD Absorbed by Wigton
Wigton
RD

Bootle RD Part of Millom
Millom
RD

Brampton RD Part of Border RD

Carlisle RD Part of Border RD

Cleator
Cleator
Moor UD Part of Ennerdale RD

Cockermouth
Cockermouth
RD

Cockermouth
Cockermouth
UD

Egremont UD Part of Ennerdale RD

Harrington UD Absorbed by Workington
Workington
MB

Holme Cultram UD Absorbed by Wigton
Wigton
RD

Keswick UD

Longtown RD Part of Border RD

Maryport UD

Penrith RD

Penrith UD

Whitehaven
Whitehaven
RD Part of Ennerdale RD

The distribution of population in 1971 was as follows:1971 Census; Small Area Statistics

District Population

County Borough of Carlisle 71,580

Cockermouth
Cockermouth
Urban District 6,366

Keswick Urban District 5,184

Maryport Urban District 11,612

Penrith Urban District 11,308

Municipal Borough of Whitehaven 26,721

Municipal Borough of Workington 28,431

Alston with Garrigill
Alston with Garrigill
Rural District 1,917

Border Rural District 29,267

Cockermouth
Cockermouth
Rural District 21,520

Ennerdale Rural District 30,983

Millom
Millom
Rural District 14,088

Penrith Rural District 11,380

Wigton
Wigton
Rural District 21,830

In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county and county borough were abolished and their former area was combined with Westmorland
Westmorland
and parts of Lancashire
Lancashire
and the West Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to form the new county of Cumbria. The area from Cumberland
Cumberland
went on to form the districts of Carlisle, Allerdale, Copeland and part of Eden.[6] Legacy[edit]

The flag of Cumberland, adopted in 2012

The name continues in use as a geographical and cultural term, and it survives in Cumberland
Cumberland
sausages; HMS Cumberland; Cumberland
Cumberland
County Cricket Club; the Cumberland
Cumberland
Fell Runners Club; the Cumberland Athletics Club; and various organisations and companies, such as the local newspapers The Cumberland
Cumberland
News, and The West Cumberland
Cumberland
Times and Star, and the Cumberland
Cumberland
Building Society. In June 1994, during the 1990s UK local government reform, the Local Government Commission published draft recommendations, suggesting as one option a North Cumbria
Cumbria
unitary authority (also including Appleby, the historic county town of Westmorland). It also suggested that Cumberland
Cumberland
could be reinstated as an independent ceremonial county. The final recommendations, published in October 1994, did not include such recommendations, apparently due to lack of expression of support for the proposal to the commission. As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife
Plantlife
chose the Grass-of-Parnassus as the county flower. Parnassus flowers had been associated with the county since 1951, when they were included in the coat of arms granted to the Cumberland
Cumberland
County Council. They subsequently featured in the arms granted to Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council and Copeland Borough Council, in both cases to represent Cumberland. In 2012, a flag based on the arms of the former Cumberland
Cumberland
County Council was registered as the flag of Cumberland
Cumberland
with the Flag Institute. Surnames[edit] Most common surnames in Cumberland
Cumberland
at the time of the United Kingdom Census of 1881,[7] by order of incidence:

Graham Bell Wilson Thompson Armstrong Smith Robinson Hodgson Johnston Brown

See also[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Cumberland.

List of Lord Lieutenants for Cumberland List of High Sheriffs for Cumberland Custos Rotulorum of Cumberland
Custos Rotulorum of Cumberland
- Keepers of the Rolls List of MPs for Cumberland
Cumberland
constituency Broughan ( Cumberland
Cumberland
surname)

References[edit]

^ Barrow, G W S (2006). The Kingdom of the Scots: Government, Church and Society from the Eleventh to the Fourteenth Century, 2nd edition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1.  ^ Carlisle Diocese: History and Description in "CCEd, the Clergy of the Church of England
England
database" (Accessed online, 2 February 2014) ^ Marr, J E (1910). Cambridge County Geographies: Cumberland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  ^ W L Warren (1984). "The Myth of Norman Administrative Efficiency: The Prothero Lecture". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th Ser. 34. JSTOR 3679128.  ^ Youngs, Frederic A, Jr. (1991). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol.2: Northern England. London: Royal Historical Society. pp. 648–649. ISBN 0-86193-127-0. Whillier, Thomas (1825). A General Directory to all the Counties, Hundreds, Ridings, Wapentakes, Divisions, Cities, Boroughs, Liberties, Parishes, Townships, Tythings, Hamlets, Precincts, Chapelries &c. &c. in England. London: Joseph Butterworth & Son. pp. 28–31.  ^ Local government in England
England
and Wales: A Guide to the New System. London: HMSO. 1974. ISBN 0-11-750847-0.  ^ Most Common Surnames in Cumberland

Further reading[edit]

Cumberland
Cumberland
Heritage by Molly Lefebure (Chapters include Camden, Briathwaite, Millbeck, Fellwalkers, Carlisle Canal, Armboth, John Peel (farmer) and the Blencathra), with endpaper maps of old Cumberland.Detail taken from a copy of Cumberland
Cumberland
Heritage published by Victor Gollancz, London
London
in 1970 with an ISBN of 0 575 00376 6

External links[edit]

CUMBERLAND, England
England
– History and Description, 1868 Map of Cumberland
Cumberland
on Wikishire

v t e

before 1889 ← Counties of England
England
(1889–1974) → 1974–1996

Bedfordshire Berkshire Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(including Isle of Ely) Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Isle of Ely Cheshire Cornwall Cumberland Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham Essex Gloucestershire Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Huntingdonshire Huntingdon and Peterborough Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
(including Parts of Holland, Parts of Kesteven and Parts of Lindsey) London
London
(including City of London) Middlesex Norfolk Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
(including Soke of Peterborough) Northumberland Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset Staffordshire Suffolk
Suffolk
(including East Suffolk
Suffolk
and West Suffolk) Surrey Sussex
Sussex
(including East Sussex
Sussex
and West Sussex) Warwickshire Westmorland Wiltshire Worcestershire Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(including East Riding, North Riding and West Riding)

v t e

earliest ← Counties of England
England
(before 1889) → 1889–1974

Bedfordshire Berkshire Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Cumberland Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham Essex Gloucestershire Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Huntingdonshire Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire Middlesex Norfolk Northamptonshire Northumberland Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Sussex Warwickshire Westmorland Wiltshire Worcestershire Yorkshire

Coordinates: 54°45′N 3°00′W / 54.750°N 3.000°W / 54

.