Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden (/kəˈlɒdən/; Scottish Gaelic: Blàr
Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of
1745. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart
were decisively defeated by loyalist troops commanded by William
Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, near
Inverness in the Scottish
Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart, died in 1714,
with no living children. Under the terms of the Act of Settlement
1701, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of
Hanover, who was a descendant of the Stuarts through his maternal
grandmother, Elizabeth, a daughter of James VI and I. The Hanoverian
victory at Culloden halted the Jacobite intent to overthrow the House
Hanover and restore the
House of Stuart
House of Stuart to the British throne;
Charles Stuart never again tried to challenge Hanoverian power in
Great Britain. The conflict was the last pitched battle fought on
Charles Stuart's Jacobite army consisted largely of
Scottish Episcopalians – mainly Scots but with a small detachment of
Englishmen from the
Manchester Regiment. The Jacobites were supported
and supplied by the
Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France from Irish and Scots units in
French service. A composite battalion of infantry ("Irish Picquets"),
comprising detachments from each of the regiments of the Irish Brigade
plus one squadron of Irish in the French army, served at the battle
alongside the regiment of Royal Scots (Royal Écossais) raised the
previous year to support the Stuart claim. The British Government
(Hanoverian loyalist) forces were mostly
Protestants – English,
along with a significant number of Scottish Lowlanders and
Highlanders, a battalion of Ulstermen, and some Hessians from
Germany, and Austrians. The quick and bloody battle on Culloden
Moor was over in less than an hour, when after an unsuccessful
Highland charge against the government lines, the Jacobites were
routed and driven from the field.
Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded in the brief
battle. In contrast, only about 300 government soldiers were
killed or wounded.
The battle and its aftermath continue to arouse strong feelings: the
University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow awarded the Duke of Cumberland an honorary
doctorate, but many modern commentators allege that the aftermath of
the battle and subsequent crackdown on
Jacobitism were brutal, and
earned Cumberland the sobriquet "Butcher". Efforts were subsequently
made to further integrate the comparatively wild Scottish Highlands
into the Kingdom of Great Britain; civil penalties were introduced to
Gaelic culture and undermine the
Scottish clan system.
2 Opposing forces
2.1 Jacobite army
2.2 Government army
3 Lead up to battle
3.1 Night attack at Nairn
4 Battle on Culloden Moor
4.1 Opening moves
4.2 Highland charge
4.3 Jacobite collapse and rout
4.4 Conclusion: casualties and prisoners
5.1 Collapse of the Jacobite campaign
5.2 Repercussions and persecution
6 Culloden battlefield today
7 Order of battle: Culloden, 16 April 1746
7.1 Jacobite army
7.2 Government army
8 British Army casualties
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden in art
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden in fiction
11.4 Further reading
12 External links
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Jacobite banner showing the Latin motto Tandem Triumphans. (The motto,
meaning 'At last, Triumphant', was said to have been added after the
events at Glenfinnan).
Charles Edward Stuart, known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or the "Young
Pretender", arrived in
Scotland in 1745 to incite a rebellion of
Stuart sympathizers against the House of Hanover. He successfully
raised forces, mainly of Scottish Highland clansmen, and slipped past
the Hanoverian stationed in
Scotland and defeated a force of
militiamen at the Battle of Prestonpans. The city of
occupied, but the castle held out and most of the Scottish population
remained hostile to the rebels; others, while sympathetic, were
reluctant to lend overt support to a movement whose chances were
unproven. The British Government recalled forces from the war with
France in Flanders to deal with the rebellion.
After a lengthy wait, Charles persuaded his generals that English
Jacobites would stage an uprising in support of his cause. He was
convinced that France would launch an invasion of England as well. His
army of around 5,000 invaded England on 8 November 1745. They advanced
through Carlisle and
Manchester to Derby and a position where they
appeared to threaten London. It is often alleged that King George II
made plans to decamp to Hanover, but there is no evidence for this and
the King is on record as stating that he would lead the troops against
the rebels himself if they approached London. (George had experience
at the head of an army: in 1743 he had led his soldiers to victory at
the Battle of Dettingen, becoming the last British monarch to lead
troops into battle.) The Jacobites met only token resistance. There
was, however, little support from English Jacobites, and the French
invasion fleet was still being assembled. The armies of Field Marshal
George Wade and of William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, were
approaching. In addition to the militia,
London was defended by nearly
6,000 infantry, 700 horse and 33 artillery pieces and the Jacobites
received false reports of a third army closing on them. The Jacobite
general, Lord George Murray, and the Council of War insisted on
returning to join their growing force in Scotland. On 6 December 1745,
they withdrew, with
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Stuart leaving command to Murray.
On the long march back to Scotland, the Highland Army wore out its
boots and demanded all the boots and shoes of the townspeople of
Dumfries, as well as money and hospitality. The Jacobites reached
Glasgow on 25 December. There they reprovisioned, having threatened to
sack the city, and were joined by a few thousand additional men. They
then defeated the forces of General
Henry Hawley at the Battle of
Falkirk Muir. The Duke of Cumberland arrived in
Edinburgh on 30
January to take over command of the government army from General
Hawley. He then marched north along the coast, with the army being
supplied by sea. Six weeks were spent at
The King's forces continued to pressure Charles. He retired north,
losing men and failing to take
Stirling Castle or Fort William. But he
Fort Augustus and Fort George in
Inverness-shire in early
April. Charles then took command again, and insisted on fighting a
Hugh Rose of Kilravock entertained Charles and the Duke of Cumberland
respectively on 14 and 15 April 1746, before the Battle of Culloden.
Charles' manners and deportment were described by his host as most
engaging. Having walked out with Rose, before sitting down he watched
trees being planted. He remarked, "How happy, Sir, you must feel, to
be thus peaceably employed in adorning your mansion, whilst all the
country round is in such commotion." Kilravock was a firm supporter of
the house of Hanover, but his adherence was not solicited, nor were
his preferences alluded to. The next day, the Duke of Cumberland
called at the castle gate, and when Kilravock went to receive him, he
bluffly observed, "So you had my cousin Charles here yesterday."
Kilravock replied, "What am I to do, I am Scots", to which Cumberland
replied, "You did perfectly right."
A private and corporal of a Highland regiment, circa 1744. The
Highland units of the Jacobite army would have worn something very
similar to the private illustrated, particularly the belted plaid.
The bulk of the Jacobite army was made up of Highlanders and most of
its strength was volunteers. These men made up the gentlemen
(officers), cavalry and Lowland units, and as such did much of the
fighting during the campaign. The clans which supported the Jacobite
cause tended to be
Roman Catholic and Scottish Episcopalian, while
clans which tended to be
Presbyterian sided more with the British
Government. Nearly three-quarters of the Jacobite army was
composed of Highland clansmen who were either
Roman Catholic or
Episcopalian. The Highlanders served in the clan
regiments which were recruited largely from the Highlands of
One of the fundamental problems with the Jacobite army was the lack of
trained officers. The lack of professionalism and training was readily
apparent; even the colonels of the Macdonald regiments of Clanranald
and Keppoch considered their men to be uncontrollable.[note 1] A
typical clan regiment was made up of a small minority of gentlemen
(tacksmen) who would bear the "clan name", and under them the common
soldiers or "clansmen" who bore a mixed bag of names. The clan
gentlemen formed the front ranks of the unit and were more heavily
armed than their impoverished tenants who made up the bulk of the
regiment. Because they served in the front ranks, the gentlemen
suffered higher proportional casualties than the common clansman. The
gentlemen of the Appin Regiment suffered one quarter of those killed,
and one third of those wounded from their regiment. The Jacobites
started the campaign poorly armed. At the Battle of Prestonpans, some
only had swords, Lochaber axes, pitchforks and scythes. Although
popular imagination pictures the common highlander as being equipped
with a broadsword, targe and pistol, it was only officers or gentlemen
who were equipped in this way. Further illustrating this point,
following the conclusion of the battle, Cumberland reported that there
were 2,320 firelocks recovered from the battlefield, but only 190
broadswords. From this, it can be determined that of the roughly 1,000
Jacobites killed at Culloden, no more than one fifth carried a
sword. As the campaign progressed, the Jacobites improved their
equipment considerably. For instance, 1,500–1,600 stack of arms were
landed in October. In consequence, by the time of the Battle of
Culloden, the Jacobite army was equipped with 0.69 in
(17.5 mm) calibre French and Spanish firelocks.
