Coordinates: 20°14′10″N 75°53′13″E / 20.236°N
75.887°E / 20.236; 75.887
Battle of Assaye
Part of the Second Anglo-
Major General Wellesley (mounted) commanding his troops at the Battle
Assaye (J.C. Stadler after W.Heath)
23 September 1803
near Assaye, India
Commanders and leaders
9,500, (including two British infantry regiments and one cavalry
10,800 European trained Indian infantry
10,000–20,000 irregular infantry
30,000–40,000 irregular cavalry
Casualties and losses
6,000 killed and wounded approx.
98 cannon lost
The Battle of
Assaye was a major battle of the Second Anglo-Maratha
War fought between the
Maratha Empire and the British East India
Company. It occurred on 23 September 1803 near
Assaye in western
India where an outnumbered Indian and British force under the command
of Major General Arthur Wellesley (who later became the Duke of
Wellington) defeated a combined
Maratha army of
Daulat Scindia and the
Raja of Berar. The battle was the Duke of Wellington's first major
victory and one he later described as his finest accomplishment on the
From August 1803, Wellesley's army and a separate force under the
command of his subordinate Colonel James Stevenson had been pursuing
Maratha cavalry-based army which threatened to raid south into
Hyderabad. After several weeks of pursuit and countermarching, Scindia
reinforced the combined
Maratha army with his modernized infantry and
artillery as the British forces closed in on his position.
Wellesley received intelligence indicating the location of the Maratha
encampment on 21 September and devised a plan whereby his two armies
would converge on the
Maratha position three days later. Wellesley's
force, however, encountered the
Maratha army – which was under
the command of Colonel Anthony Pohlmann, a German formerly in British
service – 6 miles (9.7 km) farther south than he
anticipated. Although outnumbered, Wellesley resolved to attack at
once, believing that the
Maratha army would soon move off. Both sides
suffered heavily in the ensuing battle;
Maratha artillery caused large
numbers of casualties among Wellesley's troops but the vast numbers of
Maratha cavalry proved largely ineffective. A combination of bayonet
and cavalry charges eventually forced the
Maratha army to retreat with
the loss of most of their guns, but Wellesley's army was too battered
and exhausted to pursue.
Wellesley's victory at Assaye, preceded by the capture of Ahmednagar
and followed by victories at
Argaon and Gawilghur, resulted in the
Scindia and Berar's armies in the Deccan. Wellesley's
progress in the Deccan was matched by Lieutenant General Gerard Lake's
successful campaigns in Northern
India and led to the British becoming
the dominant power in the heartlands of India.
3.1 Initial manoeuvres
3.2 British infantry attack
5 In fiction
Main article: Second Anglo-
Lord Mornington, the Governor-General of British
India between 1798
and 1805, oversaw a rapid expansion of British territory in India.
Feuding between the two dominant powers within the
Holkar and Daulat Rao Scindia, led to civil war at the
turn of the 19th century. The hostilities culminated in the Battle
Poona in October 1802 where
Holkar defeated a combined army of
Scindia and Baji Rao II – the
Peshwa and nominal overlord of
Scindia retreated into his dominions to the north,
but Baji Rao was driven from his territory and sought refuge with the
India Company at Bassein. He appealed to the Company for
assistance, offering to accept its authority if he were restored to
his principality at Poona. Lord Mornington, the ambitious
Governor-General of British India, seized on the opportunity to extend
Company influence into the
Maratha Empire which he perceived as the
final obstacle to British paramountcy over the Indian subcontinent.
