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Coordinates: 39°05′19.87″N 44°19′37.19″E / 39.0888528°N 44.3269972°E / 39.0888528; 44.3269972

Battle of Chaldiran

Part of the Ottoman–Persian Wars

Battle of Chaldiran

Date 23 August 1514

Location Chaldiran, near Khoy, northwestern Iran

Result Decisive Ottoman victory[1] Political stalemate[2]

Territorial changes Ottomans annex Eastern Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
and parts of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Safavids, as well as briefly what is modern-day northwestern Iran.[3]

Belligerents

Ottoman Empire Safavid dynasty

Commanders and leaders

Sultan Selim I Hasan Pasha  †[4] Shah Ismail I
Ismail I
 (WIA) Abd al-Baqi Yazdi  † Husayn Beg Shamlu  † Saru Pira Ustajlu  † Durmish Khan Shamlu Nur-Ali Khalifa Mohammad Khan Ustajlu  †

Sayyed Sharif al-Din Ali Shirazi † Seyid Sadraddin

Strength

60,000[5] or 100,000[6][7] 100-150 cannon[8] or 200 cannon and 100 mortars[4] 40,000[9][7] or 55,000[10] or 80,000[6]

Casualties and losses

Heavy losses[11] or less than 2,000 [12] Heavy losses[11] or approximately 5,000 [13]

v t e

Ottoman–Persian Wars

Ottoman–Safavid Wars

Battle of Chaldiran War of 1532–55

1554–55 campaign

War of 1578–90 War of 1603–18 War of 1623–39

Campaigns of Nader Shah

War of 1730–35 War of 1743–46

Subsequent conflicts

War of 1775–76 War of 1821–23

v t e

Campaigns of Shah Ismail I

Safavid conquest of Shirvan
Safavid conquest of Shirvan
(1500) Battle of Jabani (1500) Battle of Sharir (1501) Siege of Tabriz
Siege of Tabriz
(1501) Battle of Hamadan (1503) Battle of Tabriz
Tabriz
(1503) Battle of Nakhchivan Safavid conquest of Fars (1503) Safavid conquest of Mazandaran (1504) Safavid conquest of Gorgan (1504) Safavid conquest of Yazd (1504) Battle of Najaf (1507) Battle of Karbala (1507) Battle of Van (1508) Battle of Erzurum (1508) Battle of Baghdad (1509) Battle of Merv (1510) Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
(1514)

The Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
(Persian: جنگ چالدران‎; Turkish: Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
over the Safavid Empire. As a result, the Ottomans annexed eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
and northern Iraq
Iraq
from Safavid Iran.[14] It marked the first Ottoman expansion into eastern Anatolia, and the halt of the Safavid expansion to the west.[15] Despite the Iranians briefly reconquering the area over the course of the centuries, the battle marked the first event that would eventually, through many wars and treaties later, lead to its permanent conquest, until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire centuries later. By the Chaldiran war the Ottomans also gained temporary control of northwestern Iran. The battle, however, was just the beginning of 41 years of destructive war, which only ended in 1555 with the Treaty of Amasya. Though Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Eastern Anatolia (Western Armenia) were eventually taken back by the Safavids
Safavids
under the reign of king Abbas I (r. 1588–1629), they would be permanently lost to the Ottomans by the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab. At Chaldiran, the Ottomans had a larger, better equipped army numbering 60,000 to 100,000 as well as a large number of heavy artillery pieces, while the Safavid army numbered some 40,000 to 80,000 and did not have artillery at its disposal. Ismail I, was wounded and almost captured during the battle. His wives were captured by Selim I,[16] with at least one married off to one of Selim's statesmen.[17] Ismail retired to his palace and withdrew from government administration[18] after this defeat and never again participated in a military campaign.[15] The battle is one of major historical importance because it not only negated the idea that the Murshid of the Shia- Qizilbash
Qizilbash
was infallible,[19] but it also fully defined the Ottoman-Safavid borders with the Ottomans gaining northwestern Iran, and led Kurdish chiefs to assert their authority and switch their allegiance from the Safavids to the Ottomans.[20]