During the latter stage of the campaign, the Jacobites were reinforced
with units of French regulars. These units, like Fitzjames's Horse,
and the Irish Picquets, were drawn from the Irish Brigade (Irish units
in French service). Another unit was the Royal Écossais, which was a
Scottish unit in French service. The majority of these troops were
Irish born. Lists of prisoners at Marshalsea, Berwick and prison
interviews conducted by Captain Eyre show some of these men to be
English born, claiming to have been press-ganged or seized as
prisoners on British ships. Fitzjames's Horse was the only Jacobite
cavalry unit to fight the whole battle on horseback. Around 500
Irish Picquets in the French army fought in the battle, some of whom
were thought to have been press-ganged from 6th (Guise's) Foot taken
at Fort Augustus. The Royal Écossais also contained deserters, and
the commander, Drummond, attempted to raise a second battalion after
the unit had arrived in Scotland. The Jacobite artillery has been
generally regarded as being ineffective in the battle. Some modern
accounts[who?] claim that the Jacobite artillery suffered from having
cannon with different calibres of shot. In fact, all but one of the
Jacobite cannon were 3-pounders.
Soldiers of the 8th and 20th Regiments, circa 1742
Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain government army at the Battle of Culloden
was made up of infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Of the army's 16
infantry battalions present, four were Scottish units and one was
Irish. The officers of the infantry were from the upper classes
and aristocracy, while the rank and file were made up of poor
agricultural workers. On the outbreak of the Jacobite rising, extra
incentives were given to lure recruits to fill the ranks of depleted
units. For instance, on 6 September 1745, every recruit who joined the
Guards before 24 September was given £6, and those who joined in the
last days of the month were given £4. Regiments were named after
their colonel. In theory, an infantry regiment would comprise up to
ten companies of up to 70 men. They would then be 815 strong,
including officers. However, regiments were rarely anywhere near this
large, and at the Battle of Culloden, the regiments were not much
larger than about 400 men.
The government cavalry arrived in
Scotland in January 1746. They were
not combat experienced, having spent the preceding years on
anti-smuggling duties. A standard cavalryman had a Land Service pistol
and a carbine. However, the main weapon used by the British cavalry
was a sword with a 35-inch blade.
The Royal Artillery vastly out-performed their Jacobite counterparts
during the Battle of Culloden. However, up until this point in the
campaign, the government artillery had performed dismally. The main
weapon of the artillery was the 3-pounder. This weapon had a range of
500 yards (460 m) and fired two kinds of shot: round iron and
canister. The other weapon used was the Coehorn mortar. These had a
calibre of 4 2⁄5 inches (11 cm).
Lead up to battle
Cumberland's route from
Aberdeen towards Culloden.
On 30 January, the Duke of Cumberland arrived in
Scotland to take
command of the government forces after the previous failures by Cope
and Hawley. Cumberland decided to wait out the winter, and moved his
troops northwards to Aberdeen. Around this time, the army was
increased by 5,000 Hessian troops. The Hessian force, led by Prince
Frederick of Hesse, took up position to the south to cut off any path
of retreat for the Jacobites. The weather had improved to such an
extent by 8 April that Cumberland again resumed the campaign. The
government army reached Cullen on 11 April, where it was joined by six
battalions and two cavalry regiments. Days later, the government
army approached the River Spey, which was guarded by a Jacobite force
of 2,000, made up of the Jacobite cavalry, the Lowland regiments and
over half of the army's French regulars. The Jacobites quickly turned
and fled, first towards Elgin and then to Nairn. By 14 April, the
Jacobites had evacuated Nairn, and Cumberland camped his army at
Balblair just west of the town.
The Jacobite forces of about 5,400 left their base at Inverness,
leaving most of their supplies, and assembled 5 miles (8 km)
to the east near Drummossie, around 12 miles (19 km)
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Stuart had decided to personally command
his forces and took the advice of his adjutant general, Secretary
O'Sullivan, who chose to stage a defensive action at Drummossie
Moor, a stretch of open moorland enclosed between the walled
Culloden enclosures to the North and the walls of Culloden Park to
the South. Lord George Murray "did not like the ground" and with
other senior officers pointed out the unsuitability of the rough
moorland terrain which was highly advantageous to the Duke with the
marshy and uneven ground making the famed
Highland charge somewhat
more difficult while remaining open to Cumberland's powerful
artillery. They had argued for a guerrilla campaign, but Charles
Edward Stuart refused to change his mind.
Night attack at Nairn
On 15 April, the government army celebrated Cumberland's twenty-fifth
birthday by issuing two gallons of brandy to each regiment. At
Murray's suggestion, the Jacobites tried that evening to repeat the
success of Prestonpans by carrying out a night attack on the
government encampment. Murray proposed that they set off at dusk and
march to Nairn. Murray planned to have the right wing of the first
line attack Cumberland's rear, while Perth with the left wing would
attack the government's front. In support of Perth, Charles Edward
Stuart would bring up the second line. The Jacobite force however
started out well after dark at about 20:00. Murray led the force cross
country with the intention of avoiding government outposts. This
however led to very slow going in the dark. Murray's one time
Chevalier de Johnstone later wrote, "this march
across country in a dark night which did not allow us to follow any
track, and accompanied with confusion and disorder". By the time
the leading troop had reached Culraick, still 2 miles (3.2 km)
from where Murray's wing was to cross the River
Nairn and encircle the
town, there was only one hour left before dawn. After a heated council
with other officers, Murray concluded that there was not enough time
to mount a surprise attack and that the offensive should be aborted.
O'Sullivan went to inform
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Stuart of the change of plan,
but missed him in the dark. Meanwhile, instead of retracing his path
back, Murray led his men left, down the
Inverness road. In the
darkness, while Murray led one-third of the Jacobite forces back to
camp, the other two-thirds continued towards their original objective,
unaware of the change in plan. One account of that night even records
that Perth and Drummond made contact with government troops before
realising the rest of the Jacobite force had turned home. Not long
after the exhausted Jacobite forces had made it back to Culloden,
reports came of the advancing government troops. By then, many
Jacobite soldiers had dispersed in search of food, while others were
asleep in ditches and outbuildings.
However, military historian Jeremy Black has contended that even
though the Jacobite force had become disordered and lost the element
of surprise the night attack remained viable, and that if the
Jacobites had advanced the conditions would have made government
morale vulnerable and disrupted their fire discipline.
Battle on Culloden Moor
Panorama of the battlefield, circa 2007. The flag on the left side
indicates the Jacobite lines, the flag on the right side shows the
location of the government lines.
