MUSLIM CONQUEST OF THE LEVANT
* al-Qaryatayn * Bosra * Ajnadayn * Marj Rahit * Fahl * Damascus * Maraj-al-Debaj * Emesa * Yarmouk * Jerusalem * Hazir * Aleppo * Iron Bridge * Germanicia
MUSLIM CONQUEST OF EGYPT
* Heliopolis * Babylon Fortress * Alexandria * Nikiou
MUSLIM CONQUEST OF NORTH AFRICA
* Sufetula * Vescera * Mamma * Carthage
ARAB–BYZANTINE BORDER WARFARE
* Kamacha * Abbasid invasion of 782 * Kopidnadon * Krasos * Abbasid invasion of 806 * Anzen and Amorium * Mauropotamos * Faruriyyah * Lalakaon * Bathys Ryax
SICILY AND SOUTHERN ITALY
* 1st Syracuse * 2nd Syracuse * 1st Malta * 3rd Syracuse * Caltavuturo * Campaigns of Leo Apostyppes and Nikephoros Phokas the Elder * Stelai (1st Milazzo) * (2nd) Milazzo * 1st Taormina * Garigliano * Campaigns of Marianos Argyros * 2nd Taormina * Rometta * Straits of Messina * George Maniakes in Sicily * 2nd Malta
NAVAL WARFARE AND RAIDS
* Phoenix * Keramaia * Muslim conquest of Crete * Thasos * Damietta * Ragusa * Kardia * Gulf of Corinth * Cephalonia * Euripos * Thessalonica
* Campaigns of John Kourkouas
* Campaigns of Sayf al-Dawla
* Marash * Raban * Andrassos
* Campaigns of Nikephoros Phokas
* Crete * Cilicia * Antioch
* Campaigns of John Tzimiskes
* Campaigns of
The BATTLE OF AKROINON was fought at Akroinon or Akroinos (near
* 1 Background * 2 Battle * 3 Effect and aftermath * 4 References * 5 Sources
Since the beginning of the
Muslim conquests , the
Under the more aggressive Caliph
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (r.
723–743), the Arab raids became more large-scale affairs and were
led by some of the Caliphate's most capable generals, including
princes of the
According to the chronicle of
Theophanes the Confessor , the invading
The Emperor Leo confronted the second force at Akroinon. Details of the battle are not known, but the Emperor secured a crushing victory: both Arab commanders fell, as well as the larger part of their army, some 13,200 men. The rest of the Arab troops managed to conduct an orderly retreat to Synnada , where they joined Sulayman. The other two Arab forces devastated the countryside unopposed, but failed to take any towns or forts. The Arab invasion army also suffered from severe hunger and lack of supplies before returning to Syria, while the 10th-century Arab Christian historian Agapius records that the Byzantines took 20,000 prisoners from the invading forces.
EFFECT AND AFTERMATH
Akroinon was a major success for the Byzantines, as it was the first
large-scale victory they had scored in a pitched battle against the
Arabs. Seeing it as evidence of God's renewed favour, the victory also
served to strengthen Leo's belief in the policy of iconoclasm that he
had adopted some years before. In the immediate aftermath, this
success opened up the way for a more aggressive stance by the
Byzantines, who in 741 attacked the major Arab base of
The Arab defeat at Akroinon has traditionally been seen as a
"decisive" battle and a "turning point" of the Arab–Byzantine wars
, causing the slackening of Arab pressure on Byzantium. Other
historians however, from the early 20th-century Syriac scholar E.W.
Brooks to more recent ones such as
Walter Kaegi and Ralph-Johannes
Lilie , have challenged this view, attributing the reduced Arab threat
after Akroinon to the fact that it coincided with other heavy
reversals on the most remote provinces of the
In the Muslim world, the memory of the defeated Arab commander, Abdallah al-Battal, was preserved, and he became one of the greatest heroes of Arab and later Turkish epic poetry as Sayyid Battal Ghazi .
* ^ A B C D Turtledove 1982 , p. 103. * ^ A B C Blankinship 1994 , pp. 169–170. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 104–105, 117. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 117–119. * ^ Treadgold 1997 , pp. 349ff. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 119–121, 162–163. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 149–154. * ^ Treadgold 1997 , p. 353. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 168–173. * ^ Treadgold 1997 , pp. 354–355. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 169, 330 (Note #14). * ^ Blankinship 1994 , p. 169. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , p. 170. * ^ Treadgold 1997 , p. 355. * ^ Morrisson & Cheynet 2006 , p. 14. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 200–201. * ^ Foss 1991 , p. 48. * ^ Herrin 1977 , p. 20 (Note #36). * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 145–146, 167–168, 330 (Note #14). * ^ Kaegi 1982 , p. 167. * ^ Blankinship 1994 , pp. 20, 201, 223ff.. * ^ Morrisson & Cheynet 2006 , pp. 14–15. * ^ Winkelmann et al. 1999 , pp. 5–6.
* Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994). The End of the Jihâd State: The
Reign of Hishām ibn ʻAbd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads.
Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN
* Foss, Clive F.W. (1991). "Akroinon". In Kazhdan, Alexander
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium . New York and Oxford:
Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6 .
* Herrin, Judith (1977). "The Context of Iconoclast Reform". In
Bryer, Anthony; Herrin, Judith. Iconoclasm. Papers given at the Ninth
Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, University of Birmingham, March
1975. pp. 15–20. ISBN 0-7044-0226-2 .
* Kaegi, Walter Emil (1982). Army, Society, and Religion in
Byzantium. London: Variorum Reprints. ISBN 978-0-86078-110-3 .
* Morrisson, Cécile; Cheynet, Jean-Claude (2006). Le monde
byzantin, Tome II: L\'Empire byzantin, 641–1204 (in French). Paris:
Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-052007-8 .
* Turtledove, Harry (1982). The