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The Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
(Arabic: غزوة بدر‎), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia
Arabia
(present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam
Islam
and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish[1] in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. All knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad, recorded in written form some time after the battle. There is little evidence outside of these of the battle. There are no descriptions of the battle prior to the 9th century.[2] Prior to the battle, the Muslims and the Meccans had fought several smaller skirmishes in late 623 and early 624. Badr, however, was the first large-scale engagement between the two forces. Advancing to a strong defensive position, Muhammad's well-disciplined force broke the Meccan lines, killing several important Quraishi leaders including the Muslims' chief antagonist Abu Jahl.[3] For the early Muslims the battle was the first sign that they might eventually defeat their enemies among the Meccans. Mecca
Mecca
at that time was one of the richest and most powerful cities in Arabia, fielding an army three times larger than that of the Muslims.[4] The Muslim
Muslim
victory also signaled to the other tribes that a new power had arisen in Arabia
Arabia
and strengthened Muhammad's position as leader of the often fractious community in Medina.[5] The battle also established the position of Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
as the best fighter among the Muslims, as he alone killed 22 Meccans, while the rest of the Muslims combined killed 27 Meccans.[6]

Contents

1 Background 2 Muslim
Muslim
participants of Badr 3 Battle

3.1 March to Badr 3.2 Muslim
Muslim
plan 3.3 Meccan plan 3.4 Day of battle

4 Aftermath

4.1 Prisoners 4.2 Executions 4.3 Muslims killed in the Battle of Badr 4.4 Implications

5 Islamic primary sources

5.1 Badr in the Quran 5.2 Hadith
Hadith
literature 5.3 Biographical literature

6 In modern culture 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 References

9.1 Books and articles 9.2 Online references

10 External links

Background Muhammad
Muhammad
was born in Mecca
Mecca
around 570 CE into the Quraish tribe. After Muhammad's revelation from Gabriel in 610 until his proclamation of monotheism to the Quraysh, Islam
Islam
was practiced primarily in secret. The Quraiysh, who traditionally accepted religious practices other than their own, became increasingly more intolerant of the Muslims during the thirteen years of personal attacks against their (the Meccans) religions and gods.[7] In fear for their religion and economic viability, which heavily relied on annual pilgrimages, the Meccans began to mock and disrupt Muhammad's followers. In 622, Muhammad
Muhammad
bade many of his followers to migrate from Mecca
Mecca
to the neighboring city of Medina, 320 km (200 mi) north of Mecca. Shortly thereafter, Muhammad
Muhammad
himself left for Medina.[8][9] This migration is referred to as the Hijra.[10] The Quranic Verse 22:39[11] uttered by Muhammad
Muhammad
sometime shortly after the migration permitted Muslims, for the first time, to take up arms in defence. During this period Muhammad
Muhammad
employed three broad military strategies against the Meccans. Firstly, to establish peace treaties with the tribes surrounding Medina, especially with those from whom the Meccans could derive most advantage against the Muslims. Secondly, to dispatch small groups to obtain intelligence on the Quraish and their allies and also provide, thereby, an opportunity for those Muslims still living in Mecca
Mecca
to leave with them. Thirdly, to intercept the trade caravans of the Meccans that passed close to Medina
Medina
and to obstruct their trade route.[12][13] In September 623, Muhammad
Muhammad
himself led a force of 200 in an unsuccessful raid against a large caravan.[citation needed] Shortly thereafter, the Meccans launched their own raid against Medina
Medina
led by Kurz bin Jabir and fled with livestock belonging to the Muslims.[14] In January 624, Muhammad dispatched a group of eight men to Nakhlah, on the outskirts of Mecca, led by Abdullah bin Jahsh to obtain intelligence on the Quraysh.[15][16] However, Abdullah bin Jash and his party disguised as Pilgrims with shaved heads, upon being discovered by a Meccan caravan, decided to attack and kill as many of the caravan as possible, resulting in killing one of its men, Amr bin Al-Hadrami, the seizing of its goods and taking two as prisoners.[17] The situation was all the more serious since the killing occurred in the month of Rajab, a truce month sacred to the Meccans in which fighting was prohibited and a clear affront to Arab
Arab
traditions. Upon their return to Medina, Muhammad
Muhammad
initially disapproved of this decision on their part, rebuked them and refused to take any spoil until he claimed to have received revelation (Quran, 2:217) stating that the Meccan persecution was worse than this violation of the sacred month. After his revelation Muhammed took the goods and the prisoners.[18][19][20][21] The Muslims' raids on caravans prompted the Battle of Badr, the first major battle involving a Muslim
Muslim
army. This was the spot where the Meccans had sent their own army to protect their caravans from Muslim raiders.[22][23] Muslim
Muslim
participants of Badr Main article: List of participants at the Battle of Badr Battle