Early on a rainy 16 April, the well-rested government army struck camp
and at about 05:00 set off towards the moorland around Culloden and
Drummossie. Jacobite pickets first sighted the government advance
guard at about 08:00, when the advancing army came within 4 miles
(6.4 km) of Drummossie. Cumberland's informers alerted him that
the Jacobite army was forming up about 1 mile (1.6 km) from
Culloden House – upon Culloden Moor. At about 11:00 the two
armies were within sight of one another with about 2 miles
(3.2 km) of open moorland between them. As the government
forces steadily advanced across the moor, the driving rain and sleet
blew from the north-east into the faces of the exhausted Jacobite
The Jacobite army was originally arrayed between the corners of
Culloden and Culwhiniac parks (from left to right): the three
Macdonald battalions; a small one of Chisholms; another small one of
Macleans and Maclachlans; Lady Mackintosh and Monaltrie's regiments;
Lord Lovat's Regiment; Ardsheal's Appin Stewarts; Lochiel's Regiment;
and three battalions of the Atholl Brigade. Murray who commanded the
right wing, however became aware of the Leanach enclosure that lay
ahead of him, a wall that would become an obstacle in the event of a
Jacobite advance. Without any consultation he then moved the brigade
down the moor and formed into three columns. It seems probable that
Murray intended to shift the axis of the Jacobite advance to a more
northerly direction, thus having the right wing clear the Leanach
enclosure and possibly taking advantage of the downward slope of the
moor to the north.
Jacobite front line skews and stretches, government forces compensate;
others break into and through Culwhiniac enclosure.
However, the Duke of Perth seems to have misinterpreted Murray's
actions as only a general advance, and the Macdonalds on the far left
simply ignored him. The result was the skewing of the Jacobite front
line, with the (left wing) Macdonalds still rooted on the Culloden
Parks wall and the (right wing) Atholl Brigade halfway down the
Culwhiniac Parks wall. In consequence, large gaps immediately appeared
in the severely over-stretched Jacobite lines. A shocked Sullivan had
no choice but to position the meagre 'second line' to fill the gaps.
This second line was (left to right): the Irish Picquets; the Duke of
Perth's Regiment; Glenbuchat's; Lord Kilmarnock's Footguards; John Roy
Stuart's Regiment; two battalions of Lord Ogilvy's Regiment; the Royal
Écossais; two battalions of Lord Lewis Gordon's Regiment. Farther
back were cavalry units. On the left were: Lord Strathallan's Horse
Hussars and possibly Balmerino's Lifeguards. On the right were
Lord Elcho's Lifeguards and Fitzjames's Horse. And in the centre was
Charles Edward Stuart's tiny escort made up of Fitzjames's Horse and
Lifeguards. When Sullivan's redeployment was completed Perth's and
Glenbuchat's regiments were standing on the extreme left wing and John
Roy Stuart's was standing beside Ardsheal's.
Cumberland brought forward the 13th and 62nd to extend his first and
second lines. At the same time, two squadrons of Kingston's Horse were
brought forward to cover the right flank. These were then joined by
two troops of Cobham's 10th Dragoons. While this was taking place,
Hawley began making his way through the Culwhiniac Parks intending to
outflank the Jacobite right wing. Anticipating this, the two
battalions of Lord Lewis Gordon's regiment had lined the wall.
However, since the government dragoons stayed out of range, and the
Jacobites were partly in dead ground they moved back and formed up on
a re-entrant at Culchunaig, facing south and covering the army's rear.
Once Hawley had led the dragoons through the Parks he deployed them in
two lines beneath the Jacobite guarded re-entrant. By this time the
Jacobites were guarding the re-entrant from above with four battalions
of Lord Lewis Gordon's and Lord Ogilvy's regiments, and the combined
squadron of Fitzjames's Horse and Elcho's Lifeguards. Unable to see
behind the Jacobites above him, Hawley had his men stand and face the
Over the next twenty minutes, Cumberland's superior artillery battered
the Jacobite lines, while Charles, moved for safety out of sight of
his own forces, waited for the government forces to move.
Inexplicably, he left his forces arrayed under government fire for
over half an hour. Although the marshy terrain minimized casualties,
the morale of the Jacobites began to suffer. Several clan leaders,
angry at the lack of action, pressured Charles to issue the order to
Clan Chattan was first of the Jacobite army to receive
this order, but an area of boggy ground in front of them forced them
to veer right so that they obstructed the following regiments and the
attack was pushed towards the wall. The Jacobites advanced on the left
flank of the government troops, but were subjected to volleys of
musket fire and the artillery which had switched from roundshot to
Jacobite front line charges the government lines.
Despite this many Jacobites reached the government lines and, for the
first time, a battle was decided by a direct clash between charging
highlanders and formed redcoats equipped with muskets and socket
bayonets. The brunt of the Jacobite impact was taken by just two
government regiments – Barrell's 4th Foot and Dejean's 37th Foot.
Barrell's regiment lost 17 and suffered 108 wounded, out of a total of
373 officers and men. Dejean's lost 14 and had 68 wounded, with this
unit's left wing taking a disproportionately higher number of
casualties. Barrell's regiment temporarily lost one of its two
colours.[note 2] Major-General Huske, who was in command of the
government's second line, quickly organised the counter attack. Huske
ordered forward all of Lord Sempill's Fourth Brigade which had a
combined total of 1,078 men (Sempill's 25th Foot, Conway's 59th Foot,
and Wolfe's 8th Foot). Also sent forward to plug the gap was Bligh's
20th Foot, which took up position between Sempill's 25th and Dejean's
37th. Huske's counter formed a five battalion strong horseshoe-shaped
formation which trapped the Jacobite right wing on three sides.
Poor Barrell's regiment were sorely pressed by those desperadoes and
outflanked. One stand of their colours was taken; Collonel Riches hand
cutt off in their defence ... We marched up to the enemy, and our
left, outflanking them, wheeled in upon them; the whole then gave them
5 or 6 fires with vast execution, while their front had nothing left
to oppose us, but their pistolls and broadswords; and fire from their
center and rear, (as, by this time, they were 20 or 30 deep) was
vastly more fatal to themselves, than us.
Captain-Lieutenant James Ashe Lee of Wolfe's 8th Foot.
Bayonet drill innovation said to have been developed to counter the
"Highland charge". Each soldier would thrust at the enemy on his right
– rather than the one straight ahead – in order to bypass the
targe of Highlanders.
