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Muslim conquest of the Levant

al-Qaryatayn Bosra Ajnadayn Marj Rahit Fahl Damascus Maraj-al-Debaj Emesa Yarmouk Jerusalem Hazir Aleppo Iron Bridge Germanicia

Muslim conquest of Egypt

Heliopolis Babylon Fortress Alexandria Nikiou

Muslim conquest of North Africa

Sufetula Vescera Mamma Carthage

Umayyad
Umayyad
invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople

1st Constantinople Sebastopolis Tyana 2nd Constantinople Nicaea Akroinon

Arab–Byzantine border warfare

Kamacha Abbasid invasion of 782 Kopidnadon Krasos Abbasid invasion of 806 Anzen and Amorium Mauropotamos Faruriyyah Lalakaon Bathys Ryax

Sicily and Southern Italy

1st Syracuse 2nd Syracuse 1st Malta 3rd Syracuse Caltavuturo Campaigns of Leo Apostyppes and Nikephoros Phokas the Elder Stelai (1st Milazzo) (2nd) Milazzo 1st Taormina Garigliano Campaigns of Marianos Argyros 2nd Taormina Rometta Straits of Messina George Maniakes
George Maniakes
in Sicily 2nd Malta

Naval warfare and raids

Phoenix Keramaia Muslim conquest of Crete Thasos Damietta Ragusa Kardia Gulf of Corinth Cephalonia Euripos Thessalonica

Byzantine Reconquest

Campaigns of John Kourkouas Campaigns of Sayf al-Dawla

Marash Raban Andrassos

Campaigns of Nikephoros Phokas

Crete Cilicia Antioch

Alexandretta Campaigns of John Tzimiskes

Syria

Orontes Apamea Campaigns of Basil II Azaz

The Battle of Akroinon
Battle of Akroinon
was fought at Akroinon or Akroinos (near modern Afyon) in Phrygia, on the western edge of the Anatolian plateau, in 740 between an Umayyad
Umayyad
Arab army and the Byzantine forces. The Arabs had been conducting regular raids into Anatolia
Anatolia
for the past century, and the 740 expedition was the largest in recent decades, consisting of three separate divisions. One division, 20,000 strong under Abdallah al-Battal
Abdallah al-Battal
and al-Malik ibn Shu'aib, was confronted at Akroinon by the Byzantines under the command of Emperor Leo III the Isaurian (r. 717–741) and his son, the future Constantine V
Constantine V
(r. 741–775). The battle resulted in a decisive Byzantine victory. Coupled with the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate's troubles on other fronts and the internal instability before and after the Abbasid Revolt, this put an end to major Arab incursions into Anatolia
Anatolia
for three decades.