A map of the Badr campaign

March to Badr In April 624, it was reported in Medina
Medina
that Abu Sufyan was leading a caravan from Syria to Mecca
Mecca
containing weapons to be used against the Muslims. Muhammad
Muhammad
gathered 313 men and went to Badr to intercept the caravan. However, Meccan spies informed Abu Sufyan about the Muslims coming to intercept his caravan; Abu Sufyan changed his course to take another path to Mecca
Mecca
and sent a message to Mecca. Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
replied to Abu Sufyan's request and gathered an army to fight against the Muslims.[24] Muhammad's forces included Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Hamza, Mus`ab ibn `Umair, Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awwam, Ammar ibn Yasir, and Abu Dharr al-Ghifari. The Muslims also brought seventy camels and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel.[25]The future Caliph Uthman
Uthman
stayed behind to care for his sick wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of Muhammad.[26] Salman the Persian
Salman the Persian
also could not join the battle, as he was still not a free man.[27] Many of the Quraishi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishām, Walid ibn Utba, Shaiba, and Umayah ibn Khalaf, joined the Meccan army. Their reasons varied: some were out to protect their financial interests in the caravan; others wanted to avenge Ibn al-Hadrami, the guard killed at Nakhlah; finally, a few must have wanted to take part in what was expected to be an easy victory against the Muslims.[28] Amr ibn Hishām is described as shaming at least one noble, Umayah ibn Khalaf, into joining the expedition.[29] Muslim
Muslim
plan

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“ Behold! Allah
Allah
Promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but Allah
Allah
Willed to justify the Truth according to His Words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers; ”

— Quran: Al-Anfal 8:7

“ Behold! Allah
Allah
Promised Me that He would definitely help me. I'm taking an oath by Allah's Excellent Name, Here will be the grave of Abu Jahl, and here will lay Utba ibn Rabiah (Prophet mentioned 14 different unbeliever leaders' names and signed they graves before the battle). ”

—  Muhammad
Muhammad
– Sahih Muslim

When the word reached the Muslim
Muslim
army about the departure of the Meccan army, Muhammad
Muhammad
immediately called a council of war, since there was still time to retreat and because many of the fighters there were recent converts (called Ansar or "Helpers" to distinguish them from the Quraishi Muslims), who had only pledged to defend Medina. Under the terms of the Constitution of Medina, they would have been within their rights to refuse to fight and leave the army. However, according to tradition, they pledged to fight as well, with Sa'd ibn Ubadah declaring, "If you [Muhammad] order us to plunge our horses into the sea, we would do so."[30] So, the Muslims continued to march towards Badr. By 11 March both armies were about a day's march from Badr. Several Muslim
Muslim
warriors (including, according to some sources, Ali) who had ridden ahead of the main column captured two Meccan water carriers at the Badr wells. Expecting them to say they were with the caravan, the Muslims were horrified to hear them say they were with the main Quraishi army.[30] Some traditions also say that, upon hearing the names of all the Quraishi nobles accompanying the army, Muhammad exclaimed " Mecca
Mecca
hath thrown unto you the best morsels of her liver."[31] The next day Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered a forced march to Badr and arrived before the Meccans.[citation needed] The Badr wells were located on the gentle slope of the eastern side of a valley called "Yalyal". The western side of the valley was hemmed in by a large hill called 'Aqanqal. When the Muslim
Muslim
army arrived from the east, Muhammad
Muhammad
initially chose to form his army at the first well he encountered. Hubab ibn al-Mundhir, however, asked him if this choice was divine instruction or Muhammad's own opinion. When Muhammad responded in the latter, Hubab suggested that the Muslims occupy the well closest to the Quraishi army, and block off the other ones. Muhammad
Muhammad
accepted this decision and moved right away.[citation needed] Meccan plan