Contents

1 Background 2 Battle 3 Aftermath 4 Battlefield 5 Quotes 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources

Background[edit] After Selim I's successful struggle against his brothers for the throne of the Ottoman Empire, he was free to turn his attention to the internal unrest he believed was stirred up by the Shia
Shia
Qizilbash, who had sided with other members of the Dynasty against him and had been semi-officially supported by Bayezid II. Selim now feared that they would incite the population against his rule in favor of Shah Isma'il leader of the Shia
Shia
Safavids, believed by some of his supporters to be descended from the Prophet. Selim secured a jurist opinion that described Isma'il and the Qizilbash
Qizilbash
as "unbelievers and heretics" enabling him to undertake extreme measures on his way eastward to pacify the country.[21] In response, Shah Isma'il accused Sultan Selim of aggression against fellow Muslims, violating religious sexual rules and shedding innocent blood.[22] Before Selim started his campaign, he ordered for the execution of some 40,000 Qizilbash
Qizilbash
of Anatolia, "as punishment for their rebellious behavior".[7] He then also tried to block the import of Iranian silk into his realm, a measure which met "with some success".[7] When Selim started his march east, the Safavids
Safavids
were invaded in the east by the Uzbeks. The Uzbek state had been recently brought to prominence by Abu 'I-Fath Muhammad, who had fallen in battle against Isma'il only a few years before. Attempting to avoid having to fight a war on two fronts, Isma'il employed a scorched earth policy against Selim in the west.[23] Selim's army was discontented by the difficulty in supplying the army in light of Isma'il's scorched earth campaign, the extremely rough terrain of the Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
and the fact that they were marching against Muslims. The Janissaries
Janissaries
even fired their muskets at the Sultan's tent in protest at one point. When Selim learned of the Safavid army forming at Chaldiran he quickly moved to engage Isma'il, in part to stifle the discontent of his army.[24] Battle[edit]

Artwork of the Battle of Chaldiran.

The Ottomans deployed heavy artillery and thousands of Janissaries equipped with gunpowder weapons behind a barrier of carts. The Safavids, who did not have artillery at their disposal at Chaldiran,[25] used cavalry to engage the Ottoman forces. The Safavids attacked the Ottoman wings in an effort to avoid the Ottoman artillery positioned at the center. However, the Ottoman artillery was highly maneuverable and the Safavids
Safavids
suffered disastrous losses.[26] The advanced Ottoman weaponry was the deciding factor of the battle as the Safavid forces, who only had traditional weaponry, were decimated. The Safavids
Safavids
also suffered from poor planning and ill-disciplined troops unlike the Ottomans.[27] Aftermath[edit]

Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
built on the site of battlefield

Following their victory the Ottomans captured the Safavid capital city of Tabriz
Tabriz
on 7 September,[15] which they first pillaged and then evacuated. Selim was however unable to press on after Tabriz
Tabriz
due to the discontent amongst the Janissaries.[15] The Ottoman Empire successfully annexed Eastern Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
(encompassing Western Armenia) and northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Safavids. These areas changed hands several times over the following decades however; the Ottoman hold would not be set until the 1555 Peace of Amasya
Peace of Amasya
following the Ottoman-Safavid War (1532–1555). Effective governmental rule and eyalets would not be established over these regions until the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab. As a result of the Chaldiran battle the Ottomans also gained brief control over northwestern Iran. The Shia
Shia
defeat at Chaldiran brought an end to the Shia
Shia
uprisings in the Ottoman Empire.[citation needed] After two of his wives and entire harem were captured by Selim[28][15] Ismail was heartbroken and resorted to drinking alcohol.[29] His aura of invincibility shattered,[30] Ismail ceased participating in government and military affairs,[31] due to what seems to have been the collapse of his confidence.[15] After the defeat at Chaldiran, however, the Safavids
Safavids
made drastic domestic changes. From then on, firearms were made an integral part of the Persian armies and Ismail's son, Tahmasp I, deployed cannons in subsequent battles.[32][33] During the retreat of the Ottoman troops, they were intensively harassed by Georgian light cavalry of the Safavid army, deep into the Ottoman realm.[34] After the victorious battle of Chaldiran, Selim I
Selim I
next threw his forces southward to fight the Mamluk Sultanate in the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517).[35] Battlefield[edit] The site of the battle is near Chala Ashaqi village, around 6 km west of the town of Siyah Cheshmeh, south of Maku, north of Qareh Ziyaeddin. A large brick dome was built at the battlefield site in 2003 along with a statue of Seyid Sadraddin, one of the main Safavid commanders.[citation needed] Quotes[edit] After the battle, Selim referring to Ismail believed that his adversary was:

