The BATTLE OF CULLODEN (/kʌlˈɒdən/ ) (Scottish Gaelic : _Blàr
Chùil Lodair_) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of
1745 and part of a religious civil war in Britain. On 16 April 1746,
the Jacobite forces of
Charles Edward Stuart were decisively defeated
by loyalist troops commanded by
William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland ,
Queen Anne , the last monarch of the
House of Stuart , died in 1714,
with no living children. Under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701
, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of
Charles Stuart's Jacobite army consisted largely of
Episcopalians , mainly Scots but with a small detachment of Englishmen
Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded in the brief battle. In contrast, only about 300 Government soldiers were killed or wounded.
The battle and its aftermath continue to arouse strong feelings: the University of Glasgow awarded Lord Cumberland an honorary doctorate, but many modern commentators allege that the aftermath of the battle and subsequent crackdown on Jacobitism were brutal, and earned Cumberland the sobriquet "Butcher". Efforts were subsequently made to further integrate the comparatively wild Scottish Highlands into the Kingdom of Great Britain ; civil penalties were introduced to weaken Gaelic culture and undermine the Scottish clan system.
* 1 Background
* 2 Opposing forces
* 2.1 Jacobite army * 2.2 Government Army
* 3 Lead up to battle
* 3.1 Night attack at Nairn
* 4 Battle on Culloden Moor
* 4.1 Opening moves * 4.2 Highland charge * 4.3 Jacobite collapse and rout * 4.4 Conclusion: casualties and prisoners
* 5 Aftermath
* 5.1 Collapse of the Jacobite campaign * 5.2 Repercussions and persecution
* 6 Culloden battlefield today
* 7 Order of battle: Culloden, 16 April 1746
* 7.1 Jacobite army * 7.2 Government Army
* 11 References
* 11.1 Footnotes * 11.2 Notes * 11.3 Bibliography * 11.4 Further reading
* 12 External links
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_ Jacobite Banner showing the Latin motto Tandem Triumphans_. (The motto, meaning 'together Triumphant', or 'united Triumphant', or 'at unison/moving coherently Triumphant', was said to have been added after the events at Glenfinnan).
Charles Edward Stuart , known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or the
"Young Pretender", arrived in
After a lengthy wait, Charles persuaded his generals that English
Jacobites would stage an uprising in support of his cause. He was
convinced that France would launch an invasion of England as well. His
army of around 5,000 invaded England on 8 November 1745. They advanced
through Carlisle and
On the long march back to Scotland, the Highland Army wore out its
boots and demanded all the boots and shoes of the townspeople of
The King's forces continued to pressure Charles. He retired north, losing men and failing to take Stirling Castle or Fort William . But he invested Fort Augustus and Fort George in Inverness-shire in early April. Charles then took command again, and insisted on fighting a defensive action.
Hugh Rose of Kilravock entertained Charles Edward Stuart and the Duke of Cumberland respectively on 14 and 15 April 1746, before the Battle of Culloden. Charles' manners and deportment were described by his host as most engaging. Having walked out with Mr. Rose, before sitting down he watched trees being planted. He remarked, "How happy, Sir, you must feel, to be thus peaceably employed in adorning your mansion, whilst all the country round is in such commotion." Kilravock was a firm supporter of the house of Hanover, but his adherence was not solicited, nor were his preferences alluded to. The next day, the Duke of Cumberland called at the castle gate, and when Kilravock went to receive him, he bluffly observed, "So you had my cousin Charles here yesterday." Kilravock replied, "What am I to do, I am Scots", to which Cumberland replied, "You did perfectly right."
A private and corporal of a Highland regiment, circa 1744. The Highland units of the Jacobite army would have worn something very similar to the private illustrated, particularly the belted plaid .
The bulk of the Jacobite army was made up of Highlanders and most of
its strength was volunteers. These men made up the gentlemen
(officers), cavalry and Lowland units, and as such did much of the
fighting during the campaign. The clans which supported the Jacobite
cause tended to be
One of the fundamental problems with the Jacobite army was the lack of trained officers. The lack of professionalism and training was readily apparent; even the colonels of the Macdonald regiments of Clanranald and Keppoch considered their men to be uncontrollable. A typical clan regiment was made up of a small minority of gentlemen (tacksmen ) who would bear the "clan name", and under them the common soldiers or "clansmen" who bore a mixed bag of names. The clan gentlemen formed the front ranks of the unit and were more heavily armed than their impoverished tenants who made up the bulk of the regiment. Because they served in the front ranks, the gentlemen suffered higher proportional casualties than the common clansman. The gentlemen of the Appin Regiment suffered one quarter of those killed, and one third of those wounded from their regiment. The Jacobites started the campaign poorly armed. At the Battle of Prestonpans, some only had swords, Lochaber axes , pitchforks and scythes. Although popular imagination pictures the common highlander as being equipped with a broadsword, targe and pistol, it was only officers or gentlemen who were equipped in this way. Further illustrating this point, following the conclusion of the battle, Cumberland reported that there were 2,320 firelocks recovered from the battlefield, but only 190 broadswords. From this, it can be determined that of the roughly 1,000 Jacobites killed at Culloden, no more than one fifth carried a sword. As the campaign progressed, the Jacobites improved their equipment considerably. For instance, 1,500–1,600 stack of arms were landed in October. In consequence, by the time of the Battle of Culloden, the Jacobite army was equipped with 0.69 in (17.5 mm) calibre French and Spanish firelocks.