Located on the Jacobite extreme left wing were the Macdonald
regiments. Popular legend has it that these regiments refused to
charge when ordered to do so, due to the perceived insult of being
placed on the left wing. Even so, due to the skewing of the
Jacobite front lines, the left wing had a further 200 metres
(660 ft) of much boggier ground to cover than the right.[note 3]
When the Macdonalds charged, their progress was much slower than that
of the rest of the Jacobite forces. Standing on the right of these
regiments were the much smaller units of Chisholms and the combined
unit of Macleans and Maclachlans. Every officer in the Chisholm unit
was killed or wounded and Col. Lachlan Maclachlan, who led the
combined unit of Macleans and Maclachlans, was gruesomely killed by a
cannon shot. As the Macdonalds suffered casualties they began to give
way. Immediately Cumberland then pressed the advantage, ordering two
troops of Cobham's 10th Dragoons to ride them down. The boggy ground
however impeded the cavalry and they turned to engage the Irish
Picquets whom Sullivan had brought up in an attempt to stabilise the
deteriorating Jacobite left flank.[note 4]
Jacobite collapse and rout
With the collapse of the left wing, Murray brought up the Royal
Écossais and Kilmarnock's Footguards who were still at this time
unengaged. However, by the time they had been brought into position,
the Jacobite army was in rout. The Royal Écossais exchanged musket
fire with Campbell's 21st and commenced an orderly retreat, moving
along the Culwhiniac enclosure in order to shield themselves from
artillery fire. Immediately the half battalion of Highland militia
commanded by Captain Colin Campbell of Ballimore which had stood
inside the enclosure ambushed the Royal Écossais. Hawley had
previously left this Highland unit behind the enclosure, with orders
to avoid contact with the Jacobites, to limit any chance of a friendly
fire incident. In the encounter Campbell of Ballimore was killed along
with five of his men. The result was that the Royal Écossais and
Kilmarnock's Footguards were forced out into the open moor and were
rushed at by three squadrons of Kerr's 11th Dragoons. The fleeing
Jacobites must have put up a fight for Kerr's 11th recorded at least
16 horses killed during the entirety of the battle. The Irish picquets
bravely covered the Highlanders' retreat from the battlefield and
prevented a massacre. This action cost half of the 100 casualties
suffered in the battle. The Royal Écossais appear to have retired
from the field in two wings. One part of the regiment surrendered upon
the field after suffering 50 killed or wounded, but their colours were
not taken and a large number retired from the field with the Jacobite
One of at least fourteen standards or colours recorded as captured by
government forces at the battle. This and a similar blue saltire
may have been used by the Atholl Brigade.
This stand by the Royal Écossais may have given Charles Edward Stuart
the time to make his escape. At the time when the Macdonald regiments
were crumbling and fleeing the field, Stuart seems to have been
rallying Perth's and Glenbuchat's regiments when O'Sullivan rode up to
Captain Shea who commanded Stuart's bodyguard: "Yu see all is going to
pot. Yu can be of no great succor, so before a general deroute wch
will soon be, Seize upon the Prince & take him off ...".
Shea then led Stuart from the field along with Perth's and
Glenbuchat's regiments. From this point on the fleeing Jacobite forces
were split into two groups: the Lowland regiments retired in order
southwards, making their way to Ruthven Barracks; the Highland
regiments however were cut off by the government cavalry, and forced
to retreat down the road to Inverness. The result was that they were a
perfect target for the government dragoons. Major-general Humphrey
Bland led the charge against the fleeing Highlanders, giving "Quarter
to None but about Fifty French Officers and Soldiers He picked up in
Conclusion: casualties and prisoners
Jacobite casualties are estimated at 1,500–2,000 killed or
wounded. As to prisoners, Lord Cumberland's official list of
prisoners taken includes 154 Jacobites and 222 "French" prisoners (men
from the 'foreign units' in the French service). Added to the official
list of those apprehended were 172 of the Earl of Cromartie's men,
captured after a brief engagement the day before near Littleferry.
In striking contrast to the Jacobite losses, the government losses
were 50 dead and 259 wounded. However, a large proportion of those
recorded as wounded are likely to have died of their wounds. (For
example, only 29 out of 104 wounded from Barrell's 4th Foot survived
to claim pensions. All 6 of the artillerymen recorded as wounded
died.) Moreover, recent geophysical studies on the government
burial pit suggest the figure for deaths may have been nearer
The only government casualty of high rank was Lord Robert Kerr, the
son of William Kerr, 3rd Marquess of Lothian.
The End of the 'Forty Five' Rebellion depicts the retreat of the
Collapse of the Jacobite campaign
As the first of the fleeing Highlanders approached
Inverness they were
met by a battalion of Frasers led by the Master of Lovat. Tradition
states that the Master of Lovat immediately about-turned his men and
marched down the road back towards Inverness, with pipes playing and
colours flying. There are however varying traditions as to what
happened at the bridge which spans the River Ness. One tradition is
that the Master of Lovat intended to hold the bridge until he was
persuaded against it. Another is that the bridge was seized by a party
of Argyll Militia who were involved in a skirmish when blocking the
crossing of retreating Jacobites. While it is almost certain there was
a skirmish upon the bridge, it has been proposed that the Master of
Lovat shrewdly switched sides and turned upon the fleeing Jacobites.
Such an act would explain his remarkable rise in fortune in the years
Following the battle, the Jacobites' Lowland units headed south,
towards Corrybrough and made their way to Ruthven Barracks, while
their Highland units headed north, towards
Inverness and on through to
Fort Augustus. There they were joined by Barisdale's Macdonalds and a
small battalion of MacGregors. The roughly 1,500 men who assembled
Ruthven Barracks received orders from
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Stuart to the
effect that all was lost and to "shift for himself as best he
could". Similar orders must have been received by the Highland
units at Fort Augustus. By 18 April the Jacobite army was disbanded.
Officers and men of the units in the French service made for
Inverness, where they surrendered as prisoners of war on 19 April. The
rest of the army broke up, with men heading for home or attempting to
See also: Skirmish of Loch nan Uamh
Some ranking Jacobites made their way to Loch nan Uamh, where Charles
Edward Stuart had first landed at the outset of the campaign in 1745.
Here on 30 April they were met by the two French frigates – the Mars
and Bellone. Two days later the French warships were spotted and
attacked by the smaller
Royal Navy sloops – the Greyhound,
Baltimore, and Terror. The result was the last real battle in the
campaign. During the six hours in which the ferocious sea-battle raged
the Jacobites recovered cargo on the beach which had been landed by
the French ships. In all £35,000 of gold was recovered along with
supplies. Invigorated by the vast amounts of loot and visible
proof that the French had not deserted them, the group of Highland
chiefs decided to prolong the campaign. On 8 May, nearby at Murlaggan,
Lochiel, Lochgarry, Clanranald and Barisdale all agreed to rendezvous
at Invermallie on 18 May. The plan was that there they would be joined
by what remained of Keppoch's men and Cluny Macpherson's regiment
(which did not take part in the battle at Culloden). However, things
did not go as planned. After about a month of relative inactivity,
Cumberland moved his regulars into the Highlands. On 17 May three
battalions of regulars and eight Highland companies reoccupied Fort
Augustus. The same day the Macphersons surrendered. On the day of the
planned rendezvous, Clanranald never appeared and Lochgarry and
Barisdale only showed up with about 300 combined (most of whom
immediately dispersed in search of food). Lochiel, who commanded
possibly the strongest Jacobite unit at Culloden, was only able to
muster about 300. The following morning Lochiel was alerted that a
body of Highlanders was approaching. Assuming they were Barisdale's
Macdonalds, Locheil waited until they were identified as Loudoun's by
the "red crosses in their bonnets". Locheil's men dispersed without
fighting. The following week the Government launched punitive
expeditions into the Highlands which continued throughout the
Following his flight from the battle,
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Stuart made his
way towards the
Hebrides with some supporters. By 20 April, Stuart had
Arisaig on the west coast of Scotland. After spending a few
days with his close associates, Stuart sailed for the island of
Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides. From there he travelled to Scalpay,
off the east coast of Harris, and from there made his way to
Stornoway. For five months Stuart criss-crossed the Hebrides,
constantly pursued by government supporters and under threat from
local lairds who were tempted to betray him for the £30,000 upon his
head. During this time he met Flora Macdonald, who famously aided
him in a narrow escape to Skye. Finally, on 19 September, Stuart
reached Borrodale on
Loch nan Uamh
Loch nan Uamh in Arisaig, where his party boarded
two small French ships, which ferried them to France. He never
returned to Scotland.
