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The BATTLE OF BADR (Arabic : غزوة بدر‎‎), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan , 2 AH in the Islamic calendar ) in the Hejaz
Hejaz
region of western Arabia
Arabia
(present-day Saudi Arabia
Arabia
), was a key battle in the early days of Islam
Islam
and a turning point in Muhammad
Muhammad
's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca
Mecca
. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention , or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran
Quran
. All knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad
Muhammad
, recorded in written form some time after the battle. There is little evidence outside of these of the battle. There are no descriptions of the battle prior to the 9th Century.

Prior to the battle, the Muslims and the Meccans had fought several smaller skirmishes in late 623 and early 624. Badr, however, was the first large-scale engagement between the two forces. Advancing to a strong defensive position , Muhammad's well-disciplined force broke the Meccan lines, killing several important Quraishi leaders including the Muslims' chief antagonist Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
. For the early Muslims the battle was the first sign that they might eventually defeat their enemies among the Meccans. Mecca
Mecca
at that time was one of the richest and most powerful cities in Arabia, fielding an army three times larger than that of the Muslims. The Muslim
Muslim
victory also signaled to the other tribes that a new power had arisen in Arabia
Arabia
and strengthened Muhammad's position as leader of the often fractious community in Medina.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Muslim
Muslim
participants of Badr

* 3 Battle

* 3.1 March to Badr * 3.2 Muslim
Muslim
plan * 3.3 Meccan plan * 3.4 Day of battle

* 4 Aftermath

* 4.1 Prisoners * 4.2 Executions * 4.3 Muslims killed in the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
* 4.4 Implications

* 5 Islamic primary sources

* 5.1 Badr in the Quran
Quran
* 5.2 Hadith
Hadith
literature * 5.3 Biographical literature

* 6 In modern culture * 7 See also * 8 Footnotes

* 9 References

* 9.1 Books and articles * 9.2 Online references

* 10 External links

BACKGROUND

Muhammad
Muhammad
was born in Mecca
Mecca
around 570 CE into the Quraish tribe . After Mohammed's revelation from Gabriel in 610 until his proclamation of monotheism to the Quraysh Islam
Islam
was practiced primarily in secret. The Quarysh, who traditionally accepted religious practices other than their own, became increasingly more intolerant of the Muslims during the thirteen years of personal attacks against their (the Meccans) religions and gods. In fear for their religion and economic viability, which heavily relied on annual pilgrimages, the Meccans began to mock and disrupt Mohammed\'s followers . In 622, Muhammad bade many of his followers to migrate from Mecca
Mecca
to the neighboring city of Medina
Medina
, 320 km (200 mi) north of Mecca. Shortly thereafter, Muhammad
Muhammad
himself left for Medina. This migration is referred to as the _Hijra _.

The Quranic Verse 22:39 uttered by Muhammad
Muhammad
sometime shortly after the migration permitted Muslims, for the first time, to take up arms in defence. During this period Muhammad
Muhammad
employed three broad military strategies against the Meccans. Firstly, to establish peace treaties with the tribes surrounding Medina, especially with those from whom the Meccans could derive most advantage against the Muslims. Secondly, to dispatch small groups to obtain intelligence on the Quraish and their allies and also provide, thereby, an opportunity for those Muslims still living in Mecca
Mecca
to leave with them. Thirdly, to intercept the trade caravans of the Meccans that passed close to Medina
Medina
and to obstruct their trade route. In September 623, Muhammad himself led a force of 200 in an unsuccessful raid against a large caravan. Shortly thereafter, the Meccans launched their own raid against Medina
Medina
led by Kurz bin Jabir and fled with livestock belonging to the Muslims. In January 624, Muhammad
Muhammad
dispatched a group of eight men to Nakhlah, on the outskirts of Mecca, led by Abdullah bin Jahsh to obtain intelligence on the Quraysh. However, Abdullah bin Jash and his party disguised as Pilgrims with shaved heads, upon being discovered by a Meccan caravan, decided to attack and kill as many of the caravan as possible, resulting in killing one of its men, Amr bin Al-Hadrami, the seizing of its goods and taking two as prisoners. The situation was all the more serious since the killing occurred in the month of Rajab
Rajab
, a truce month sacred to the Meccans in which fighting was prohibited and a clear affront to Arab traditions. Upon their return to Medina, Muhammad
Muhammad
initially disapproved of this decision on their part, rebuked them and refused to take any spoil until he claimed to have received revelation (Quran, 2:217) stating that the Meccan persecution was worse than this violation of the sacred month. After his revelation Muhammed took the goods and the prisoners. The Muslims' raids on caravans prompted the Battle of Badr, the first major battle involving a Muslim
Muslim
army. This was the spot where the Meccans had sent their own army to protect their caravans from Muslim raiders.