During the latter stage of the campaign, the Jacobites were reinforced with units of French regulars. These units, like Fitzjames' Horse, and the Irish Picquets , were drawn from the Irish Brigade (Irish units in French service). Another unit was the _Royal Écossais_, which was a Scottish unit in French service. The majority of these troops were Irish born. Lists of prisoners at Marshalsea, Berwick and prison interviews conducted by Captain Eyre show some of these men to be English born, claiming to have been press-ganged or seized as prisoners on British ships. Fitzjames' Horse was the only Jacobite cavalry unit to fight the whole battle on horseback. Around 500 Irish Picquets in the French army fought in the battle, some of whom were thought to have been press-ganged from 6th (Guise\'s) Foot taken at Fort Augustus. The _Royal Écossais_ also contained deserters , and the commander, Drummond, attempted to raise a second battalion after the unit had arrived in Scotland. The Jacobite artillery has been generally regarded as being ineffective in the battle. Some modern accounts claim that the Jacobite artillery suffered from having cannon with different calibres of shot. In fact, all but one of the Jacobite cannon were 3-pounders.
Soldiers of the 8th and 20th Regiments, circa 1742
The Kingdom of Great Britain government army at the Battle of Culloden was made up of infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Of the army's 16 infantry battalions present, four were Scottish units and one was Irish . The officers of the infantry were from the upper classes and aristocracy, while the rank and file were made up of poor agricultural workers. On the outbreak of the Jacobite rising, extra incentives were given to lure recruits to fill the ranks of depleted units. For instance, on 6 September 1745, every recruit who joined the Guards before 24 September was given £6, and those who joined in the last days of the month were given £4. Regiments were named after their Colonel. In theory, an infantry regiment would comprise up to ten companies of up to 70 men. They would then be 815 strong, including officers. However, regiments were rarely anywhere near this large, and at the Battle of Culloden, the regiments were not much larger than about 400 men.
The government cavalry arrived in
The Royal Artillery vastly out-performed their Jacobite counterparts during the Battle of Culloden. However, up until this point in the campaign, the government artillery had performed dismally. The main weapon of the artillery was the 3-pounder. This weapon had a range of 500 yards (460 m) and fired two kinds of shot: round iron and canister. The other weapon used was the Coehorn mortar . These had a calibre of 4 2⁄5 inches (11 cm).
LEAD UP TO BATTLE
Cumberland\'s route from
On 30 January, the Duke of Cumberland arrived in
The Jacobite forces of about 5,400 left their base at
NIGHT ATTACK AT NAIRN
On 15 April, the government army celebrated Cumberland's twenty-fifth
birthday by issuing two gallons of brandy to each regiment. At
Murray's suggestion, the Jacobites tried that evening to repeat the
success of Prestonpans by carrying out a night attack on the
government encampment. Murray proposed that they set off at dusk and
Nairn . Murray planned to have the right wing of the first
line attack Cumberland's rear, while Perth with the left wing would
attack the government's front. In support of Perth, Charles Edward
Stuart would bring up the second line. The Jacobite force however
started out well after dark at about 20:00. Murray led the force cross
country with the intention of avoiding government outposts. This
however led to very slow going in the dark. Murray's one time
_aide-de-camp _, James
Chevalier de Johnstone later wrote, "this march
across country in a dark night which did not allow us to follow any
track, and accompanied with confusion and disorder". By the time the
leading troop had reached Culraick, still 2 miles (3.2 km) from where
Murray's wing was to cross the River
Nairn and encircle the town,
there was only one hour left before dawn. After a heated council with
other officers, Murray concluded that there was not enough time to
mount a surprise attack and that the offensive should be aborted.
O\'Sullivan went to inform
Charles Edward Stuart of the change of
plan, but missed him in the dark. Meanwhile, instead of retracing his
path back, Murray led his men left, down the
However, military historian Jeremy Black has contended that even though the Jacobite force had become disordered and lost the element of surprise the night attack remained viable, and that if the Jacobites had advanced the conditions would have made government morale vulnerable and disrupted their fire discipline.
BATTLE ON CULLODEN MOOR
Early on a rainy 16 April, the well rested Government army struck camp and at about 05:00 set off towards the moorland around Culloden and Drummossie. Jacobite pickets first sighted the Government advance guard at about 08:00, when the advancing army came within 4 miles (6.4 km) of Drummossie. Cumberland's informers alerted him that the Jacobite army was forming up about 1 mile (1.6 km) from Culloden House – upon Culloden Moor . At about 11:00 the two armies were within sight of one another with about 2 miles (3.2 km) of open moorland between them. As the Government forces steadily advanced across the moor, the driving rain and sleet blew from the north-east into the faces of the exhausted Jacobite army.