“ [The] Arabs will hear how we marched forth and of our mighty gathering, and they will stand in awe of us forever. ”

— Abu Jahl

By contrast, while little is known about the progress of the Quraishi army from the time it left Mecca
Mecca
until its arrival just outside Badr, several things are worth noting: although many Arab
Arab
armies brought their women and children along on campaigns both to motivate and care for the men, the Meccan army did not. Also, the Quraish apparently made little or no effort to contact the many allies they had scattered throughout the Hijaz.[32] Both facts suggest the Quraish lacked the time to prepare for a proper campaign in their haste to protect the caravan. Besides, it is believed they expected an easy victory, knowing they outnumbered the Muslims by three to one.[citation needed] When the Quraishi reached Juhfah, just south of Badr, they received a message from Abu Sufyan telling them the caravan was safely behind them, and that they could therefore return to Mecca.[33] At this point, according to Karen Armstrong, a power struggle broke out in the Meccan army. Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
wanted to continue, but several of the clans present, including Banu Zuhrah and Banu Adi, promptly went home. Armstrong suggests they may have been concerned about the power that Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
would gain from crushing the Muslims. The Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
tribe wanted to leave, but was threatened by Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
to stay.[34] Despite these losses, Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
was still determined to fight, boasting "We will not go back until we have been to Badr." During this period, Abu Sufyan and several other men from the caravan joined the main army.[35] Day of battle Further information: List of participants at the Battle of Badr At midnight on 13 March, the Quraish broke camp and marched into the valley of Badr. It had rained the previous day and they struggled to move their horses and camels up the hill of 'Aqanqal. After they descended from 'Aqanqal, the Meccans set up another camp inside the valley. While they rested, they sent out a scout, Umayr ibn Wahb to reconnoitre the Muslim
Muslim
lines. Umayr reported that Muhammad's army was small, and that there were no other Muslim
Muslim
reinforcements which might join the battle.[36] However, he also predicted extremely heavy Quraishi casualties in the event of an attack (One hadith refers to him seeing "the camels of [Medina] laden with certain death").[37] This further demoralized the Quraish, as Arab
Arab
battles were traditionally low-casualty affairs, and set off another round of bickering among the Quraishi leadership. However, according to Arab traditions Amr ibn Hishām
Amr ibn Hishām
quashed the remaining dissent by appealing to the Quraishi's sense of honor and demanding that they fulfill their blood vengeance.[38]

The death of Abu Jahl, and the casting of the Meccan dead into dry wells

The battle began with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. Three of the Medinan Ansar emerged from the Muslim
Muslim
ranks, only to be shouted back by the Meccans, who were nervous about starting any unnecessary feuds and only wanted to fight the Quraishi Muslims, keeping the dispute within clan. So Hamza approached forward and called on Ubayda and Ali
Ali
to join him. The Muslims dispatched the Meccan champions in a three-on-three melee. The first fight was between Ali
Ali
and Walid ibn Utba; Ali
Ali
killed his opponent. After the fight between Ali
Ali
and Walid, Hamza fought Utba ibn Rabi'ah, and Ubayda fought Shaybah ibn Rabi'ah. Hamza killed Utba; however, Ubayda was mortally wounded by Shaybah. Ali
Ali
(and, according to some sources, Hamza as well) killed Shaybah. Ali
Ali
and Hamza then carried Ubayda back into the Muslim
Muslim
lines, where he passed away.[39][40][41] Now both armies began showering each other with arrows. A few Muslims and an unknown number of Quraish warriors were killed. Before the battle, Muhammad
Muhammad
had given orders for the Muslims to attack first with their ranged weapons and only afterword advance to engage the Quraish with melee weapons. Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces!"[42][43] The Muslim
Muslim
army yelled "Yā manṣūr amit!"[44] "O thou whom God
God
hath made victorious, slay!" and rushed the Quraishi lines. The Meccans, understrength and unenthusiastic about fighting, promptly broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon.[42] The Quran
Quran
describes the force of the Muslim attack in many verses, which refer to thousands of angels descending from Heaven at Badr to terrify the Quraish.[43][45] Muslim
Muslim
sources take this account literally, and there are several hadith where Muhammad
Muhammad
discusses the Angel Jibreel
Jibreel
and the role he played in the battle.[citation needed] Aftermath Prisoners