Repercussions and persecution
After Culloden: Rebel Hunting by
John Seymour Lucas
John Seymour Lucas depicts the
rigorous search for Jacobites in the days that followed Culloden.
The morning following the Battle of Culloden, Cumberland issued a
written order reminding his men that "the public orders of the rebels
yesterday was to give us no quarter".[note 5] Cumberland alluded to
the belief that such orders had been found upon the bodies of fallen
Jacobites. In the days and weeks that followed, versions of the
alleged orders were published in the Newcastle Journal and the
Gentleman's Journal. Today only one copy of the alleged order to "give
no quarter" exists. It is however considered to be nothing but a
poor attempt at forgery, for it is neither written nor signed by
Murray, and it appears on the bottom half of a copy of a declaration
published in 1745. In any event, Cumberland's order was not carried
out for two days, after which contemporary accounts report then that
for the next two days the moor was searched and all those wounded were
put to death. On the other hand, the orders issued by Lord George
Murray for the conduct of the aborted night attack in the early hours
of 16 April suggest that it would have been every bit as merciless.
The instructions were to use only swords, dirks and bayonets, to
overturn tents, and subsequently to locate "a swelling or bulge in the
fallen tent, there to strike and push vigorously". [note 6] In
total, over 20,000 head of livestock, sheep, and goats were driven off
and sold at Fort Augustus, where the soldiers split the profits.
A contemporary engraving depicting the executions of Kilmarnock and
Balmerino at Great Tower Hill, on 18 August 1746
While in Inverness, Cumberland emptied the gaols that were full of
people imprisoned by Jacobite supporters, replacing them with
Jacobites themselves. Prisoners were taken south to England to
stand trial for high treason. Many were held on hulks on the
in Tilbury Fort, and executions took place in Carlisle,
Kennington Common. The common Jacobite supporters fared better
than the ranking individuals. In total, 120 common men were executed,
one third of them being deserters from the British Army. [note 7]
The common prisoners drew lots amongst themselves and only one out of
twenty actually came to trial. Although most of those who did stand
trial were sentenced to death, almost all of these had their sentences
commuted to penal transportation to the
British colonies for life by
the Traitors Transported Act 1746 (20 Geo. II, c. 46). In all, 936
men were thus transported, and 222 more were banished. Even so, 905
prisoners were actually released under the Act of Indemnity which was
passed in June 1747. Another 382 obtained their freedom by being
exchanged for prisoners of war who were held by France. Of the total
3,471 prisoners recorded nothing is known of the fate of 648. The
high ranking "rebel lords" were executed on
Tower Hill in London.
Following up on the military success won by their forces, the British
Government enacted laws further to integrate
Scotland – specifically
Scottish Highlands – with the rest of Britain. Members of the
Episcopal clergy were required to give oaths of allegiance to the
reigning Hanoverian dynasty. The Heritable Jurisdictions
(Scotland) Act 1746 ended the hereditary right of landowners to govern
justice upon their estates through barony courts. Previous to this
act, feudal lords (which included clan chiefs) had considerable
judicial and military power over their followers – such as the oft
quoted power of "pit and gallows". Lords who were loyal to the
Government were greatly compensated for the loss of these traditional
powers, for example the
Duke of Argyll
Duke of Argyll was given £21,000. Those
lords and clan chiefs who had supported the Jacobite rebellion were
stripped of their estates and these were then sold and the profits
were used to further trade and agriculture in Scotland. The
forfeited estates were managed by factors. Anti-clothing measures were
taken against the highland dress by an
Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament in 1746. The
result was that the wearing of tartan was banned except as a uniform
for officers and soldiers in the British Army and later landed men and
Culloden battlefield today
Memorial cairn erected in 1881.
Today, a visitor centre is located near the site of the battle. This
centre was first opened in December 2007, with the intention of
preserving the battlefield in a condition similar to how it was on 16
April 1746. One difference is that it currently is covered in
shrubs and heather; during the 18th century, however, the area was
used as common grazing ground, mainly for tenants of the Culloden
estate. Those visiting can walk the site by way of footpaths on
the ground and can also enjoy a view from above on a raised
platform. Possibly the most recognisable feature of the
battlefield today is the 20 feet (6.1 m) tall memorial cairn,
erected by Duncan Forbes in 1881. In the same year Forbes also
erected headstones to mark the mass graves of the clans. The
thatched roofed farmhouse of Leanach which stands today dates from
about 1760; however, it stands on the same location as the turf-walled
cottage that probably served as a field hospital for government troops
following the battle. A stone, known as "The English Stone", is
situated west of the Old Leanach cottage and is said to mark the
burial place of the government dead. West of this site lies
another stone, erected by Forbes, marking the place where the body of
Alexander McGillivray of Dunmaglass was found after the
battle. A stone lies on the eastern side of the battlefield
that is supposed to mark the spot where Cumberland directed the
battle. The battlefield has been inventoried and protected by
Scotland under the Historic Environment (Amendment) Act
In 1881, Duncan Forbes erected the headstones that mark the mass
graves of fallen Jacobite soldiers. They lie on either side of an
early 19th-century road which runs through the battlefield.
Since 2001, the site of the battle has undergone topographic,
geophysical, and metal detector surveys in addition to archaeological
excavations. Interesting finds have been made in the areas where the
fiercest fighting occurred on the government left wing, particularly
where Barrell's and Dejean's regiments stood. For example, pistol
balls and pieces of shattered muskets have been uncovered here which
indicate close quarters fighting, as pistols were only used at close
range and the musket pieces appear to have been smashed by
pistol/musket balls or heavy broadswords. Finds of musket balls appear
to mirror the lines of men who stood and fought. Some balls appear to
have been dropped without being fired, some missed their targets, and
others are distorted from hitting human bodies. In some cases it may
be possible to identify whether the Jacobites or government soldiers
fired certain rounds, because the Jacobite forces are known to have
used a large quantity of French muskets which fired a slightly smaller
calibre shot than that of the British Army's Brown Bess. Analysis of
the finds confirms that the Jacobites used muskets in greater numbers
than has traditionally been thought. Not far from where the
hand-to-hand fighting took place, fragments of mortar shells have been
found. Though Forbes's headstones mark the graves of the
Jacobites, the location of the graves of about sixty government
soldiers is unknown. The recent discovery of a 1752 silver Thaler,
from the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, may however lead
archaeologists to these graves. A geophysical survey, directly beneath
the spot where the coin was found, seems to indicate the existence of
a large rectangular burial pit. It is thought possible that the coin
was dropped by a soldier who once served on the continent, while he
visited the graves of his fallen comrades. The National Trust of
Scotland is currently attempting to restore Culloden Moor, as closely
as possible, to the state it was in during the Battle of Culloden
Moor. They are also attempting to expand the land under its care to
ensure the full battlefield is protected under the NTS. Another goal
is to restore Leannach Cottage and allow visitors to once again tour
Order of battle: Culloden, 16 April 1746
Charles Edward Stuart
Colonel John William Sullivan
Fitzjames' Horse: 16 men.
Lifeguards: 16 men.
Commanded by Capt O'Shea. This unit was the prince's escort.
Lord George Murray's Division
Atholl Brigade: 500 men (3 battalions).
Raised not as a clan but as a feudal levy. Possibly consisted of 3
regiments. Suffered badly from desertion.
Cameron of Lochiel's Regiment: ~ 650–700 men.
Led by Sir Donald Cameron of Lochiel. Regarded as one of the strongest
Jacobite units, and as elite.
