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The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22/23 October 1764, between the forces under the command of the British
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Co ...
, led by Hector Munro, and the combined armies of
Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
, Nawab of Bengal till 1764; the
Nawab of Awadh The Nawab of Awadh or the Nawab of Oudh was the title of the rulers who governed the state of Awadh (anglicised as Oudh) in north India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the Lis ...
Shuja-ud-Daula; and the
Mughal Emperor The Mughal emperors (or Moghul) built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals began to rule parts of India from 1526, and ...
Shah Alam II Shah Alam II, born as Ali Gohar or Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806) , was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. Shah Alam faced many invasions, ma ...
accompanied by Raja Balwant Singh of Kashi. The battle was fought at
Buxar Buxar is a nagar parishad city in the state of Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population ...
, a "small fortified town" within the territory of
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area, ...
, located on the banks of the Ganga river about west of
Patna Patna (, ) is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.It had an estimated city population of 2.48 million in 2021, making it the 19th largest city in India.Covering and over 2.5 million people, its urban agglomerati ...
; it was a decisive victory for the British
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Co ...
. The war had been brought to an end by the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765.


Battle

The British army engaged in the fighting numbered 7,072 comprising 859 British, 5,297 Indian
sepoy A sepoy () was originally the designation given to a professional Indian infantryman, usually armed with a musket, in the armies of the Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an Early modern period, early modern em ...
s and 918 Indian
cavalry Cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldiers or warriors who Horses in warfare, fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms, operating as li ...
. The alliance army's numbers were estimated to be over 40,000. According to other sources, the combined army of the Mughals, Awadh and
Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
consisting of 40,000 men was defeated by a British army comprising 10,000 men. The Nawabs had virtually lost their military power after the battle of Buxar. The lack of basic co-ordination among the three disparate allies was responsible for their decisive defeat.
Mirza Najaf Khan Mirza Najaf Khan (1723 – 26 April 1782) was a Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has t ...
commanded the right flank of the Mughal imperial army and was the first to advance his forces against Major Hector Munro at daybreak; the British lines formed within twenty minutes and reversed the advance of the Mughals. According to the British,
Durrani The Durrānī ( ps, دراني, ) formerly known as Abdālī (), are one of the largest tribes of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is in southern Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially t ...
and
Rohilla Rohillas are a community of Pashtun ancestry, historically found in Rohilkhand, a region in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of co ...
cavalry were also present and fought during the battle in various skirmishes. But by midday, the battle was over and Shuja-ud-Daula blew up large tumbrils and three massive magazines of gunpowder. Munro divided his army into various columns and particularly pursued the Mughal Grand Vizier Shuja-ud-Daula the
Nawab of Awadh The Nawab of Awadh or the Nawab of Oudh was the title of the rulers who governed the state of Awadh (anglicised as Oudh) in north India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the Lis ...
, who responded by blowing up his boat-bridge after crossing the river, thus abandoning the
Mughal Emperor The Mughal emperors (or Moghul) built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals began to rule parts of India from 1526, and ...
Shah Alam II Shah Alam II, born as Ali Gohar or Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806) , was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. Shah Alam faced many invasions, ma ...
and members of his own regiment.
Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
also fled with his 3 million rupees worth of Gemstones and later died in poverty in 1777. Mirza Najaf Khan reorganised formations around
Shah Alam II Shah Alam II, born as Ali Gohar or Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806) , was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. Shah Alam faced many invasions, ma ...
, who retreated and then chose to negotiate with the victorious British. Historian John William Fortescue claimed that the British casualties totalled 847: 39 killed and 64 wounded from the European regiments and 250 killed, 435 wounded and 85 missing from the East India Company's sepoys. He also claimed that the three Indian allies suffered 2,000 dead and that many more were wounded. Another source says that there were 69 European and 664 sepoy casualties on the British side and 6,000 casualties on the Mughal side. The victors captured 133 pieces of artillery and over 1 million rupees of cash. Immediately after the battle, Munro decided to assist the Marathas, who were described as a "warlike race", well known for their relentless and unwavering hatred towards the Mughal Empire and its Nawabs and Sultanate of Mysore, Mysore.


Aftermath

The British victory at Buxar had "at one fell swoop", disposed of the three main scions of Mughal power in Upper India. Mir Kasim [Qasim] disappeared into impoverished obscurity. Shah Alam realigned himself with the British, and Shah Shuja [Shuja-ud-Daula] fled west hotly pursued by the victors. The whole Ganges valley lay at the company's mercy; Shah Shuja eventually surrendered; henceforth company troops became the power-brokers throughout Oudh as well as Bihar".


Gallery

File:Shah Alam II, Mughal emperor of india, reviewing the East India Companys troops.jpg, The
Mughal Emperor The Mughal emperors (or Moghul) built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals began to rule parts of India from 1526, and ...
Shah Alam II Shah Alam II, born as Ali Gohar or Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806) , was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. Shah Alam faced many invasions, ma ...
, as a prisoner of the British East India Company, 1781 File:The Navab's arrival before Clive's position.jpg, The Nawab of Bengal, File:अवध के नवाब शुजाउद्दौला.jpg, Shuja-ud-Daula served as the leading Nawab Vizier of the Mughal Empire, he was lifelong of
Shah Alam II Shah Alam II, born as Ali Gohar or Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806) , was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. Shah Alam faced many invasions, ma ...
. File:Mughal amir horseback large c hi.jpg,
Mirza Najaf Khan Mirza Najaf Khan (1723 – 26 April 1782) was a Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has t ...
Baloch, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army. File:IGI1908India1765a.jpg, Political map of the Indian Subcontinent in the year 1765.


See also

* Battle of Plassey


References


External links


A detailed description of the Battle of Buxar
{{DEFAULTSORT:Buxar British East India Company Battles involving the Mughal Empire Battles involving the Indian kingdoms Battles involving Bengal Battles involving the British East India Company 1764 in India Conflicts in 1764 History of Bihar 1764 in the Mughal Empire