The Jacobite army was originally arrayed between the corners of Culloden and Culwhiniac parks (from left to right): the three Macdonald battalions; a small one of Chisholms ; another small one of Macleans and Maclachlans ; Lady Mackintosh and Monaltrie's regiments; Lord Lovat's Regiment; Ardsheal's Appin Stewarts; Lochiel's Regiment; and three battalions of the Atholl Brigade. Murray who commanded the right wing, however became aware of the Leanach enclosure that lay ahead of him, a wall that would become an obstacle in the event of a Jacobite advance. Without any consultation he then moved the brigade down the moor and formed into three columns . It seems probable that Murray intended to shift the axis of the Jacobite advance to a more northerly direction, thus having the right wing clear the Leanach enclosure and possibly taking advantage of the downward slope of the moor to the north. Jacobite front line skews and stretches, Government forces compensate; others break into and through Culwhiniac enclosure.
However, the Duke of Perth seems to have misinterpreted Murray's
actions as only a general advance, and the Macdonalds on the far left
simply ignored him. The result was the skewing of the Jacobite front
line, with the (left wing) Macdonalds still rooted on the Culloden
Parks wall and the (right wing) Atholl Brigade halfway down the
Culwhiniac Parks wall. In consequence, large gaps immediately appeared
in the severely over-stretched Jacobite lines. A shocked Sullivan had
no choice but to position the meagre 'second line' to fill the gaps.
This second line was (left to right): the Irish Picquets; the Duke of
Perth's Regiment; Glenbuchat's; Lord Kilmarnock's Footguards; John Roy
Stuart 's Regiment; two battalions of Lord Ogilvy's Regiment; the
_Royal Écossais_; two battalions of
Lord Lewis Gordon 's Regiment.
Farther back were cavalry units. On the left were: Lord Strathallan's
Cumberland brought forward the 13th and 62nd to extend his first and second lines. At the same time, two squadrons of Kingston's Horse were brought forward to cover the right flank. These were then joined by two troops of Cobham's 10th Dragoons. While this was taking place, Hawley began making his way through the Culwhiniac Parks intending to outflank the Jacobite right wing. Anticipating this, the two battalions of Lord Lewis Gordon's regiment had lined the wall. However, since the Government dragoons stayed out of range, and the Jacobites were partly in dead ground they moved back and formed up on a re-entrant at Culchunaig, facing south and covering the army's rear. Once Hawley had led the dragoons through the Parks he deployed them in two lines beneath the Jacobite guarded re-entrant. By this time the Jacobites were guarding the re-entrant from above with four battalions of Lord Lewis Gordon's and Lord Ogilvy's regiments, and the combined squadron of Fitzjames's Horse and Elcho's Lifeguards. Unable to see behind the Jacobites above him, Hawley had his men stand and face the enemy.
Over the next twenty minutes, Cumberland's superior artillery battered the Jacobite lines, while Charles, moved for safety out of sight of his own forces, waited for the Government forces to move. Inexplicably, he left his forces arrayed under Government fire for over half an hour. Although the marshy terrain minimized casualties, the morale of the Jacobites began to suffer. Several clan leaders, angry at the lack of action, pressured Charles to issue the order to charge. The Clan Chattan was first of the Jacobite army to receive this order, but an area of boggy ground in front of them forced them to veer right so that they obstructed the following regiments and the attack was pushed towards the wall. The Jacobites advanced on the left flank of the Government troops, but were subjected to volleys of musket fire and the artillery which had switched from roundshot to grapeshot .
Jacobite front line charges the Government lines.
Despite this many Jacobites reached the government lines and, for the first time, a battle was decided by a direct clash between charging highlanders and formed redcoats equipped with muskets and socket bayonets. The brunt of the Jacobite impact was taken by just two government regiments – Barrell\'s 4th Foot and Dejean\'s 37th Foot . Barrell's regiment lost 17 and suffered 108 wounded, out of a total of 373 officers and men. Dejean's lost 14 and had 68 wounded, with this unit's left wing taking a disproportionately higher number of casualties. Barrell's regiment temporarily lost one of its two colours . Major-General Huske , who was in command of the government's second line, quickly organised the counter attack . Huske ordered forward all of Lord Sempill's Fourth Brigade which had a combined total of 1,078 men (Sempill\'s 25th Foot , Conway\'s 59th Foot , and Wolfe\'s 8th Foot ). Also sent forward to plug the gap was Bligh\'s 20th Foot , which took up position between Sempill's 25th and Dejean's 37th. Huske's counter formed a five battalion strong horseshoe -shaped formation which trapped the Jacobite right wing on three sides.