Stewarts of Appin or Appin Regiment: 250 men.
Led by Charles Stuart of Ardsheal. The regiment suffered from
desertion. During the campaign it suffered 90 killed, 65 wounded.
Lord John Drummond's Division.
Lord Lovat's Regiment: ~ 300 men.
Led at Culloden by Charles Fraser of Inverallochie, whose battalion
was numbered at about 300. The Master of Lovat's battalion missed the
battle by several hours.
Lady Mackintosh's Regiment: ~ 350 men.
Sometimes referred to in secondary sources as
Clan Chattan Regiment. A
composite unit, like the Atholl Brigade. Led by Alexander McGillivray
of Dunmaglass. Lost most of its officers at Culloden.
Farquharson of Monaltrie's Battalion: 150 men.
Consisted of mostly Highlanders but not all. Described by James Logie
as "dressed in highland clothes mostly".[note 8] Included a party of
Maclachlans and Macleans: ~ 200 men.
Commanded by Lachlan Maclachlan of Castle Lachlan and Maclean of
Drimmin (who served as Lt Col). The unit campaigned as part of the
Athole Brigade, though fought at Culloden for the first time as a
Chisholms of Strathglass: ~ 80 men.
This very small unit was led by Roderick Og Chisholm. Suffered very
heavy casualties at Culloden.
Duke of Perth's Division.
MacDonald of Keppoch's Regiment. 200 men.
Commanded by Alexander MacDonald of Keppoch. This small regiment
consisted of MacDonalds of Keppoch, MacDonalds of Glencoe,[note 10]
Mackinnons and MacGregors.[note 11]
MacDonald of Clanranald's Regiment: 200 men.
Commanded by MacDonald of Clanranald, younger, who was wounded during
the battle. Disbanded at
Fort Augustus about 18 April 1746.
MacDonnell of Glengarry's Regiment: 500 men.
Commanded by Donald MacDonnell of Lochgarry. This regiment included a
unit of Grants of Glenmoriston and Glen Urquhart.[note 12]
John Roy Stuart's Division (reserve)
Lord Lewis Gordon's Regiment
John Gordon of Avochie's Battalion: 300 men.
Commanded by John Gordon of Avochie.[note 13]
Moir of Stonywood's Battalion: 200 men.
Commanded by James Moir of Stonywood. The unit, unlike the others of
this regiment, was made up largely of volunteers.
1/Lord Ogilvy's Regiment: 200 men.
Commanded by Thomas Blair of Glassclune.
2/Lord Ogilvy's Regiment: 300 men.
Commanded by Sir James Johnstone.
John Roy Stuart's Regiment: ~ 200 men.
Commanded by Maj Patrick Stewart. Also known as the Edinburgh
Regiment, because of where it was raised.[note 14]
Footguards. ~ 200 men.
Commanded by William, Lord Kilmarnock. A composite unit.[note 15]
Glenbuchet's Regiment. 200 men.
Commanded by John Gordon of Glenbuchat.
Duke of Perth's Regiment: 300 men.
James Drummond, Master of Strathallan. The unit included a party of
Garde Écossaise: 350 men.
Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Lewis Drummond.
Irish Picquets: 302 men.
Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Walter Stapleton.
(Commanded by Sir John MacDonald of Fitzjames' Horse)
Fitzjames' Horse: 70 men.
Commanded by Capt William Bagot.
Lifeguards: 30 men.
Commanded by David, Lord Elcho.
Scotch Hussars: 36 men.
Commanded by Maj John Bagot.
Strathallan's Horse: 30 men.
Commanded by William, Lord Strathallan.
11 x 3-pounders.
Commanded by Capt John Finlayson.
1 x 4-pounders.
Commanded by Capt du Saussay.
Captain-General: HRH Duke of Cumberland
Commander-in-Chief North Britain: Lieutenant-General Henry Hawley
Duke of Cumberland's Hussars: ~ 20 men.
Made up of Austrians and Germans.
(Commanded by Maj-Gen Humphrey Bland)
10th (Cobham's) Dragoons: 276 officers & men.
Commanded by Maj Peter Chaban.
11th (Kerr's) Dragoons: 267 officers & men.
Commanded by Lt Col William, Lord Ancram.
The Highland Battalion: ~ 300 rank and file.
The Highland Battalion consisted of eight companies of soldiers, some
regular and some militia. Four of these companies were from the
Campbell of Argyll Militia, three of these companies were from
Loudon's 64th Highland Regiment and one company was from the 43rd
(Black Watch) Highland Regiment. The battalion was commanded by Lt
Col John Campbell, 5th
Duke of Argyll
Duke of Argyll of the 64th Highlanders.
There was also one non-regimented Independent Highland Company
(militia) present at the battle that had been raised by William
Sutherland, 17th Earl of Sutherland, but it was kept in
Front Line (1st Division)
(Maj-Gen. William Anne, Earl of Albermarle)
2/1st (Royal) Regiment: 401 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col John Ramsay.
34th (Cholmondley's) Foot: 339 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col Charles Jeffreys.
14th (Price's) Foot: 304 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col John Grey.
21st (North British) Fusiliers: 358 rank & file.
Commanded by Maj Hon. Charles Colvill.
37th (Dejean's) Foot: 426 rank & file.
Commanded by Col Louis Dejean.
4th (Barrell's) Foot: 325 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col Robert Rich.
(Commanded by Gen John Huske)
3rd Foot (Buffs): 413 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col George Howard.
36th (Fleming's) Foot: 350 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col George Jackson.
20th (Sackville's) Foot: 412 rank & file.
Commanded by Col Lord George Sackville.
25th (Sempill's) Foot: 429 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col David Cunynghame.
59th (Conway's) Foot: 325 rank & file.
Commanded by Col Hon. Henry Conway.
8th (Edward Wolfe's) Foot: 324 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col Edward Martin.
Duke of Kingston's 10th Horse: 211 officers & men.
Commanded by Lt Col Hon. John Mordaunt.
(Brig John Mordaunt)
13th (Pulteney's) Foot: 510 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col Thomas Cockayne.
62nd (Batereau's) Foot: 354 rank & file.
Commanded by Col John Batereau.
27th (Blakeney's) Foot: 300 rank & file.
Commanded by Lt Col Francis Leighton.
106 NCOs & Gunners
10 x 3-pounder cannon
6 x Coehorn mortars
Commanded by Commander Royal Artillery (CRA): Maj William Belford and
Captain-Lieutenant John Godwin.
See the following reference for source of tables
Of the 16 British infantry battalions, 11 were English, 4 were
Scottish (3 Lowland + 1 Highland), and 1 Irish battalion.
Of the 3 British battalions of horse (dragoons), 2 were English and 1
British Army casualties
1st (Royal) Regiment
3rd Foot (Buffs)
4th (Barrell's) Foot
8th (Wolfe's) Foot
13th (Pulteney's) Foot
14th (Price's) Foot
20th (Sackville's) Foot
21st (North British) Fusiliers
25th (Sempill's) Foot
34th (Cholmondley's) Foot
36th (Fleming's) Foot
37th (Dejean's) Foot
59th (Conway's) Foot [note 17]
62nd (Batereau's) Foot
64th (Loudon's) Foot
Duke of Kingston's 10th Horse
10th (Cobham's) Dragoons
11th (Kerr's) Dragoons
See following reference for source of table
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden in art
Woodcut painting by
David Morier of the
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden first
published just six months after the battle in October 1746
An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745 (as shown in the info box at the
top of this page), by David Morier, often known as "The Battle of
Culloden", is the best-known portrayal of the battle, and the
best-known of Morier's works. It depicts the attack of the Highlanders
against Barrell's Regiment, and is based on sketches made by Morier in
the immediate aftermath of the battle.