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After the battle Muhammad
Muhammad
returned to Medina. Some seventy prisoners were taken captive and are noted to have been treated humanely including a number of Quraish leaders.[46][47] Most of the prisoners were released upon payment of ransom and those who were literate were released on the condition that they teach ten persons how to read and write and this teaching was to count as their ransom.[48][49] William Muir
William Muir
wrote of this period:

In pursuance of Mahomet's commands, the citizens of Medîna, and such of the Refugees as possessed houses, received the prisoners, and treated them with much consideration. "Blessings be on the men of Medina!" said one of these prisoners in later days; "they made us ride, while they themselves walked: they gave us wheaten bread to eat when there was little of it, contenting themselves with dates. It is not surprising that when, some time afterwards, their friends came to ransom them, several of the prisoners who had been thus received declared themselves adherents of Islam...Their kindly treatment was thus prolonged, and left a favourable impression on the minds even of those who did not at once go over to Islam"[47] — William Muir, The Life of Mahomet

Executions

A painting from Siyer-i Nebi, Ali
Ali
beheading Nadr ibn al-Harith
Nadr ibn al-Harith
in the presence of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions.

Two of the prisoners taken at Badr, namely Nadr ibn al-Harith
Nadr ibn al-Harith
and ‘Uqbah ibn Abū Mu‘ayṭ are reported to have been executed upon the order of Muhammad. According to Muslim
Muslim
scholar Safiur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, these two captives were executed by Ali. Mubarakpuri says that this incident is also mentioned in the Sunan Abu Dawud
Sunan Abu Dawud
no 2686 and Anwal Ma'bud 3/12[50] However, according to numerous accounts deemed reliable, such as a number of narrations in Sahih Bukhari, and Ibn Sa'd's biographical compendium, the Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Uqba was not executed but was killed during fighting in the field of battle at Badr and was among those Quraysh
Quraysh
leaders whose corpses were buried in a pit.[51][52][53] Muslims killed in the Battle of Badr Fourteen Muslims were killed in that battle.

Haritha bin Suraqa al-Khazraji Dhush-shimaalayn ibn 'Abdi 'Amr al-Muhajiri Rafi' bin al-Mu'alla al-Khazraji Sa'd bin Khaythama al-Awsi Safwan bin Wahb al-Muhajiri Aaqil bin al-Bukayr al-Muhajiri Ubayda bin al-Harith al-Muhajiri Umayr bin al-Humam al-Khazraji Umayr bin Abi Waqqas al-Muhajiri Awf bin al-Harith al-Khazraji Mubashshir bin 'Abdi'l Mundhir al-Awsi Mu'awwidh bin al-Harith al-Khazraji Mihja' bin Salih al-Muhajiri Yazid bin al-Harith bin Fus.hum al-Khazraji