Always drunk to the point of losing his mind and totally neglectful of the affairs of the state.[36]

See also[edit]

Military history of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
portal

Shia–Sunni relations Ottoman–Safavid relations Sipahi

References[edit]

^ David Eggenberger, An Encyclopedia of Battles, (Dover Publications, 1985), 85. ^ Morgan, David O. The New Cambridge History of Islam Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge U, 2010. p.210 "Although the Safavids
Safavids
experienced military defeat at Chāldirān, the political outcome of the battle was a stalemate between the Ottomans and Safavids, even though the Ottomans ultimately won some territory from the Safavids. The stalemate was largely due to the ‘scorched earth’ strategy that the Safavids employed, making it impossible for the Ottomans to remain in the region" ^ Ira M. Lapidus. "A History of Islamic Societies" Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1139991507 p. 336 ^ a b Savory 2007, p. 42. ^ Keegan & Wheatcroft, Who's Who in Military History, Routledge, 1996. p. 268 "In 1515 Selim marched east with some 60,000 men; a proportion of these were skilled Janissaries, certainly the best infantry in Asia, and the sipahis, equally well-trained and disciplined cavalry. [...] The Azerbaijanian army, under Shah Ismail, was almost entirely composed of Turcoman tribal levies, a courageous but ill-disciplined cavalry army. Slightly inferior in numbers to the Turks, their charges broke against the Janissaries, who had taken up fixed positions behind rudimentary field works." ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, ed. Gábor Ágoston,Bruce Alan Masters, page 286, 2009 ^ a b c d McCaffrey 1990, pp. 656–658. ^ Ágoston, Gábor (2014). "Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, 1450–1800". Journal of World History. 25: 110.  ^ Roger M. Savory, Iran
Iran
under the Safavids, Cambridge, 1980, p. 41 ^ Keegan & Wheatcroft, Who's Who in Military History, Routledge, 1996. p. 268 ^ a b Kenneth Chase, Firearms: A Global History to 1700, 120. ^ Serefname II ^ Serefname II s. 158 ^ Ira M. Lapidus. "A History of Islamic Societies" Cambridge University Press ISBN 1139991507 p 336 ^ a b c d e f Mikaberidze 2015, p. 242. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, ed. William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, 224 ^ Leslie P. Peirce, The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, (Oxford University Press, 1993), 37. ^ Moojan Momen, An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism, (Yale University Press, 1985), 107. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, ed. William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, 359. ^ Martin Sicker, The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab conquests to the Siege of Vienna, (Praeger Publishers, 2000), 197. ^ Caroline Finkel, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2006), 104. . ^ Caroline Finkel, Osman's Dream, 105. ^ Caroline Finkel, Osman's Dream, 105 ^ Caroline Finkel, Osman's Dream, 106. ^ Floor 2001, p. 189. ^ Andrew James McGregor, A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War, (Greenwood Publishing, 2006), 17. ^ Gene Ralph Garthwaite, The Persians, (Blackwell Publishing, 2005), 164. ^ The Cambridge history of Iran, ed. William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, pg. 224. ^ The Cambridge history of Islam, Part 1, ed. Peter Malcolm Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, pg. 401 ^ The Cambridge History of Islam, Part 1, By Peter Malcolm Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, p. 401. ^ Elton L. Daniel, The History of Iran
Iran
(ABC-CLIO, 2012) 86 ^ Gunpowder and Firearms in the Mamluk Sultanate Reconsidered, Robert Irwin, The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian politics and society, ed. Michael Winter and Amalia Levanoni, (Brill, 2004) 127 ^ "Safavid Persia:The History and Politics of an Islamic Empire". Retrieved 26 May 2014.  ^ Floor 2001, p. 131. ^ Faroqhi, Suraiya (20 January 2018). "The Ottoman Empire: A Short History". Markus Wiener Publishers – via Google Books.  ^ Rudi Matthee, The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian history, 1500–1900, (Princeton University Press, 2005), 77