The Treaty of Bassein was signed in December 1802 whereby the Company
agreed to restore Baji Rao in return for control over his foreign
affairs and a garrison of 6,000 Company troops permanently stationed
in Poona. The restoration was commanded by Lord Mornington’s
younger brother, Major General Arthur Wellesley, who in March 1803
Mysore with 15,000 Company troops and 9,000
Hyderabad allies. Wellesley entered
Poona without opposition on 20
April, and Baji Rao was formally restored to his throne on 13
The treaty gave offence to the other
Maratha leaders, who deemed that
the system of subsidiary alliances with the British was an unwarranted
interference into their affairs and fatal to the independent Maratha
Maratha leaders refused to submit to the Peshwa's
authority and tensions were raised further when
Holkar raided into
Hyderabad in May, claiming that the
Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad (a British
ally) owed him money. Mornington consequently engaged the various
Maratha chieftains in negotiations. Lieutenant Colonel John Collins
was sent to Scindia's camp to discuss his objections and propose a
defensive alliance. However,
Scindia had formed a military
alliance with the Rajah of Berar with a view to bringing the Maratha
leaders into a coalition against the British, and had begun to mass
his forces on the Nizam's border. Wellesley, who had been given
control over the Company's military and political affairs in central
India in June, demanded
Scindia declare his intentions and withdraw
his forces or face the prospect of war. After a protracted period
of negotiations, Collins reported to Wellesley on 3 August that
Scindia refused to give an answer and would not withdraw his
troops. Wellesley's response was to declare war on
Berar "in order to secure the interests of the British government and
India Company attacked the two principal
Maratha forces of
Scindia and the Raja of Berar from the north and the south. Of the
Holkar was hesitant to enter the war in
cooperation with his rival, Scindia, and remained aloof from the
hostilities, and the
Gaekwad of Baroda placed himself under British
protection. Operations in the north were directed by Lieutenant
General Gerard Lake who entered
Maratha territory from Cawnpore to
face Scindia's main army which was commanded by the French mercenary,
Pierre Perron. A second British force under the command of Major
General Wellesley confronted a combined army of
Scindia and Berar in
the Deccan. Wellesley was determined to gain the initiative through
offensive action and told his senior subordinate, Colonel James
Stevenson, that "a long defensive war would ruin us and will answer no
Maratha army in the Deccan was largely composed of fast-moving
cavalry able to live off the land. Consequently, Wellesley planned to
work in conjunction with a separate force under Colonel Stevenson to
enable his slower troops to outmanoeuvre the
Maratha army and force it
into a position where it could not avoid a pitched battle.
Stevenson was despatched from Hyderabad with an army of some 10,000
men to Jafarabad to deny
Scindia and Berar the chance to raid east
into the Nizam's territory. In the meantime, Wellesley moved north
from his camp near the
Godavari River on 8 August with some 13,500
troops and headed towards Scindia's nearest stronghold – the
walled town and fort at Ahmednuggur. The bulk of his forces were
Company troops from Mysore: five sepoy infantry battalions of the
Madras Native Infantry and three squadrons of Madras Native Cavalry.
The core contingent of
British Army regulars included cavalry from the
19th Light Dragoons
19th Light Dragoons and two battalions of Scottish infantry from the
74th and 78th Regiment of Foot. Irregular light cavalry were also
provided by the Company's
Wellesley reached Ahmednuggur later the same day after a 7-mile
(11 km) march and immediately ordered an escalade assault on the
town rather than enter into a time-consuming siege. The walled town,
which was garrisoned by 1,000 Arab mercenaries, upwards of 60 cannon
and one of Scindia’s infantry battalions under the command of French
officers, was captured with minimal losses after a brief
action. The adjacent fort's defenders capitulated four days
later once the walls were breached by British artillery. With the
fortification providing a logistics base and point of support for
future operations into
Maratha territory, Wellesley installed a
garrison and headed north towards the Nizam's city of Aurungabad.
Along the way he captured Scindia’s other possessions south of the
Godavari and established a series of guarded bridges and ferries along
the river to maintain his communication and supply lines.
Map of the
The Marathas slipped past Stevenson and advanced on Hyderabad. After
receiving reports of their movement on 30 August, Wellesley hurried
east down to the Godavari to intercept. Stevenson, meanwhile,
marched westwards to the
Maratha city of Jalna which he took by
Scindia learned of Wellesley's intentions and returned to a
position north of Jalna. Unable to make a clean break from the
pursuing British he abandoned plans to raid into Hyderabad and instead
assembled his infantry and artillery. The combined
was around 50,000 strong, the core of which was 10,800 well equipped
regular infantry organised into three brigades, trained and commanded
by European adventurer and mercenary officers. Colonel Anthony
Pohlmann, a Hanoverian and former East
India Company sergeant,
commanded the largest brigade with eight battalions. A further
brigade with five battalions was provided by Begum Samru, and was
commanded on her behalf by a Frenchman, Colonel Jean Saleur. The third
brigade had four battalions and was commanded by Dutchman, Major John
James Dupont. In addition, the
Maratha force included
10,000–20,000 of Berar's irregular infantry, some
30,000–40,000 irregular light cavalry and over 100 guns ranging in
size from one to 18-pounders.