Implications The Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
was extremely influential in the rise of two men who would determine the course of history on the Arabian peninsula for the next century. The first was Muhammad, who was transformed overnight from a Meccan outcast into a major leader. Marshall Hodgson adds that Badr forced the other Arabs to "regard the Muslims as challengers and potential inheritors to the prestige and the political role of the [Quraish]." Shortly thereafter he expelled the Banu Qaynuqa, one of the Jewish tribes at Medina
Medina
that had been threatening his political position, and who had assaulted a Muslim
Muslim
woman which led to their expulsion for breaking the peace treaty. At the same time Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn Ubayy, Muhammad's chief opponent in Medina, found his own position seriously weakened. Henceforth, he would only be able to mount limited challenges to Muhammad.[54] The other major beneficiary of the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
was Abu Sufyan, safely away from the battle leading the caravan . The death of Amr ibn Hashim, as well as many other Quraishi nobles[55] gave Abu Sufyan the opportunity, almost by default, to become chief of the Quraish. As a result, when Muhammad
Muhammad
marched into Mecca
Mecca
six years later, it was Abu Sufyan who helped negotiate its peaceful surrender. Abu Sufyan subsequently became a high-ranking official in the Muslim
Muslim
Empire, and his son Muawiya would later go on to found the Umayyad Caliphate. In later days, the battle of Badr became so significant that Ibn Ishaq included a complete name-by-name roster of the Muslim
Muslim
army in his biography of Muhammad. In many hadiths, veterans who fought at Badr are identified as such as a formality, and they may have even received a stipend in later years.[56] The death of the last of the Badr veterans occurred during the First Islamic civil war.[57] As Paul K. Davis sums up, "Mohammed's victory confirmed his authority as leader of Islam; by impressing local tribes that joined him, the expansion of Islam
Islam
began."[58] Islamic primary sources

The angelic host is sent to assist the Muslims

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Badr in the Quran The Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
is one of the few battles explicitly discussed in the Quran. It is even mentioned by name as part of a comparison with the Battle of Uhud.

Quran: Al Imran
Al Imran
3:123–125 (Yusuf Ali). " Allah
Allah
had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah
Allah
should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down? "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught."

According to Abdullah Yusuf Ali, the term "gratitude" may be a reference to discipline. At Badr, the Muslim
Muslim
forces had allegedly maintained firm discipline, whereas at Uhud they broke ranks to pursue the Meccans, allowing Meccan cavalry to flank and rout their army. The idea of Badr as a furqan, an Islamic miracle, is mentioned again in the same surah.

Quran: Al Imran
Al Imran
3:13 (Yusuf Ali). "There has already been for you a Sign in the two armies that met (in combat): One was fighting in the cause of Allah, the other resisting Allah; these saw with their own eyes Twice their number. But Allah
Allah
doth support with His aid whom He pleaseth. In this is a warning for such as have eyes to see."

Badr is also the subject of Sura 8: Al-Anfal, which details military conduct and operations. "Al-Anfal" means "the spoils" and is a reference to the post-battle discussion in the Muslim
Muslim
army over how to divide up the plunder from the Quraishi army. Though the Sura does not name Badr, it describes the battle, and several of the verses are commonly thought to have been from or shortly after the battle. Hadith
Hadith
literature This battle is also mentioned in the Sunni Hadith
Hadith
collection Sahih al-Bukhari and Sunan Abu Dawud. Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
mentions that Uthman did not join the battle:

“ Narrated Ibn 'Umar: ' Uthman
Uthman
did not join the Badr battle because he was married to one of the daughters of Allah's Apostle and she was ill. So, the Prophet said to him. "You will get a reward and a share (from the war booty) similar to the reward and the share of one who has taken part in the Badr battle." Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:359

It also mentions the war booty that each fighter who participated in the battle received in Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:357. Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:369 also mentions how Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
was killed:

“ Narrated 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf: While I was standing in the row on the day (of the battle) of Badr, I looked to my right and my left and saw two young Ansari boys, and I wished I had been stronger than they. One of them called my attention saying, "O Uncle! Do you know Abu Jahl?" I said, "Yes, what do you want from him, O my nephew?" He said, "I have been informed that he abuses Allah's Apostle. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, if I should see him, then my body will not leave his body till either of us meet his fate." I was astonished at that talk. Then the other boy called my attention saying the same as the other had said. After a while I saw Abu Jahl
Abu Jahl
walking amongst the people. I said (to the boys), "Look! This is the man you asked me about." So, both of them attacked him with their swords and struck him to death and returned to Allah's Apostle to inform him of that. Allah's Apostle asked, "Which of you has killed him?" Each of them said, "I Have killed him." Allah's Apostle asked, "Have you cleaned your swords?" They said, "No. " He then looked at their swords and said, "No doubt, you both have killed him and the spoils of the deceased will be given to Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh." The two boys were Muadh bin 'Afra and Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh. Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:369