Sources[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Chaldiran.

Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi,Shah Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587-1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, ISBN 978-1595845672, English translation by Azizeh Azodi. Floor, Willem (2001). Safavid Government Institutions. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. ISBN 978-1568591353.  McCaffrey, Michael J. (1990). "ČĀLDERĀN". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 6. pp. 656–658.  Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442241466.  Savory, Roger (2007). Iran
Iran
Under the Safavids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521042512. 

v t e

Battles involving the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
by era

Rise (1299–1453)

Land battles

Bapheus Dimbos Pelekanon Demotika Ihtiman Sırp Sındığı Maritsa Dubravnica Savra Pločnik Bileća Kosovo Kırkdilim Rovine Nicopolis Ankara Çamurlu Zlatitsa Kunovica Torvioll Varna Kosovo (2nd) Constantinople

Naval battles

Gallipoli

Classical Age (1453–1550)

Land battles

Albulena Târgoviște Jajce Ohrid Vaslui Valea Albă Shkodra Breadfield Otlukbeli Krbava Çaldıran Mercidabık Han Yunus Ridanieh Tlemcen Mohács Sokhoista

Naval battles

Zonchio Modon Diu Algiers (1516) Formentera Peñón of Algiers (1529) Tunis Preveza Alborán Algiers (1541) Ponza Djerba

Transformation (1550-1700)

Land battles

Mostaganem Szigeth Çıldır Torches Wadi al Laban Sisak Călugăreni Giurgiu Keresztes Urmia Cecora 1st Khotyn Candia Köbölkút Saint Gotthard Ładyżyn Krasnobród Niemirów 2nd Khotyn 2nd Vienna 2nd Mohács Slankamen Cenei Ustechko Lugos Ulaş Zenta

Naval battles

Lepanto Cape Corvo Cape Celidonia Focchies 1st Dardanelles 2nd Dardanelles 3rd Dardanelles 4th Dardanelles Oinousses Andros

Old Regime (1700–1789)

Land battles

Pruth Petrovaradin Banja Luka Grocka Stavunchany Aspindza Larga Yeghevārd Ganja Kars Kozludzha Kagul

Naval battles

Imbros Matapan Çeşme 1st Kerch Strait

Modernization (1789–1908)

Land battles

Focşani Rymnik Măcin Pyramids Abukir Arpachai Batin Al-Safra Jeddah Čegar Alamana Gravia Erzurum Valtetsi Doliana Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Peta Dervenakia Karpenisi Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Petra Kulevicha Algiers Konya Nezib Kurekdere Oltenița Eupatoria Kızıl Tepe Shipka Pass Plevna Philippopolis Taşkesen Novšiće Ulcinj Mouzaki Domokos

Naval battles

2nd Kerch Strait Kaliakra Athos Nauplia Samos Gerontas Navarino Sinop

For 20th-century battles before 1914 see List of Ottoman battles in the 20th century For the battles during World War I see List of Ottoman battles in World War I

Ottoman victories are in bold.

Iran
Iran
portal Iranian Azerbaijan
Iranian Azerbaijan
portal Ott

.