MUSLIM PARTICIPANTS OF BADR

Main article: List of participants at the Battle of Badr

BATTLE

A map of the Badr campaign

MARCH TO BADR

Muhammad's forces included Abu Bakr , Umar
Umar
, Ali
Ali
, Hamza , Mus`ab ibn `Umair , Az-Zubair bin Al-\'Awwam , Ammar ibn Yasir , and Abu Dharr al-Ghifari . The Muslims also brought seventy camels and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel. The future Caliph Uthman
Uthman
stayed behind to care for his sick wife Ruqayyah , the daughter of Muhammad. Salman the Persian also could not join the battle, as he was still not a free man.

Many of the Quraishi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishām , Walid ibn Utba , Shaiba, and Umayah ibn Khalaf , joined the Meccan army. Their reasons varied: some were out to protect their financial interests in the caravan; others wanted to avenge Ibn al-Hadrami, the guard killed at Nakhlah; finally, a few must have wanted to take part in what was expected to be an easy victory against the Muslims. Amr ibn Hishām is described as shaming at least one noble, Umayah ibn Khalaf, into joining the expedition.

By this time Muhammad's companions were approaching the wells where he planned to either waylay the caravan, or to fight the Meccan army at Badr, along the Syrian trade route where the caravan would be expected to stop or the Meccan army to come for its protection. However, several Muslim
Muslim
scouts were discovered by scouts from the caravan and Abu Sufyan made a hasty turn towards Yanbu .

MUSLIM PLAN

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“ Behold! Allah
Allah
Promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but Allah
Allah
Willed to justify the Truth according to His Words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers; ”

— Quran: Al-Anfal 8:7

“ Behold! Allah
Allah
Promised Me that He would definitely help me. I'm taking an oath by Allah's Excellent Name, Here will be the grave of Abu Jahl, and here will lay Utba ibn Rabiah (Prophet mentioned 14 different unbeliever leaders' names and signed they graves before the battle). ”

Muhammad
Muhammad
– Sahih Muslim

When the word reached the Muslim
Muslim
army about the departure of the Meccan army, Muhammad
Muhammad
immediately called a council of war , since there was still time to retreat and because many of the fighters there were recent converts (called _Ansar _ or "Helpers" to distinguish them from the Quraishi Muslims), who had only pledged to defend Medina. Under the terms of the Constitution of Medina
Medina
, they would have been within their rights to refuse to fight and leave the army. However, according to tradition, they pledged to fight as well, with Sa\'d ibn Ubadah declaring, "If you order us to plunge our horses into the sea, we would do so." So, the Muslims continued to march towards Badr.

By 11 March both armies were about a day's march from Badr. Several Muslim
Muslim
warriors (including, according to some sources, Ali
Ali
) who had ridden ahead of the main column captured two Meccan water carriers at the Badr wells. Expecting them to say they were with the caravan, the Muslims were horrified to hear them say they were with the main Quraishi army. Template:Wrong number in source Some traditions also say that, upon hearing the names of all the Quraishi nobles accompanying the army, Muhammad
Muhammad
exclaimed " Mecca
Mecca
hath thrown unto you the best morsels of her liver." The next day Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered a forced march to Badr and arrived before the Meccans.