It is also mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2716 Biographical literature The incident is also mentioned in Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad.[59] In modern culture "Badr" has become popular among Muslim
Muslim
armies and paramilitary organizations. "Operation Badr" was used to describe Egypt's offensive in the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
as well as Pakistan's actions in the 1999 Kargil War. Iranian offensive operations against Iraq in the late 1980s were also named after Badr.[60] During the 2011 Libyan civil war, the rebel leadership stated that they selected the date of the assault on Tripoli to be the 20th of Ramadan, marking the anniversary of the Battle of Badr.[61] The Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
was featured in the 1976 film The Message, the 2004 animated movie Muhammad: The Last Prophet, and the 2012 TV series Omar. See also

Book: Military career of Muhammad

Islamic military jurisprudence Military career of Muhammad Pre-Islamic Arabia List of expeditions of Muhammad

Footnotes

^ Quraish refers to the tribe in control of Mecca. The plural and adjective are Quraishi. The terms "Quraishi" and "Meccan" are used interchangeably between the Hijra in 622 and the Muslim
Muslim
Conquest of Mecca
Mecca
in 630. ^ The development of exegesis in early Islam: the authenticity of Muslim
Muslim
... By Herbert Berg. ^ The Sealed Nectar, p. 274 ^ Noor Muhammad, Farkhanda. "Islamiat". Fifth Revised Edition, 2008, p. 61 ^ Dr. Iftikhar ul Haq and Maulvi Jahangir."O' Level Islamiyat [Endorsed by CIE]", Bookland Publishers, 2008, p. 74 ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. p. 139.  ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 167 ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham (326–328) ^ Ibn Ishaq 299–301 ^ Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana: Indiana
Indiana
University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-253-21627-3. Retrieved 2016-03-16.  ^ Quran 22:39 ^ The Life of Muḥammad: A Translation of ibn Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasul Allāh with introduction & notes by Alfred Guillaume, Oxford University Press, 1955, pp. 281–86 ^ Mirza Bashir Ahmad. "The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets", Volume II Islam
Islam
International Publications, 2013, pp. 89–92 ^ Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar) at the Wayback Machine ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 425 ^ Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk, volume 3, p. 14, Lebanon, Bihī Dārul-Fikr, 2nd ed., (2002) ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 424–425 ^ Quran 2:217 ^ The Life of Muḥammad: A Translation of ibn Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasul Allāh with introduction & notes by Alfred Guillaume, Oxford University Press, 1955, pp. 287–88 ^ Hodgson, pp. 174–75. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 424–426 ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 428 ^ Ibn Kathir v. II p. 253 ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. pp. 132–133.  ^ Lings, pp. 138–39 ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book
Book
53, Number 359". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.  ^ "Witness-pioneer.org". Witness-pioneer.org. 16 September 2002. Archived from the original on 5 February 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ Martin Lings, pp. 139–40. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book
Book
59, Number 286". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.  ^ a b "Sahih Muslim: Book
Book
19, Number 4394". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.  ^ Martin Lings, p. 142 ^ Lings, p. 154. ^ Lings, p. 142. ^ Armstrong, p. 174 ^ Lings, pp. 142–43. ^ Lings, pp. 143–44. ^ Armstrong, pp. 174–75. ^ Lings, pp. 144–146. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. pp. 136–137.  ^ Muir, Sir William (1877). The Life of Mohammed. London.  ^ Glubb, Sir John (1963). The Great Arab
Arab
Conquests.  ^ a b Armstrong, p. 176. ^ a b Lings, p. 148. ^ "O thou whom God
God
hath made victorious, slay!" ^ Quran: Al-i-Imran
Al-i-Imran
3:123–125 (Yusuf Ali). " Allah
Allah
had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah
Allah
should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down? "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught." ^ "Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book
Book
52, Number 252". Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2015. Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: When it was the day (of the battle) of Badr, prisoners of war were brought including Al-Abbas who was undressed. The Prophet looked for a shirt for him. It was found that the shirt of 'Abdullah bin Ubai would do, so the Prophet let him wear it. That was the reason why the Prophet took off and gave his own shirt to 'Abdullah. (The narrator adds, "He had done the Prophet some favor for which the Prophet liked to reward him.")  ^ a b Muir, William (1861). The Life of Mahomet (Volume 3 ed.). London: Smith, Elder and Co. p. 122. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ William Muir
William Muir
(1861). "The Life of Mahomet: With Introductory Chapters on the Original Sources for the Biography of Mahomet, and on the Pre-Islamite History of Arabia". London: Smith, Elder and Co. p. ix. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ The Life of Muhammad
Muhammad
The Prophet ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 129 ^ Sahih Bukhari: Volume 1, Book
Book
4, Number 241 ^ Sahih Bukhari: Volume 1, Book
Book
9, Number 499 ^ Al Tabaqat-al-Kubra, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Sa'd, Volume 2, p. 260, ghazwatul Badr, Darul Ihya'it-Turathil-'Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition, (1996) ^ Hodgson, pp. 176–78. ^ Including the elderly Abu Lahab, who was not at Badr but died within days of the army's return. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book
Book
59, Number 357". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.  ^ Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book
Book
59, Number 358 Archived 16 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Paul K. Davis, 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World's Major Battles and How They Shaped History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 95–96. ^ Ibn Hisham; Ibn Ishaq (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Translated by Alfred Guillaume. Oxford University Press. p. 304. Retrieved 2016-03-16.  ^ Wright, Robin (1989). In the name of God: The Khomeini decade. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 133. ISBN 9780671672355.  ^ Laub, Karin (21 August 2011). "Libyan Rebels Say They Are Closing In on Tripoli". Associated Press
Associated Press
(via The Atlanta Journal-Constitution). Retrieved 21 August 2011.