Contents

1 Background 2 Battle 3 Effect and aftermath 4 References 5 Sources

Background[edit] Since the beginning of the Muslim conquests, the Byzantine Empire, as the largest, richest and militarily strongest state bordering the expanding Caliphate, had been the Muslims' primary enemy. Following the disastrous Battle of Sebastopolis, the Byzantines had largely confined themselves to a strategy of passive defence, while the Muslim armies regularly launched raids into Byzantine-held Anatolia.[3] Following their failure to capture the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, in 717–718, the Umayyads
Umayyads
for a time diverted their attention elsewhere. From 720/721, however, they resumed these expeditions in a regular pattern: each summer one or two campaigns (pl. ṣawā'if, sing. ṣā'ifa) would be launched, sometimes accompanied by a naval attack and sometimes followed by winter expeditions (shawātī). These were no longer aimed at permanent conquest but rather large-scale raids, plundering and devastating the countryside and only occasionally attacking forts or major settlements. The raids of this period were also largely confined to the central Anatolian plateau (chiefly its eastern half, Cappadocia), and only rarely reached the peripheral coastlands.[4][5] Under the more aggressive Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (r. 723–743), the Arab raids became more large-scale affairs and were led by some of the Caliphate's most capable generals, including princes of the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty, such as Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik or Hisham's own sons Mu'awiyah, Maslama and Sulayman.[6] Gradually, however, the Muslim successes became fewer, especially as their resources were drawn into the mounting conflict with the Khazars in the Caucasus.[7][8] The raids continued, but the Arab and Byzantine chroniclers mention fewer successful captures of forts or towns. Nevertheless, in 737 a major victory over the Khazars
Khazars
allowed the Arabs
Arabs
to shift their focus and intensify their campaigns against Byzantium. Thus in 738 and 739 Maslamah ibn Hisham led successful raids, including the capture of the town of Ancyra. For the year 740, Hisham assembled the largest expedition of his reign, placing it under his son Sulayman.[9][10] Battle[edit] According to the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor, the invading Umayyad
Umayyad
force totalled 90,000 men. 10,000 lightly armed men under al-Ghamr ibn Yazid were sent to raid the western coastlands, followed by 20,000 under Abdallah al-Battal
Abdallah al-Battal
and al-Malik ibn Su'aib who marched towards Akroinon, while the main force of some 60,000 (this last number is certainly much inflated), under Sulayman ibn Hisham, raided Cappadocia.[1][11] The Emperor Leo confronted the second force at Akroinon. Details of the battle are not known, but the Emperor secured a crushing victory: both Arab commanders fell, as well as the larger part of their army, some 13,200 men. The rest of the Arab troops managed to conduct an orderly retreat to Synnada, where they joined Sulayman.[1][2] The other two Arab forces devastated the countryside unopposed, but failed to take any towns or forts.[12] The Arab invasion army also suffered from severe hunger and lack of supplies before returning to Syria, while the 10th-century Arab Christian historian Agapius records that the Byzantines took 20,000 prisoners from the invading forces.[13] Effect and aftermath[edit] Akroinon was a major success for the Byzantines, as it was the first large-scale victory they had scored in a pitched battle against the Arabs. Seeing it as evidence of God's renewed favour, the victory also served to strengthen Leo's belief in the policy of iconoclasm that he had adopted some years before.[14][15] In the immediate aftermath, this success opened up the way for a more aggressive stance by the Byzantines, who in 741 attacked the major Arab base of Melitene. In 742 and 743, the Umayyads
Umayyads
were able to exploit a civil war between Constantine V
Constantine V
and Artabasdos
Artabasdos
and raid into Anatolia
Anatolia
with relative impunity, but the Arab sources do not report any major achievements.[16] The Arab defeat at Akroinon has traditionally been seen as a "decisive" battle[17] and a "turning point"[18] of the Arab–Byzantine wars, causing the slackening of Arab pressure on Byzantium. Other historians however, from the early 20th-century Syriac scholar E.W. Brooks to more recent ones such as Walter Kaegi and Ralph-Johannes Lilie, have challenged this view, attributing the reduced Arab threat after Akroinon to the fact that it coincided with other heavy reversals on the most remote provinces of the Caliphate (e.g. the battles of Marj Ardabil or The Defile), which exhausted its overextended military resources, as well as with internal turmoil due to civil wars and the Abbasid Revolution.[19][20] As a result, the Arab attacks against the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the 740s were rather ineffectual and soon ceased completely. Indeed, Constantine V
Constantine V
was able to take advantage of the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate's collapse to launch a series of expeditions into Syria and secure a Byzantine ascendancy on the eastern frontier which lasted until the 770s.[21][22] In the Muslim world, the memory of the defeated Arab commander, Abdallah al-Battal, was preserved, and he became one of the greatest heroes of Arab and later Turkish epic poetry as Sayyid Battal Ghazi.[23] References[edit]

^ a b c d Turtledove 1982, p. 103. ^ a b c Blankinship 1994, pp. 169–170. ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 104–105, 117. ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 117–119. ^ Treadgold 1997, pp. 349ff. ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 119–121, 162–163. ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 149–154. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 353. ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 168–173. ^ Treadgold 1997, pp. 354–355. ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 169, 330 (Note #14). ^ Blankinship 1994, p. 169. ^ Blankinship 1994, p. 170. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 355. ^ Morrisson & Cheynet 2006, p. 14. ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 200–201. ^ Foss 1991, p. 48. ^ Herrin 1977, p. 20 (Note #36). ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 145–146, 167–168, 330 (Note #14). ^ Kaegi 1982, p. 167. ^ Blankinship 1994, pp. 20, 201, 223ff.. ^ Morrisson & Cheynet 2006, pp. 14–15. ^ Winkelmann et al. 1999, pp. 5–6.

Sources[edit]

Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994). The End of the Jihâd State: The Reign of Hishām ibn ʻAbd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1827-8.  Foss, Clive F.W. (1991). "Akroinon". In Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  Herrin, Judith (1977). "The Context of Iconoclast Reform". In Bryer, Anthony; Herrin, Judith. Iconoclasm. Papers given at the Ninth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, University of Birmingham, March 1975. pp. 15–20. ISBN 0-7044-0226-2.  Kaegi, Walter Emil (1982). Army, Society, and Religion in Byzantium. London: Variorum Reprints. ISBN 978-0-86078-110-3.  Morrisson, Cécile; Cheynet, Jean-Claude (2006). Le monde byzantin, Tome II: L'Empire byzantin, 641–1204 (in French). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-052007-8.  Turtledove, Harry (1982). The Chronicle of Theophanes: An English Translation of anni mundi 6095–6305 (A.D. 602–813). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1128-3.  Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.  Winkelmann, Friedhelm; Lilie, Ralph-Johannes; et al. (1999). "'Abdallāh al-Baṭṭāl (#15)". Prosopographie der Mittelbyzantinischen Zeit: I. Abteilung (641–867), 1. Band (in German). Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 5–6. ISBN 3-

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