The Badr wells were located on the gentle slope of the eastern side of a valley called "Yalyal". The western side of the valley was hemmed in by a large hill called 'Aqanqal. When the Muslim
Muslim
army arrived from the east, Muhammad
Muhammad
initially chose to form his army at the first well he encountered. Hubab ibn al-Mundhir, however, asked him if this choice was divine instruction or Muhammad's own opinion. When Muhammad responded in the latter, Hubab suggested that the Muslims occupy the well closest to the Quraishi army, and block off the other ones. Muhammad
Muhammad
accepted this decision and moved right away.

MECCAN PLAN

Arabs
Arabs
will hear how we marched forth and of our mighty gathering, and they will stand in awe of us forever. ”

Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl

By contrast, while little is known about the progress of the Quraishi army from the time it left Mecca
Mecca
until its arrival just outside Badr, several things are worth noting: although many Arab armies brought their women and children along on campaigns both to motivate and care for the men, the Meccan army did not. Also, the Quraish apparently made little or no effort to contact the many allies they had scattered throughout the Hijaz. Both facts suggest the Quraish lacked the time to prepare for a proper campaign in their haste to protect the caravan. Besides it is believed since they knew they had outnumbered the Muslims by three to one, they expected an easy victory.

When the Quraishi reached Juhfah , just south of Badr, they received a message from Abu Sufyan telling them the caravan was safely behind them, and that they could therefore return to Mecca. At this point, according to Karen Armstrong , a power struggle broke out in the Meccan army. Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
wanted to continue, but several of the clans present, including Banu Zuhrah and Banu Adi , promptly went home. Armstrong suggests they may have been concerned about the power that Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
would gain from crushing the Muslims. The Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
tribe wanted to leave, but was threatened by Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
to stay. Despite these losses, Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
was still determined to fight, boasting "We will not go back until we have been to Badr." During this period, Abu Sufyan and several other men from the caravan joined the main army.

DAY OF BATTLE

Further information: List of participants at the Battle of Badr

At midnight on 13 March, the Quraish broke camp and marched into the valley of Badr. It had rained the previous day and they struggled to move their horses and camels up the hill of 'Aqanqal. After they descended from 'Aqanqal, the Meccans set up another camp inside the valley. While they rested, they sent out a scout, Umayr ibn Wahb to reconnoitre the Muslim
Muslim
lines. Umayr reported that Muhammad's army was small, and that there were no other Muslim
Muslim
reinforcements which might join the battle. However, he also predicted extremely heavy Quraishi casualties in the event of an attack (One hadith refers to him seeing "the camels of laden with certain death"). This further demoralized the Quraish, as Arab battles were traditionally low-casualty affairs, and set off another round of bickering among the Quraishi leadership. However, according to Arab traditions Amr ibn Hishām quashed the remaining dissent by appealing to the Quraishi's sense of honor and demanding that they fulfill their blood vengeance. The death of Abu Jahl, and the casting of the Meccan dead into dry wells

The battle began with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. Three of the Ansar emerged from the Muslim
Muslim
ranks, only to be shouted back by the Meccans, who were nervous about starting any unnecessary feuds and only wanted to fight the Quraishi Muslims. So Hamza approached forward and called on Ubayda and Ali
Ali
to join him. The Muslims dispatched the Meccan champions in a three-on-three melee. Hamza killed his opponent Utba ibn Rabi\'ah ; Ali
Ali
killed his opponent Walid ibn Utba ; Ubayda was wounded by his opponent Shaybah ibn Rabi\'ah , but eventually killed him. So this was a victorious traditional 3 on 3 combat for the Muslims.