References Books and articles

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1987). The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation & Commentary. Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an; Reissue edition. ISBN 0-940368-32-3.  Armstrong, Karen (1992). Muhmmad: Biography of the Prophet. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-250886-5.  Crone, Patricia (1987). Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Blackwell.  Hodgson, Marshall (1974). The Venture of Islam: The Classical Age of Islam. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-34683-8.  Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Inner Traditions International. ISBN 0-89281-170-6.  Mubarakpuri, Safi-ul-Raḥmān (2002). Ar-Raheeq Al Makhtum: The Sealed Nectar. Darussalam. ISBN 9960-899-55-1. Retrieved 2016-03-16.  Nicolle, David
David
(1993). Armies of the Muslim
Muslim
Conquest. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-279-X.  Ramadan, Tariq (2007). In the Footsteps of the Prophet. United States of America: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530880-8.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina. Oxford University Press. 

Online references

"Translation of Malik's Muwatta". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim
Muslim
Texts. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) "Translation of Sahih Muslim". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim
Muslim
Texts. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) "Translation of Sahih al-Bukhari". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim
Muslim
Texts. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) "Partial Translation of Sunan Abu-Dawud". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010.  Check date values in: access-date= (help)

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Battle of Badr

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Badr.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Holy Qur'an/Al-Anfal

Battle of Badr, 17th Ramadan 624 A.D Badr at IslamAnswers.Net The first battle of Islam
Islam
at Badr: Islamic Occasions Network Tafsir
Tafsir
(Sura 8: verse 11 to 18) – Battle of Badr: Analysis of Qur'anic verses by Irshaad Hussain.

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book
Book
(Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book
Book
of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

Coordinates: 23°44′N 38°46′E / 23.733°N 38.767°E / 23.733; 38.767

Authority control

.