Poor Barrell's regiment were sorely pressed by those desperadoes and
outflanked. One stand of their colours was taken; Collonel Riches hand
cutt off in their defence ... We marched up to the enemy, and our
left, outflanking them, wheeled in upon them; the whole then gave them
5 or 6 fires with vast execution, while their front had nothing left
to oppose us, but their pistolls and broadswords; and fire from their
center and rear, (as, by this time, they were 20 or 30 deep) was
vastly more fatal to themselves, than us. — Captain-Lieutenant
James Ashe Lee of Wolfe\'s 8th Foot . _
Located on the Jacobite extreme left wing were the Macdonald regiments. Popular legend has it that these regiments refused to charge when ordered to do so, due to the perceived insult of being placed on the left wing. Even so, due to the skewing of the Jacobite front lines, the left wing had a further 200 metres (660 ft) of much boggier ground to cover than the right. When the Macdonalds charged, their progress was much slower than that of the rest of the Jacobite forces. Standing on the right of these regiments were the much smaller units of Chisholms and the combined unit of Macleans and Maclachlans. Every officer in the Chisholm unit was killed or wounded and Col. Lachlan Maclachlan, who led the combined unit of Macleans and Maclachlans, was gruesomely killed by a cannon shot. As the Macdonalds suffered casualties they began to give way. Immediately Cumberland then pressed the advantage, ordering two troops of Cobham\'s 10th Dragoons to ride them down. The boggy ground however impeded the cavalry and they turned to engage the Irish Picquets whom Sullivan had brought up in an attempt to stabilise the deteriorating Jacobite left flank.
JACOBITE COLLAPSE AND ROUT
With the collapse of the left wing, Murray brought up the _Royal Écossais_ and Kilmarnock's Footguards who were still at this time unengaged. However, by the time they had been brought into position, the Jacobite army was in rout . The _Royal Écossais_ exchanged musket fire with Campbell\'s 21st and commenced an orderly retreat, moving along the Culwhiniac enclosure in order to shield themselves from artillery fire. Immediately the half battalion of Highland militia commanded by Captain Colin Campbell of Ballimore which had stood inside the enclosure ambushed the _Royal Écossais_. Hawley had previously left this Highland unit behind the enclosure, with orders to avoid contact with the Jacobites, to limit any chance of a friendly fire incident. In the encounter Campbell of Ballimore was killed along with five of his men. The result was that the _Royal Écossais_ and Kilmarnock's Footguards were forced out into the open moor and were rushed at by three squadrons of Kerr's 11th Dragoons. The fleeing Jacobites must have put up a fight for Kerr's 11th recorded at least 16 horses killed during the entirety of the battle. The Irish picquets bravely covered the Highlanders retreat from the battlefield and prevented a massacre. This action cost half of the 100 casualties suffered in the battle. The _Royal Écossais_ appear to have retired from the field in two wings. One part of the regiment surrendered upon the field after suffering 50 killed or wounded, but their colours were not taken and a large number retired from the field with the Jacobite Lowland regiments. One of at least fourteen standards or colours recorded as captured by Government forces at the battle. This and a similar blue saltire may have been used by the Atholl Brigade.
This stand by the _Royal Écossais_ may have given Charles Edward
Stuart the time to make his escape. At the time when the Macdonald
regiments were crumbling and fleeing the field, Stuart seems to have
been rallying Perth's and Glenbuchat's regiments when O\'Sullivan rode
up to Captain Shea who commanded Stuart's bodyguard: "Yu see all is
going to pot. Yu can be of no great succor, so before a general
deroute wch will soon be, Seize upon the Prince the Highland regiments
however were cut off by the Government cavalry, and forced to retreat
down the road to Inverness. The result was that they were a perfect
target for the Government dragoons. Major-general
CONCLUSION: CASUALTIES AND PRISONERS
Jacobite casualties are estimated at 1,500–2,000 killed or wounded. As to prisoners, Lord Cumberland's official list of prisoners taken includes 154 Jacobites and 222 "French" prisoners (men from the 'foreign units' in the French service). Added to the official list of those apprehended were 172 of the Earl of Cromartie's men, captured after a brief engagement the day before near Littleferry .
In striking contrast to the Jacobite losses, the government losses were 50 dead and 259 wounded. However, a large proportion of those recorded as wounded are likely to have died of their wounds. (For example, only 29 out of 104 wounded from Barrell's 4th Foot survived to claim pensions. All 6 of the artillerymen recorded as wounded died.) Moreover, recent geophysical studies on the government burial pit suggest the figure for deaths may have been nearer 300.
_ The End of the 'Forty Five' Rebellion_ depicts the retreat of the defeated Jacobites .
COLLAPSE OF THE JACOBITE CAMPAIGN
As the first of the fleeing Highlanders approached
Following the battle, the Jacobites' Lowland units headed south,
towards Corrybrough and made their way to Ruthven Barracks, while
their Highland units headed north, towards
Some ranking Jacobites made their way to
Loch nan Uamh , where
Charles Edward Stuart had first landed at the outset of the campaign
in 1745. Here on 30 April they were met by the two French frigates –
the _Mars_ and _Bellone_. Two days later the French warships were
spotted and attacked by the smaller
Following his flight from the battle,
Charles Edward Stuart made his
way towards the
REPERCUSSIONS AND PERSECUTION
_ After Culloden: Rebel Hunting_ by John Seymour Lucas depicts the rigorous search for Jacobites in the days that followed Culloden.