Now both armies began showering each other with arrows. A few Muslims and an unknown number of Quraish warriors were killed. Before the battle, Muhammad
Muhammad
had given orders for the Muslims to attack first with their ranged weapons and only afterword advance to engage the Quraish with melee weapons. Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces!" The Muslim army yelled _"Yā manṣūr amit!"_ "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!" and rushed the Quraishi lines. The Meccans, understrength and unenthusiastic about fighting, promptly broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon. The Quran
Quran
describes the force of the Muslim
Muslim
attack in many verses, which refer to thousands of angels descending from Heaven at Badr to terrify the Quraish. Muslim
Muslim
sources take this account literally, and there are several hadith where Muhammad discusses the Angel Jibreel and the role he played in the battle.

AFTERMATH

PRISONERS

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After the battle Muhammad
Muhammad
returned to Medina. Some seventy prisoners were taken captive and are noted to have been treated humanely including a number of Quraish leaders. Most of the prisoners were released upon payment of ransom and those who were literate were released on the condition that they teach ten persons how to read and write and this teaching was to count as their ransom.

William Muir wrote of this period:

In pursuance of Mahomet's commands, the citizens of Medîna, and such of the Refugees as possessed houses, received the prisoners, and treated them with much consideration. "Blessings be on the men of Medina!" said one of these prisoners in later days; "they made us ride, while they themselves walked: they gave us wheaten bread to eat when there was little of it, contenting themselves with dates. It is not surprising that when, some time afterwards, their friends came to ransom them, several of the prisoners who had been thus received declared themselves adherents of Islam...Their kindly treatment was thus prolonged, and left a favourable impression on the minds even of those who did not at once go over to Islam" —  William Muir , _The Life of Mahomet_

EXECUTIONS

A painting from Siyer-i Nebi , Ali
Ali
beheading Nadr ibn al-Harith in the presence of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions .

Two of the prisoners taken at Badr, namely Nadr ibn al-Harith
Nadr ibn al-Harith
and ‘Uqbah ibn Abū Mu‘ayṭ are reported to have been executed upon the order of Muhammad. According to Muslim
Muslim
scholar Safiur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri , these two captives were executed by Ali
Ali
. Mubarakpuri says that this incident is also mentioned in the Sunan Abu Dawud no 2686 and Anwal Ma'bud 3/12 However according to numerous accounts deemed reliable , such as a number of narrations in Sahih Bukhari , and Ibn Sa\'d 's biographical compendium, the _Tabaqat Al-Kubra_, Uqba was not executed but was killed during fighting in the field of battle at Badr and was among those Quraysh leaders whose corpses were buried in a pit.

MUSLIMS KILLED IN THE BATTLE OF BADR

Fourteen Muslims were killed in that battle.

* Haritha bin Suraqa al-Khazraji * Dhush-shimaalayn ibn 'Abdi 'Amr al-Muhajiri * Rafi' bin al-Mu'alla al-Khazraji * Sa'd bin Khaythama al-Awsi * Safwan bin Wahb al-Muhajiri * Aaqil bin al-Bukayr al-Muhajiri * Ubayda bin al-Harith al-Muhajiri * Umayr bin al-Humam al-Khazraji * Umayr bin Abi Waqqas al-Muhajiri * Awf bin al-Harith al-Khazraji * Mubashshir bin 'Abdi'l Mundhir al-Awsi * Mu'awwidh bin al-Harith al-Khazraji * Mihja' bin Salih al-Muhajiri * Yazid bin al-Harith bin Fus.hum al-Khazraji

IMPLICATIONS

The Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
was extremely influential in the rise of two men who would determine the course of history on the Arabian peninsula for the next century. The first was Muhammad, who was transformed overnight from a Meccan outcast into a major leader. Marshall Hodgson adds that Badr forced the other Arabs
Arabs
to "regard the Muslims as challengers and potential inheritors to the prestige and the political role of the ." Shortly thereafter he expelled the Banu Qaynuqa , one of the Jewish tribes at Medina
Medina
that had been threatening his political position, and who had assaulted a Muslim
Muslim
woman which led to their expulsion for breaking the peace treaty. At the same time Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy , Muhammad's chief opponent in Medina, found his own position seriously weakened. Henceforth, he would only be able to mount limited challenges to Muhammad.