After several weeks of chasing down the
Maratha army, Wellesley and
Stevenson met at Budnapoor on 21 September and received intelligence
Maratha army was at Borkardan, around 30 miles (48 km)
to the north. They agreed a plan by which their two armies –
moving separately along either side of a range of hills with Wellesley
to the east and Stevenson to the west – would converge on
Borkardan on 24 September. Wellesley's force reached Paugy on the
afternoon of 22 September and departed camp before dawn. By noon, the
army had marched 14 miles (23 km) to Naulniah, a small town 12
miles (19 km) south of Borkardan, where they intended to rest
before joining Stevenson to attack the
Maratha army the next day.
At this point, Wellesley received further intelligence that rather
than being at Borkardan, the
Maratha army was camped just 5 miles
(8.0 km) north, but their cavalry had moved off and the infantry
were about to follow.
At about 13:00, Wellesley went forward with a cavalry escort to
Maratha position. The rest of his army followed
closely behind apart from a battalion of sepoys left at Naulniah to
guard the baggage. In all, Wellesley had 4,500 troops at his
disposal plus 5,000
Maratha horse and 17 cannon. Aware
that the British were nearby, the
Maratha chiefs had positioned their
army in a strong defensive position along a tongue of land stretching
east from Borkardan between the Kailna River and its tributary the
Scindia and Berar did not believe Wellesley would
attack with his small force and had moved off from the area in the
morning. Command of their army was given to Pohlmann, who had
positioned his infantry to the east of the
Maratha camp in the plains
around the village of
Assaye on the southern bank of the Juah.
To his surprise, Wellesley found the entire combined army before him.
Nevertheless, he resolved to attack at once, believing that if he
waited for Stevenson, the Marathas would have the chance to slip away
and force the pursuit to drag on. Wellesley was also eager to
forge a reputation for himself, and despite his numerical
disadvantage, he was confident that the Maratha’s irregular forces
would be swept aside by his disciplined troops, and only Scindia’s
regular infantry could be expected to stand and fight.
Pohlmann struck camp and deployed his infantry battalions in a line
facing southwards behind the steep banks of the Kailna with his cannon
arrayed directly in front. The great mass of
Maratha cavalry was kept
on the right flank and Berar's irregular infantry garrisoned
the rear. The only observable crossing point over the river was a
small ford directly ahead of the
Maratha position. Pohlmann's strategy
was to funnel the British and Madras troops across the ford into the
mouth of his cannon, and then on to the massed infantry and cavalry
behind. Wellesley's local guides assured him that no other ford
existed nearby, but he quickly discarded the option of a frontal
assault as suicide. While reconnoitring he had noticed two
unguarded villages, Peepulgaon and Waroor, one on each bank of the
Kaitna beyond the
Maratha left. On the assumption that a ford must
exist between the two villages, Wellesley ordered the area to be
further reconnoitred by his Chief Engineer, Captain John Johnson, who
reported that there was indeed a ford at that spot. Thus Wellesley led
his army east to the crossing in an attempt to launch an attack on
Pohlmann's left flank.
At around 15:00, the British crossed to the northern bank of the
Kaitna unopposed apart from a distant harassing fire from the Maratha
cannon which was largely inaccurate but succeeded in decapitating
Wellesley's dragoon orderly. Once across, Wellesley ordered his
six infantry battalions to form into two lines, with his cavalry as a
reserve in a third. His allied
Mysore cavalry were ordered
to remain south of the Kaitna to keep in check a large body of Maratha
cavalry which hovered around the British rear. Pohlmann soon
recognised Wellesley’s intentions and swung his infantry and guns
through 90 degrees to establish a new line spread approximately 1 mile
(1.6 km) across the isthmus with their right flank on the Kaitna
and the left on Assaye. Although the new position secured the
Maratha flanks, it restricted Pohlmann from bringing his superior
numbers into action.
Maratha redeployment was swifter and more efficient than Wellesley
had anticipated and he immediately reacted by extending his front to
deny Pohlmann the opportunity to outflank him. A battalion of
pickets and the 74th Highlanders, which formed the right of the first
and second lines, were ordered to move obliquely to the right.
This allowed the 78th to anchor the left flank and Madras infantry
battalions (the 1/10th, 1/8th, 1/4th and 2/12th) to form the centre of
the British line. Wellesley's intention was to force back the
Marathas from their guns and then – operating by his left to
avoid the heavily defended Assaye – throw them back on the Juah
and complete their destruction with his cavalry.
British infantry attack
Map of the battle. The British and Indian infantry move forward to
attack the redeployed
Maratha cannonade intensified as the British redeployed. Although
British artillery was brought forward to counter, it was ineffective
against the mass firepower of the
Maratha guns and quickly disabled
through the weight of shot directed against it. British casualties
mounted as the
Maratha guns turned their attention to the infantry and
subjected them to a barrage of canister, grape and round shot.