David Morier in fact made two paintings depicting the battle, the
second (pictured right) is a coloured woodcut painting that shows a
plan of the battlefield.
Augustin Heckel's The
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden (1746; reprinted 1797) is
held by the National Galleries of Scotland.
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden and consequent imprisonment and execution of
the Jacobite prisoners of war is depicted in the song "Tam kde teče
řeka Flee" ("Where the Big Water Fleet flows") by the Czech
Celtic-rock band Hakka Muggies.
Sumo the Argentine band Sumo made a song titled Crua Chan,
chronicling the development of the battle. The work was composed by
Italian-Scottish Luca Prodan, bandleader; he had knowledge of the
battle in his student years in Gordonstoun, Scotland.
Frank Watson Wood, (1862–1953). Although he was better known as a
Naval artist who mainly painted in water colours Frank Watson Wood
painted The Highland Charge at the
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden in oil. Frank
Watson Wood exhibited at Royal
Scotland Academy, The Royal society of
painters in water Colours and The Royal Academy.
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden in fiction
Culloden Memorial Cairn, Knoydart, Nova Scotia
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden is an important episode in D. K. Broster's The
Flight of the Heron (1925), the first volume of her Jacobite Trilogy,
which has been made into a TV serial twice: by Scottish Television in
1968 as eight episodes, and by the BBC in 1976.
Naomi Mitchison's novel The Bull Calves (1947) deals with Culloden and
Culloden (1964), a
BBC TV docudrama written and directed by Peter
Watkins, depicts the battle in the style of 20th-century television
Dragonfly in Amber by
Diana Gabaldon (1992, London) is a detailed
fictional tale, based on historical sources, of the Scots, High and
Lowlanders, mostly the Highlanders within Clan Fraser. It has the
element of time travel, with the 20th Century protagonist knowing how
the battle would turn out and was still – once transported to the
18th century – caught up in the foredoomed struggle.
Basis for the STARZ series Outlander.
The Highlanders (1966–67) is a serial in the BBC science fiction
television series Doctor Who. The time-traveller known as the Doctor
and his companions Polly and Ben arrive in the
TARDIS in 1746, hours
after the Battle of Culloden. The story introduces the character of
Chasing the Deer
Chasing the Deer (1994) is a cinematic dramatisation of the events
leading up to the battle, starring
Brian Blessed and Fish
Drummossie Moor – Jack Cameron, The Irish Brigade and the battle of
Culloden is a historical novel by Ian Colquhoun (Arima/Swirl, 2008)
which tells the story of the battle and the preceding days from the
point of view of the Franco-Irish regulars or 'Piquets' who covered
the Jacobite retreat.
In Harold Coyle's novel Savage Wilderness, the opening chapter deals
with the protagonist's service battle of Culloden.
^ Colonel John William Sullivan wrote, "All was confused ... such
a chiefe of a tribe had sixty men, another thiry, another twenty, more
or lesse; they would not mix nor seperat, & wou'd have double
officers, yt is two Captns & two Lts, to each Compagny, strong or
weak ... but by little, were brought into a certain
^ An unknown British Army corporal's description of the charge into
the government's left wing: "When we saw them coming towards us in
great Haste and Fury, we fired at about 50 Yards Distance, which
made Hundreds fall, we fired at about 50 Yards Distance, which
made Hundreds fall; notwithstanding which, they were so numerous, that
they still advanced, and were almost upon us before we had loaden
again. We immediately gave them another full Fire and the Front Rank
charged their Bayonets Breast high, and the Center and Rear Ranks kept
up a continual Firing, which, in half an Hour's Time, routed their
whole Army. Only Barrel's Regiment and ours was engaged, the Rebels
designing to break or flank us but our Fire was so hot, most of us
having discharged nine Shot each, that they were disappointed".
^ James Johnstone, a member of Glengarry's Regiment wrote that the
ground was "covered with water which reached halfway up the leg".
^ Cumberland wrote of the Macdonalds: "They came running on in their
wild manner, and upon the right where I had place myself, imagining
the greatest push would be there, they came down there several times
within a hundred yards of our men, firing their pistols and
brandishing their swords, but the Royal Scots and Pulteneys hardly
took their fire-locks from their shoulders, so that after those faint
attempts they made off; and the little squadrons on our right were
sent to pursue them".
^ Cumberland wrote: "A captain and fifty foot to march directly and
visit all the cottages in the neighbourhood of the field of battle,
and search for rebels. The officers and men will take notice that the
public orders of the rebels yesterday was to give us no quarter".
^ A Highland Jacobite officer wrote: "We were likewise forbid in the
attack to make use of firearms, but only of sword, dirk and bayonet,
to cutt the tent strings, and pull down the poles, and where observed
a swelling or bulge in the falen tent, there to strick and push
^ Out of 27 officers of the English "
Manchester Regiment": one died in
prison; one was acquitted; one was pardoned; two were released for
giving evidence; four escaped; two were banished; three were
transported; and eleven were executed. The sergeants of the regiment
suffered worse, with seven out of ten hanged. At least seven privates
were executed, some no doubt died in prison, and most of the rest were
transported to the colonies.
^ Farquharson of Monaltrie's Battalion is sometimes referred to as the
"Mar" battalion of Lord Lewis Gordon's Regiment, and raised in Braemar
and upper Deeside by Francis Farquharson of Monaltrie.
^ This party of MacGregors were attached to Farquharson of Monaltrie's
battalion of Lord Lewis Gordon's Regiment. They were commanded by
MacGregor of Inverenzie.
^ Attached to the MacDonald of Keppoch's Regiment was MacDonald of
Glencoe's Regiment. It joined the Jacobite army on 27 August 1745 and
served the rest of the campaign attached to MacDonald of Keppoch's
Regiment. This was a very small unit, of no more than 120 men, and was
commanded by Alexander MacDonald of Glencoe. It surrendered to General
Campbell on 12 May 1746 and had suffered 52 killed, 36 wounded.
Instead of a regimental standard, the regiment is said to have marched
behind a bunch of heather attached to a pike.
^ MacGregors serving in MacDonald of Keppoch's Regiment were commanded
by John MacGregor of Glengyle.
^ Grant of Glenmoriston's Battalion was a very small unit of ~
80–100 men, from Glenmoriston and Glen Urquhart. The unit was
commanded by Maj Patrick Grant of Glenmoriston and Alexander Grant,
younger of Shewglie. About 30 men from this unit were killed at
Culloden, though both Glenmoriston and Shewglie, younger escaped.
Almost all of the 87 of the men from this unit who surrendered on 4
May were transported.
^ Sometimes referred to as the "Strathbogie" Battalion of Lord Lewis
Gordon's Regiment. Many of the 300 men were highlanders, though most
feudal levies and mercenaries – not clansmen. An intelligence report
of 11 December 1745 stated that of the 300 men, "only 100 have joined;
mostly herds and hiremen from about Strathbogie and unaquainted with
the use of arms; many are pressed and intend to desert ...".
^ The unit was recruited in Edinburgh, by Stuart who was a captain in
the Royal Écossais at the time. For a time the unit included some
former members of the British Army. At the battle it eventually stood
in the front, next to the Stewarts of Appin.