The other major beneficiary of the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
was Abu Sufyan. The death of Amr ibn Hashim, as well as many other Quraishi nobles gave Abu Sufyan the opportunity, almost by default, to become chief of the Quraish . As a result, when Muhammad
Muhammad
marched into Mecca
Mecca
six years later, it was Abu Sufyan who helped negotiate its peaceful surrender. Abu Sufyan subsequently became a high-ranking official in the Muslim Empire, and his son Muawiya would later go on to found the Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
.

In later days, the battle of Badr became so significant that Ibn Ishaq included a complete name-by-name roster of the Muslim
Muslim
army in his biography of Muhammad. In many hadiths, veterans who fought at Badr are identified as such as a formality, and they may have even received a stipend in later years. The death of the last of the Badr veterans occurred during the First Islamic civil war .

As Paul K. Davis sums up, "Mohammed's victory confirmed his authority as leader of Islam; by impressing local tribes that joined him, the expansion of Islam
Islam
began."

ISLAMIC PRIMARY SOURCES

_ The angelic host is sent to assist the Muslims

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BADR IN THE QURAN

The Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
is one of the few battles explicitly discussed in the Quran
Quran
. It is even mentioned by name as part of a comparison with the Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
.

Quran: Al Imran 3:123–125 (Yusuf Ali
Ali
). " Allah
Allah
had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah
Allah
should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down? "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught."

According to Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Ali
, the term "gratitude" may be a reference to discipline. At Badr, the Muslim
Muslim
forces had allegedly maintained firm discipline, whereas at Uhud they broke ranks to pursue the Meccans, allowing Meccan cavalry to flank and rout their army. The idea of Badr as a furqan, an Islamic miracle, is mentioned again in the same surah.

Quran: Al Imran 3:13 (Yusuf Ali
Ali
). "There has already been for you a Sign in the two armies that met (in combat): One was fighting in the cause of Allah, the other resisting Allah; these saw with their own eyes Twice their number. But Allah
Allah
doth support with His aid whom He pleaseth. In this is a warning for such as have eyes to see."

Badr is also the subject of Sura 8: Al-Anfal , which details military conduct and operations. "Al-Anfal" means "the spoils" and is a reference to the post-battle discussion in the Muslim
Muslim
army over how to divide up the plunder from the Quraishi army. Though the Sura does not name Badr, it describes the battle, and several of the verses are commonly thought to have been from or shortly after the battle.

HADITH LITERATURE

This battle is also mentioned in the Sunni Hadith
Hadith
collection Sahih al-Bukhari and Sunan Abu Dawud . Sahih al-Bukhari mentions that Uthman did not join the battle:

“ Narrated Ibn 'Umar: ' Uthman
Uthman
did not join the Badr battle because he was married to one of the daughters of Allah's Apostle and she was ill. So, the Prophet said to him. "You will get a reward and a share (from the war booty) similar to the reward and the share of one who has taken part in the Badr battle."

Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:53:359 ”

It also mentions the war booty that each fighter who participated in the battle received in Sahih al-Bukhari , 5:59:357. Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:53:369 also mentions how Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
was killed:

“ Narrated 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf: While I was standing in the row on the day (of the battle) of Badr, I looked to my right and my left and saw two young Ansari boys, and I wished I had been stronger than they. One of them called my attention saying, "O Uncle! Do you know Abu Jahl?" I said, "Yes, what do you want from him, O my nephew?" He said, "I have been informed that he abuses Allah's Apostle. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, if I should see him, then my body will not leave his body till either of us meet his fate." I was astonished at that talk. Then the other boy called my attention saying the same as the other had said. After a while I saw Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
walking amongst the people. I said (to the boys), "Look! This is the man you asked me about." So, both of them attacked him with their swords and struck him to death and returned to Allah's Apostle to inform him of that. Allah's Apostle asked, "Which of you has killed him?" Each of them said, "I Have killed him." Allah's Apostle asked, "Have you cleaned your swords?" They said, "No. " He then looked at their swords and said, "No doubt, you both have killed him and the spoils of the deceased will be given to Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh." The two boys were Muadh bin 'Afra and Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh.

Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:53:369 ”

It is also mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection Sunan Abu Dawood , 14:2716

BIOGRAPHICAL LITERATURE

The incident is also mentioned in Ibn Ishaq 's biography of Muhammad.

IN MODERN CULTURE

"Badr" has become popular among Muslim
Muslim
armies and paramilitary organizations. "Operation Badr " was used to describe Egypt
Egypt
's offensive in the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
as well as Pakistan
Pakistan
's actions in the 1999 Kargil War . Iranian offensive operations against Iraq in the late 1980s were also named after Badr. During the 2011 Libyan civil war , the rebel leadership stated that they selected the date of the assault on Tripoli to be the 20th of Ramadan, marking the anniversary of the Battle of Badr.

The Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
was featured in the 1976 film _The Message _, the 2004 animated movie _Muhammad: The Last Prophet _, and the 2012 TV series _Omar _.

SEE ALSO

* Book: Military career of Muhammad
Muhammad

* Islamic military jurisprudence * Military career of Muhammad
Muhammad
* Pre-Islamic Arabia
Arabia
* List of expeditions of Muhammad
Muhammad

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Quraish refers to the tribe in control of Mecca. The plural and adjective are Quraishi. The terms "Quraishi" and "Meccan" are used interchangeably between the Hijra in 622 and the Muslim
Muslim
Conquest of Mecca
Mecca
in 630. * ^ The development of exegesis in early Islam: the authenticity of Muslim
Muslim
... By Herbert Berg. * ^ The Sealed Nectar, p. 274 * ^ Noor Muhammad, Farkhanda. "Islamiat". Fifth Revised Edition, 2008, p. 61 * ^ Dr. Iftikhar ul Haq and Maulvi Jahangir."O' Level Islamiyat ", Bookland Publishers, 2008, p. 74 * ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 167 * ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham (326–328) * ^ Ibn Ishaq 299–301 * ^ Nigosian, S. A. (2004). _Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices_. Indiana
Indiana
: Indiana
Indiana
University Press . p. 10. ISBN 0-253-21627-3 . Retrieved 2016-03-16. * ^ Quran
Quran
22:39 * ^ The Life of Muḥammad: A Translation of ibn Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasul Allāh with introduction & notes by Alfred Guillaume, Oxford University Press, 1955, pp. 281–86 * ^ Mirza Bashir Ahmad. "The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets", Volume II Islam
Islam
International Publications, 2013, pp. 89–92 * ^ Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar) at the Wayback Machine * ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 425 * ^ Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī, _Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk_ , volume 3, p. 14, Lebanon, _Bihī Dārul-Fikr_, 2nd ed., (2002) * ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 424–425 * ^ Quran
Quran
2:217 * ^ The Life of Muḥammad: A Translation of ibn Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasul Allāh with introduction & notes by Alfred Guillaume, Oxford University Press, 1955, pp. 287–88 * ^ Hodgson, pp. 174–75. * ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 424–426 * ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 428 * ^ Ibn Kathir v. II p. 253 * ^ Lings, pp. 138–39 * ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book
Book
53, Number 359". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010. * ^ "Witness-pioneer.org". Witness-pioneer.org. 16 September 2002. Archived from the original on 5 February 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010. * ^ Martin Lings, pp. 139–40. * ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book
Book
59, Number 286". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010. * ^ Ibn Ishaq says that Abu Sufyan himself rode ahead to reconnoiter the area and discovered the Muslim
Muslim
scouts via the dates left in their camels' droppings * ^ Martin Lings, p. 140 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Sahih Muslim: Book
Book
19, Number 4394". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010. * ^ Martin Lings, p. 142 * ^ Lings, p. 154. * ^ Lings, p. 142. * ^ Armstrong, p. 174 * ^ Lings, pp. 142–43. * ^ Lings, pp. 143–44. * ^ Armstrong, pp. 174–75. * ^ Lings, pp. 144–146. * ^ _A_ _B_ Armstrong, p. 176. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lings, p. 148. * ^ "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!" * ^ Quran: Al-i-Imran 3:123–125 (Yusuf Ali
Ali
). " Allah
Allah
had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah
Allah
should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down? "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught." * ^ "Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book
Book
52, Number 252". Retrieved 20 September 2015. Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: When it was the day (of the battle) of Badr, prisoners of war were brought including Al-Abbas who was undressed. The Prophet looked for a shirt for him. It was found that the shirt of 'Abdullah bin Ubai would do, so the Prophet let him wear it. That was the reason why the Prophet took off and gave his own shirt to 'Abdullah. (The narrator adds, "He had done the Prophet some favor for which the Prophet liked to reward him.") * ^ _A_ _B_ Muir, William (1861). _The Life of Mahomet_ (Volume 3 ed.). London: Smith, Elder and Co. p. 122. Retrieved 26 February 2015.