The morning following the Battle of Culloden, Cumberland issued a written order reminding his men that "the public orders of the rebels yesterday was to give us no quarter". Cumberland alluded to the belief that such orders had been found upon the bodies of fallen Jacobites. In the days and weeks that followed, versions of the alleged orders were published in the _Newcastle Journal_ and the _Gentleman's Journal_. Today only one copy of the alleged order to "give no quarter" exists. It is however considered to be nothing but a poor attempt at forgery, for it is neither written nor signed by Murray, and it appears on the bottom half of a copy of a declaration published in 1745. In any event, Cumberland's order was not carried out for two days, after which contemporary accounts report then that for the next two days the moor was searched and all those wounded were put to death. On the other hand, the orders issued by Lord George Murray for the conduct of the aborted night attack in the early hours of 16 April suggest that it would have been every bit as merciless. The instructions were to use only swords, dirks and bayonets, to overturn tents, and subsequently to locate "a swelling or bulge in the fallen tent, there to strike and push vigorously". In total, over 20,000 head of livestock, sheep, and goats were driven off and sold at Fort Augustus , where the soldiers split the profits. A contemporary engraving depicting the executions of Kilmarnock and Balmerino at Great Tower Hill , on 18 August 1746.
While in Inverness, Cumberland emptied the gaols that were full of
people imprisoned by Jacobite supporters, replacing them with
Jacobites themselves. Prisoners were taken south to England to stand
trial for high treason . Many were held on hulks on the
Following up on the military success won by their forces, the British
Government enacted laws further to integrate
CULLODEN BATTLEFIELD TODAY
Memorial cairn erected in 1881.
Today, a visitor centre is located near the site of the battle. This centre was first opened in December 2007, with the intention of preserving the battlefield in a condition similar to how it was on 16 April 1746. One difference is that it currently is covered in shrubs and heather ; during the 18th century, however, the area was used as common grazing ground, mainly for tenants of the Culloden estate. Those visiting can walk the site by way of footpaths on the ground and can also enjoy a view from above on a raised platform. Possibly the most recognisable feature of the battlefield today is the 20 feet (6.1 m) tall memorial cairn , erected by Duncan Forbes in 1881. In the same year Forbes also erected headstones to mark the mass graves of the clans. The thatched roofed farmhouse of Leanach which stands today dates from about 1760; however, it stands on the same location as the turf -walled cottage that probably served as a field hospital for Government troops following the battle. A stone, known as "The English Stone", is situated west of the Old Leanach cottage and is said to mark the burial place of the Government dead. West of this site lies another stone, erected by Forbes, marking the place where the body of Alexander McGillivray of Dunmaglass was found after the battle. A stone lies on the eastern side of the battlefield that is supposed to mark the spot where Cumberland directed the battle. The battlefield has been inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the Historic Environment (Amendment) Act 2011. In 1881, Duncan Forbes erected the headstones that mark the mass graves of fallen Jacobite soldiers. They lie on either side of an early 19th-century road which runs through the battlefield.
Since 2001, the site of the battle has undergone topographic ,
geophysical , and metal detector surveys in addition to archaeological
excavations . Interesting finds have been made in the areas where the
fiercest fighting occurred on the Government left wing, particularly
where Barrell's and Dejean's regiments stood. For example, pistol
balls and pieces of shattered muskets have been uncovered here which
indicate close quarters fighting, as pistols were only used at close
range and the musket pieces appear to have been smashed by
pistol/musket balls or heavy broadswords. Finds of musket balls appear
to mirror the lines of men who stood and fought. Some balls appear to
have been dropped without being fired, some missed their targets, and
others are distorted from hitting human bodies. In some cases it may
be possible to identify whether the Jacobites or Government soldiers
fired certain rounds, because the Jacobite forces are known to have
used a large quantity of French muskets which fired a slightly smaller
calibre shot than that of the British Army's _
Brown Bess _. Analysis
of the finds confirms that the Jacobites used muskets in greater
numbers than has traditionally been thought. Not far from where the
hand-to-hand fighting took place, fragments of mortar shells have been
found. Though Forbes's headstones mark the graves of the Jacobites,
the location of the graves of about sixty Government soldiers is
unknown. The recent discovery of a 1752 silver _
ORDER OF BATTLE: CULLODEN, 16 APRIL 1746
Charles Edward Stuart Colonel John William Sullivan
DIVISION UNIT NOTES
ESCORT TROOP FITZJAMES\' HORSE: 16 men. LIFEGUARDS: 16 men. Commanded by Capt O'Shea. This unit was the prince's escort.
LORD GEORGE MURRAY \'S DIVISION ATHOLL BRIGADE: 500 men (3 battalions). Raised not as a clan but as a feudal levy. Possibly consisted of 3 regiments. Suffered badly from desertion.
CAMERON OF LOCHIEL\'S REGIMENT: ~ 650–700 men. Led by Sir Donald Cameron of Lochiel . Regarded as one of the strongest Jacobite units, and as elite.
STEWARTS OF APPIN or APPIN REGIMENT: 250 men. Led by Charles Stuart of Ardsheal. The regiment suffered from desertion. During the campaign it suffered 90 killed, 65 wounded.
LORD JOHN DRUMMOND \'S DIVISION. LORD LOVAT\'S REGIMENT: ~ 300 men. Led at Culloden by Charles Fraser of Inverallochie , whose battalion was numbered at about 300. The Master of Lovat's battalion missed the battle by several hours.