^ A composite regiment formed in March 1746 by combining the
dismounted Lord Kilmarnock's Horse, Lord Pisligo's Horse, and James
Crichton of Auchingoul's Regiment, as well as forced recruits from
Aberdeenshire courtesy of Lady Erroll (mother-in-law to Lord
^ At least two companies of MacGregors, commanded by James Mor
Drummond, served in the Duke of Perth's Regiment.
^ Renamed the 48th Foot in 1748.
^ Site Record for Culloden Moor, Battlefield; Culloden Muir; Culloden
Battlefield; Battle Of Culloden. Royal Commission on the Ancient and
Historical Monuments of Scotland.
^ a b c d e f g h i Pittock (2016).
^ a b c Harrington (1991), p. 83.
^ Collins Dictionary
^ "The Making of the Union". Retrieved 14 June 2009.
^ McGarry,Stephen, Irish Brigades Abroad Dublin 2013.
^ Anderson, Peter (1920).
Culloden Moor and story of the battle.
Oxford: E. Mackay. p. 16.
^ Pollard, Tony. Culloden: The History and Archaeology of the last
Clan Battle. Published 2009. ISBN 1-84884-020-9.
^ Thompson, p. 148; Trench, pp. 217–23.
^ Harrington (1991), p. 53.; also Reid (2997), p. 45.
^ a b c Barthorp (1982), pp. 17–18.
^ Harrington (1991), pp. 35–40.
^ Reid (2006), pp. 20–21.
^ a b Reid (1997), p. 58.
^ a b Reid (2006), pp. 20–22.
^ Reid (1997), p. 50.
^ a b Harrington (1991), pp. 40–43.
^ a b Reid (2006), pp. 22–23.
^ a b Reid (2002), p. author's note.
^ Harrington (1991), pp. 25–29.
^ Harrington (1991), pp. 29–33.
^ Harrington (1991), p. 33.
^ a b Harrington (1991), p. 44.
^ Reid (2002), pp. 51–56.
^ "Map of Drummossie". MultiMap.
^ "Map of Drummossie Moor". MultiMap.
^ "Map of Culloden". MultiMap.
^ Get map, UK: Ordnance Survey .
^ a b Reid (2002), pp. 56–58.
^ Britain as a military power 1688–1815 (1999), p. 32
^ Black,Jeremy, Culloden and the '45 (1990)
^ a b Harrington (1991), p. 47.
^ Roberts (2002), p. 168.
^ a b c Reid (2002), pp. 58–68.
^ Reid (2002), pp. 68–72.
^ Reid (2002), p. 72.
^ Reid (1996) British Redcoat 1740–1793, pp. 9, 56–58.
^ a b Roberts (2002), p. 173.
^ Reid (2002), p. 73.
^ Reid (2002), pp. 72–80.
^ McGarry, Irish Brigades Abroad p. 122
^ a b c Reid (2002), pp. 80–85.
^ Reid (2006), p. 16.
^ Reid (2002), p. 93.
^ a b c d e f Reid (2002), pp. 88–90.
^ a b Roberts (2002), pp. 182–83.
^ a b Harrington (1991), pp. 85–86.
^ a b c d e Prebble (1973), p. 301.
^ Roberts (2002), p. 178.
^ a b Roberts (2002), pp. 177–80.
^ Lockhart (1817), p. 508.
^ Magnusson (2003), p. 623.
^ Harrington (1996), p. 88.
^ Monod (1993), p. 340.
^ "An act to prevent the return of such rebels and traitors concerned
in the late rebellion, as have been, or shall be pardoned on condition
of transportation; and also to hinder their going into the enemies
^ Roberts (2002), pp. 196–97.
^ a b c "Britain from 1742 to 1754". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Archived from the original on 20 March 2009. Retrieved 4 March
^ Brown (1997), p. 133.
^ Gibson (2002), pp. 27–28.
^ a b "The Memorial Cairn". Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project.
Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 9 November
^ "New Visitor Centre". Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project.
Archived from the original on 18 August 2008. Retrieved 9 November
^ a b Reid (2002), pp. 91–92.
^ "What's New?". Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project. Archived from
the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
^ a b "Graves of the clans". Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project.
Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 9 November
^ "Field of the English". Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project.
Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 9 November
^ "Well of the dead". Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project. Archived
from the original on 27 June 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
^ "'The Well of the Dead', Culloden Battlefield". www.ambaile.org.uk
(ambaile.org.uk). Retrieved 9 November 2008.
^ "Cumberland stone". Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project. Archived
from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
^ "Inventory battlefields". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 12 April
^ a b "Point of Contact: Archaeology at Culloden". University of
Glasgow Centre for Battlefield Archaeology. Retrieved 6 March
^ Reid gives "650" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however he gives "about
700" in Reid (2006), p. 16.
^ Reid gives 150 in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however he states "The unit
was just 250 strong at Culloden" in Reid (2006), p. 25.
^ Reid gives "500" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; he states that
Inverallochie's battalion that took part in the battle numbered "about
^ Reid (2006), p. 20.
^ Reid gives "500'" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however gives "Some 300
strong at Falkirk, and about 350 strong at Culloden" in Reid (2006),
^ Reid (2006), p. 18.
^ a b c Reid (2006), p. 22.
^ Reid gives 182 in Reid (2002), p. 26; however states the unit was
"apparently with a strength of some 200 men" in Reid (2006), p. 22.
^ a b c d e Reid (2006), pp. 15–26.
^ Reid gives 100 in Reid (2002) p. 26; however states "no more than
about 80 strong" in Reid (2006) p. 17.
^ Reid (2006), p. 21.
^ a b Reid (2006), p. 19.
^ Reid (2006), p. 26.
^ Reid (2006), p. 19–20.
^ a b c Pollard, Tony. (2009). Culloden: The History and Archaeology
of the last Clan Battle. pp. 71 - 72. ISBN 978-1-84884-020-1
^ Simpson, Peter. (1996). The Independent Highland Companies, 1603 -
1760. p. 136. ISBN 0-85976-432-X
^ SUTHERLAND, William, Lord Strathnaver (1708-50)
historyofparliamentonline.org. (Quoting: Sutherland Bk. i. 405-24).
Retrieved August 8, 2017.
^ Unless noted elsewhere, units and unit sizes are from, Reid (2002),
^ Reid lists this as "Howard's", Reid (1996), p. 195.; and "Howard's
(3rd)", Reid (1996), p. 196.
^ Reid lists this as "Bligh's", Reid (1996), p. 195; and "Bligh's
(20th)", Reid (1996), p. 197.
^ Reid lists this as "Campbells", Reid (1996), p. 195; and "Campbell's
(21st)", Reid (1996), p. 197.
^ Reid (1996), pp. 195–98.
^ Culloden nms.ac.uk. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
^ "Augustin Heckel: The Battle of Culloden". National Galleries of
Scotland. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
^ Cairns, Craig (2012). Devine, T M; Wormald, Jenny, eds. The Literary
Tradition. The Oxford handbook of modern Scottish history. Oxford; New
York: Oxford University Press. p. 114.
^ Colquhoun, Ian (2008). Drummossie Moor – Jack Cameron, The Irish
Brigade and the Battle of Culloden. Swirl.
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Courant". The Rebellion of 1745. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors
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Film and documentaries
Watkins, Peter (director/writer) (15 December 1964). Culloden.
"Culloden: The Jacobites' Last Stand". Battlefield Britain. 2004.
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden on
IMDb (TV Movie, BBC, 1964)
Black, Jeremy (April 2002). Culloden and the '45. Stroud: The History
Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5636-2.
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