* ^ William Muir (1861). "The Life of Mahomet: With Introductory Chapters on the Original Sources for the Biography of Mahomet, and on the Pre-Islamite History of Arabia". London: Smith, Elder and Co. p. ix. Retrieved 19 January 2016. * ^ The Life of Muhammad
Muhammad
The Prophet * ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 129 * ^ Sahih Bukhari : Volume 1, Book
Book
4, Number 241 * ^ Sahih Bukhari : Volume 1, Book
Book
9, Number 499 * ^ Al Tabaqat-al-Kubra, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Sa'd, Volume 2, p. 260, ghazwatul Badr, Darul Ihya'it-Turathil-'Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition, (1996) * ^ Hodgson, pp. 176–78. * ^ Including the elderly Abu Lahab , who was not at Badr but died within days of the army's return. * ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book
Book
59, Number 357". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010. * ^ Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book
Book
59, Number 358 Archived 16 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine .. * ^ Paul K. Davis, _100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World's Major Battles and How They Shaped History_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 95–96. * ^ Ibn Hisham ; Ibn Ishaq (1998). _The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq\'s Sīrat rasūl Allāh_. Translated by Alfred Guillaume . Oxford University Press. p. 304. Retrieved 2016-03-16. * ^ Wright, Robin (1989). _In the name of God: The Khomeini decade_. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 133. ISBN 9780671672355 . * ^ Laub, Karin (21 August 2011). "Libyan Rebels Say They Are Closing In on Tripoli". Associated Press (via _The Atlanta Journal-Constitution _). Retrieved 21 August 2011.

REFERENCES

BOOKS AND ARTICLES

* Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1987). _The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation Reissue edition. ISBN 0-940368-32-3 . * Armstrong, Karen (1992). _Muhmmad: Biography of the Prophet _. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-250886-5 . * Crone, Patricia (1987). _Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam_. Blackwell. * Hodgson, Marshall (1974). _The Venture of Islam: The Classical Age of Islam_. University of Chicago Press . ISBN 0-226-34683-8 . * Lings, Martin (1983). _Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources_. Inner Traditions International. ISBN 0-89281-170-6 . * Mubarakpuri, Safi-ul-Raḥmān (2002). _Ar-Raheeq Al Makhtum: The Sealed Nectar_. Darussalam. ISBN 9960-899-55-1 . Retrieved 2016-03-16.

* Nicolle, David (1993). _Armies of the Muslim
Muslim
Conquest_. Osprey Publishing . ISBN 1-85532-279-X . * Ramadan, Tariq (2007). _In the Footsteps of the Prophet_. United States of America: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 0-19-530880-8 . * Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). _ Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina
Medina
_. Oxford University Press.

ONLINE REFERENCES

* "Translation of Malik\'s Muwatta.". _USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts_. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * "Translation of Sahih Muslim.". _USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts_. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * "Translation of Sahih al-Bukhari.". _USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts_. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * "Partial Translation of Sunan Abu-Dawud.". _USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim
Muslim
Texts_. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010. Check date values in: access-date= (help )

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