LADY MACKINTOSH\'S REGIMENT: ~ 350 men. Sometimes referred to in secondary sources as _Clan Chattan Regiment_. A composite unit, like the Athole Brigate. Led by Alexander McGillivray of Dunmaglass . Lost most of its officers at Culloden.
FARQUHARSON OF MONALTRIE\'S BATTALION: 150 men. Consisted of mostly Highlanders but not all. Described by James Logie as "dressed in highland clothes mostly". Included a party of MacGregors .
MACLACHLANS AND MACLEANS: ~ 200 men. Commanded by Lachlan Maclachlan of Castle Lachlan and Maclean of Drimmin (who served as Lt Col). The unit campaigned as part of the Athole Brigade, though fought at Culloden for the first time as a stand-alone unit.
CHISHOLMS OF STRATHGLASS: ~ 80 men. This very small unit was led by Roderick Og Chisholm . Suffered very heavy casualties at Culloden.
DUKE OF PERTH \'S DIVISION. MACDONALD OF KEPPOCH\'S REGIMENT. 200 men. Commanded by Alexander MacDonald of Keppoch . This small regiment consisted of MacDonalds of Keppoch , MacDonalds of Glencoe , Mackinnons and MacGregors .
MACDONALD OF CLANRANALD\'S REGIMENT: 200 men. Commanded by MacDonald of Clanranald, younger, who was wounded during the battle. Disbanded at Fort Augustus about 18 April 1746.
MACDONNELL OF GLENGARRY\'S REGIMENT: 500 men. Commanded by Donald MacDonnell of Lochgarry. This regiment included a unit of Grants of Glenmoriston and Glen Urquhart.
JOHN ROY STUART \'S DIVISION (reserve) LORD LEWIS GORDON\'S REGIMENT JOHN GORDON OF AVOCHIE\'S BATTALION: 300 men. Commanded by John Gordon of Avochie.
MOIR OF STONYWOOD\'S BATTALION: 200 men. Commanded by James Moir of Stonywood. The unit, unlike the others of this regiment, was made up largely of _volunteers_.
1/LORD OGILVY\'S REGIMENT: 200 men. Commanded by Thomas Blair of Glassclune .
2/LORD OGILVY\'S REGIMENT: 300 men. Commanded by Sir James Johnstone .
JOHN ROY STUART \'S REGIMENT: ~ 200 men. Commanded by Maj Patrick Stewart. Also known as the Edinburgh Regiment, because of where it was raised.
FOOTGUARDS. ~ 200 men. Commanded by William, Lord Kilmarnock . A composite unit.
GLENBUCHET\'S REGIMENT. 200 men. Commanded by John Gordon of Glenbuchat.
DUKE OF PERTH\'S REGIMENT: 300 men. James Drummond, Master of Strathallan . The unit included a party of MacGregors.
IRISH BRIGADE . _GARDE ÉCOSSAISE _: 350 men. Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Lewis Drummond.
IRISH PICQUETS: 302 men. Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Walter Stapleton.
CAVALRY (Commanded by Sir John MacDonald of Fitzjames' Horse) _RIGHT SQUADRON_ FITZJAMES\' HORSE: 70 men. Commanded by Capt William Bagot.
LIFEGUARDS: 30 men. Commanded by David, Lord Elcho .
_LEFT SQUADRON_ SCOTCH HUSSARS: 36 men. Commanded by Maj John Bagot.
STRATHALLAN\'S HORSE: 30 men. Commanded by William, Lord Strathallan .
ARTILLERY. 11 x 3-pounders. Commanded by Capt John Finlayson.
1 x 4-pounders. Commanded by Capt du Saussay.
Captain-General: HRH Duke of Cumberland Commander-in-Chief North Britain: Lieutenant-General Henry Hawley
DIVISION UNIT NOTES
ESCORT TROOP DUKE OF CUMBERLAND\'S HUSSARS: ~ 20 men. Made up of Austrians and Germans.
(Commanded by Maj-Gen
11TH (KERR\\'S) DRAGOONS : 267 officers & men. Commanded by Lt Col William, Lord Ancram .
LOUDON\\'S HIGHLANDERS (64TH FOOT) : ~ 300 RANK AND FILE. Commanded by Lt Col John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll
FRONT LINE (1ST DIVISION) (Maj-Gen. William Anne, Earl of Albermarle ) _FIRST BRIGADE_ 2/1ST (ROYAL) REGIMENT : 401 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col John Ramsay.
34TH (CHOLMONDLEY\\'S) FOOT : 339 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col Charles Jeffreys.
14TH (PRICE\\'S) FOOT : 304 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col John Grey.
_THIRD BRIGADE_ 21ST (NORTH BRITISH) FUSILIERS : 358 rank & file. Commanded by Maj _Hon_. Charles Colvill.
37TH (DEJEAN\\'S) FOOT : 426 rank & file. Commanded by Col Louis Dejean.
4TH (BARRELL\\'S) FOOT : 325 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col Robert Rich .
SECOND LINE (Commanded by Gen John Huske ) _SECOND BRIGADE_ 3RD FOOT (BUFFS) : 413 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col George Howard .
36TH (FLEMING\\'S) FOOT : 350 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col George Jackson.
20TH (SACKVILLE\\'S) FOOT : 412 rank & file. Commanded by Col Lord George Sackville .
_FOURTH BRIGADE_ 25TH (SEMPILL\\'S) FOOT : 429 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col David Cunynghame.
59TH (CONWAY\\'S) FOOT : 325 rank & file. Commanded by Col _Hon_. Henry Conway .
8TH (EDWARD WOLFE\\'S) FOOT : 324 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col Edward Martin.
RESERVE DUKE OF KINGSTON\\'S 10TH HORSE : 211 officers & men. Commanded by Lt Col _Hon_. John Mordaunt .
_FIFTH BRIGADE_ (Brig John Mordaunt ) 13TH (PULTENEY\\'S) FOOT : 510 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col Thomas Cockayne.
62ND (BATEREAU\'S) FOOT: 354 rank & file. Commanded by Col John Batereau.
27TH (BLAKENEY\\'S) FOOT : 300 rank & file. Commanded by Lt Col Francis Leighton.
106 NCOs reprinted 1797) is held by the National Galleries of
Battle of Culloden
* SUMO the Argentine band Sumo made a song titled _Crua Chan_,
chronicling the development of the battle. The work was composed by
Luca Prodan , bandleader; he had knowledge of the
battle in his student years in
THE BATTLE OF CULLODEN IN FICTION
Battle of Culloden
* ^ Colonel John William Sullivan wrote, "All was confused ... such
a chiefe of a tribe had sixty men, another thiry, another twenty, more
or lesse; they would not mix nor seperat, & wou'd have double
officers, yt is two Captns notwithstanding which, they were so
numerous, that they still advanced, and were almost upon us before we
had loaden again. We immediately gave them another full Fire and the
Front Rank charged their Bayonets Breast high, and the Center and Rear
Ranks kept up a continual Firing, which, in half an Hour's Time,
routed their whole Army. Only Barrel's Regiment and ours was engaged,
the Rebels designing to break or flank us but our Fire was so hot,
most of us having discharged nine Shot each, that they were
* ^ James Johnstone, a member of Glengarry's Regiment wrote that
the ground was "covered with water which reached halfway up the leg".
* ^ Cumberland wrote of the Macdonalds: "They came running on in
their wild manner, and upon the right where I had place myself,
imagining the greatest push would be there, they came down there
several times within a hundred yards of our men, firing their pistols
and brandishing their swords, but the Royal Scots and Pulteneys hardly
took their fire-locks from their shoulders, so that after those faint
attempts they made off; and the little squadrons on our right were
sent to pursue them".
* ^ Cumberland wrote: "A captain and fifty foot to march directly
and visit all the cottages in the neighbourhood of the field of
battle, and search for rebels. The officers and men will take notice
that the public orders of the rebels yesterday was to give us no
* ^ A Highland Jacobite officer wrote: "We were likewise forbid in
the attack to make use of firearms, but only of sword, dirk and
bayonet, to cutt the tent strings, and pull down the poles, and where
observed a swelling or bulge in the falen tent, there to strick and
* ^ Out of 27 officers of the English "
* ^ _Site Record for Culloden Moor, Battlefield; Culloden Muir; Culloden Battlefield; Battle Of Culloden_. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Pittock (2016). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Harrington (1991), p. 83. * ^ "The Making of the Union". Retrieved 14 June 2009. * ^ McGarry,Stephen, _Irish Brigades Abroad_ Dublin 2013. * ^ Anderson, Peter (1920). _ Culloden Moor and story of the battle_. Oxford: E. Mackay. p. 16. * ^ Pollard, Tony. Culloden: The History and Archaeology of the last Clan Battle. Published 2009. ISBN 1-84884-020-9 . * ^ Thompson, p. 148; Trench, pp. 217–23. * ^ Harrington (1991), p. 53.; also Reid (2997), p. 45. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Barthorp (1982), pp. 17–18. * ^ Harrington (1991), pp. 35–40. * ^ Reid (2006), pp. 20–21. * ^ _A_ _B_ Reid (1997), p. 58. * ^ _A_ _B_ Reid (2006), pp. 20–22. * ^ Reid (1997), p. 50. * ^ _A_ _B_ Harrington (1991), pp. 40–43. * ^ _A_ _B_ Reid (2006), pp. 22–23. * ^ _A_ _B_ Reid (2002), p. _author's note_. * ^ Harrington (1991), pp. 25–29. * ^ Harrington (1991), pp. 29–33. * ^ Harrington (1991), p. 33. * ^ _A_ _B_ Harrington (1991), p. 44. * ^ Reid (2002), pp. 51–56. * ^ "Map of Drummossie". MultiMap. * ^ "Map of Drummossie Moor". MultiMap. * ^ "Map of Culloden". MultiMap. * ^ _Get map_, UK: Ordnance Survey . * ^ _A_ _B_ Reid (2002), pp. 56–58. * ^ Britain as a military power 1688–1815 (1999), p. 32 * ^ Black,Jeremy, Culloden and the '45 (1990) * ^ _A_ _B_ Harrington (1991), p. 47. * ^ Roberts (2002), p. 168. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Reid (2002), pp. 58–68. * ^ Reid (2002), pp. 68–72. * ^ Reid (2002), p. 72. * ^ Reid (1996) _British Redcoat 1740–1793_, pp. 9, 56–58. * ^ Roberts (2002), p. 173. * ^ Reid (2002), p. 73. * ^ Roberts (2002), p. 173. * ^ Reid (2002), pp. 72–80. * ^ McGarry, _Irish Brigades Abroad_ p. 122 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Reid (2002), pp. 80–85. * ^ Reid (2006), p. 16. * ^ Reid (2002), p. 93. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Reid (2002), pp. 88–90. * ^ _A_ _B_ Roberts (2002), pp. 182–83. * ^ _A_ _B_ Harrington (1991), pp. 85–86. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Prebble (1973), p. 301. * ^ Roberts (2002), p. 178. * ^ _A_ _B_ Roberts (2002), pp. 177–80. * ^ Lockhart (1817), p. 508. * ^ Magnusson (2003), p. 623. * ^ Harrington (1996), p. 88. * ^ Monod (1993), p. 340. * ^ "An act to prevent the return of such rebels and traitors concerned in the late rebellion, as have been, or shall be pardoned on condition of transportation; and also to hinder their going into the enemies country." * ^ Roberts (2002), pp. 196–97. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Britain from 1742 to 1754". _Encyclopædia Britannica _. Archived from the original on 20 March 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2009. * ^ Brown (1997), p. 133. * ^ Gibson (2002), pp. 27–28. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Memorial Cairn". _Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project_. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 9 November 2008. * ^ "New Visitor Centre". _Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project_. Archived from the original on 18 August 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Reid (2002), pp. 91–92. * ^ "What\'s New?". _Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project_. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Graves of the clans". _Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project_. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2008. * ^ "Field of the English". _Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project_. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 9 November 2008. * ^ "Well of the dead". _Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project_. Archived from the original on 27 June 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
* ^ "\'The Well of the Dead\', Culloden Battlefield".
_www.ambaile.org.uk (ambaile.org.uk)_. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
* ^ "Cumberland stone". _Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project_.
Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
* ^ "Inventory battlefields". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 12 April
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Point of Contact: Archaeology at Culloden".
University of Glasgow Centre for Battlefield Archaeology_. Retrieved
6 March 2009.
* ^ Reid gives "650" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however he gives
"about 700" in Reid (2006), p. 16.
* ^ Reid gives _150_ in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however he states "The
unit was just 250 strong at Culloden" in Reid (2006), p. 25.
* ^ Reid gives "500" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; he states that
Inverallochie's battalion that took part in the battle numbered "about
* ^ Reid (2006), p. 20.
* ^ Reid gives "500'" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however gives "Some
300 strong at Falkirk, and about 350 strong at Culloden" in Reid
(2006), p. 22.
* ^ Reid (2006), p. 18.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Reid (2006), p. 22.
* ^ Reid gives _182_ in Reid (2002), p. 26; however states the unit
was "apparently with a strength of some _200_ men" in Reid (2006), p.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Reid (2006), pp. 15–26.
* ^ Reid gives 100 in Reid (2002) p. 26; however states "no more
than about 80 strong" in Reid (2006) p. 17.
* ^ Reid (2006), p. 21.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Reid (2006), p. 19.
* ^ Reid (2006), p. 26.
* ^ Reid (2006), p. 19–20.
* ^ Unless noted elsewhere, units and unit sizes are from, Reid
(2002), pp. 26–27.
* ^ Reid lists this as "Howard's", Reid (1996), p. 195.; and
"Howard's (3rd)", Reid (1996), p. 196.
* ^ Reid lists this as "Bligh's", Reid (1996), p. 195; and "Bligh's
(20th)", Reid (1996), p. 197.
* ^ Reid lists this as "Campbells", Reid (1996), p. 195; and
"Campbell's (21st)", Reid (1996), p. 197.
* ^ Reid (1996), pp. 195–98.
* ^ "Augustin Heckel: The Battle of Culloden". National Galleries
* McGarry, Stephen (2013). _Irish Brigades Abroad_. The History
Press. ISBN 978-1-84588-799-5 .
* Barthorp, Michael (1982). _The Jacobite Rebellions 1689–1745_.
Men-at-arms series. 118. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-432-8 .
* Brown, Stewart J. (1997). _William Robertson and the Expansion of
Cambridge University Press . ISBN 0-521-57083-2 .
* Patterson, Raymond Campbell (1998). _A Land Afflicted:
Film and documentaries
* Watkins, Peter (director/writer) (15 December 1964). _Culloden _. BBC. * "Culloden: The Jacobites' Last Stand". _ Battlefield Britain _. 2004. BBC. * _The Battle of Culloden_ on IMDb (TV Movie, BBC, 1964)
* Black, Jeremy (April 2002). _Culloden and the '45_. Stroud: The History Press . ISBN 978-0-7524-5636-2 .
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to BATTLE OF CULLODEN _.
* Culloden Battlefield Memorial Project * Cumberland\'s