Wellesley decided that his only option to neutralise the artillery and
get his men out of the killing field was to advance directly into the
mouth of the
Maratha artillery. He ordered his cannon to be
abandoned and gave the command for his infantry to march forward with
Maratha cannonade punched holes in the British line, but the
infantry maintained a steady pace, closing up the gaps in their ranks
as they advanced. The 78th Highlanders were the first to reach the
enemy in the southern sector next to the River Kailna. They paused 50
yards (46 m) from the
Maratha gunners and unleashed a volley of
musket fire before launching into a bayonet charge. The four
battalions of Madras infantry to the right of the 78th, accompanied by
the Madras Pioneers, reached Pohlmann's line shortly afterwards
and attacked in the same fashion. The gunners stood by their cannon
but were no match for the bayonets of the British and Madras troops
who swiftly pressed on towards the
Maratha infantry. However,
instead of meeting the charge, the
Maratha right broke and fled
northwards towards the Juah, causing the rest of the southern half of
the line to follow. The officers of the Madras battalions
temporarily lost control as the sepoys, encouraged by their success,
pushed too far in pursuit.
Maratha cavalry momentarily threatened to
charge but were checked by the 78th who remained in order and
re-formed to face the danger.
In the northern sector of the battlefield however, Wellesley's right
flank was in turmoil. The commander of the pickets, Lieutenant Colonel
William Orrock, had mistaken his orders and continued his oblique path
directly towards Assaye. Major Samuel Swinton of the 74th regiment
was ordered to support the pickets and followed close behind. This
created a large gap in the centre of the British line, and brought the
two battalions under a barrage of cannonade from the artillery around
the village and the
Maratha left. The two battalions began to fall
back in disarray and Pohlmann ordered his remaining infantry and
cavalry forward to attack. The Marathas gave no quarter; the
pickets were virtually annihilated but the remnants of the 74th were
able to form a rough square behind hastily piled bodies of dead.
Realising that the destruction of his right would leave his army
exposed and outflanked, Wellesley ordered a detachment of British
cavalry under Colonel Patrick Maxwell consisting of the 19th Light
Dragoons and elements of the 4th and 5th Madras Native
action. From their position at the rear, the cavalry dashed
directly towards the 74th's square, crashed into the swarming
attackers and routed them. Maxwell pressed his advantage and continued
his charge into the
Maratha infantry and guns on the left, driving
them backwards and across the Juah "with great slaughter".
Maratha gunners re-man their cannons (illustration by Alfred Pearse)
A number of
Maratha gunners who had feigned death when the British
advanced over their position re-manned their guns and began to pour
cannon fire into the rear of the 74th and Madras infantry.
Wellesley ordered his four sepoy battalions to re-form and ward off
any threat from the
Maratha infantry and cavalry while the 78th were
sent back to retake the
Maratha gun line. Wellesley, meanwhile,
galloped back to 7th Madras Native Cavalry, which had been held back
in reserve to the east, and led a cavalry charge from the opposite
direction. The gunners again stood their ground but were
eventually driven from their guns and this time it was ensured that
all those who remained were dead.
While Wellesley was preoccupied with re-taking the gun line, Pohlmann
rallied his infantry and redeployed them into a semicircle with their
backs to the Juah; their right flank across the river and their left
in Assaye. However, most of the
Maratha cannon, which had
inflicted heavy losses on Wellesley's infantry, had been captured or
lay abandoned on the battlefield. Reluctant to join the fray, the
Maratha cavalry lingered in the distance to the west. Most were
Pindarries: loosely organised and lightly armed horsemen whose
traditional role was to cut down fleeing enemy troops, harass convoy
lines and carry out raids into enemy territory. They were not trained
to attack well-formed infantry or heavily armed European cavalry, and
did not play a further part in the battle.
With the remanned
Maratha artillery silenced, Wellesley turned his
attention to Pohlmann's reformed infantry. Although Maxwell had
suffered heavy losses, he had rallied his cavalry and returned to the
field of battle. Wellesley ordered him to charge the
flank, while the infantry moved forward as a single line to meet the
centre and right. The cavalry spurred forward but were met with a
volley of canister shot which struck Maxwell, killing him instantly.
Their momentum lost, the cavalry did not complete their charge but
veered away from the
Maratha line at the last moment. The British
and Madras infantry marched on against the
Maratha position but
Pohlmann's men, their morale low, did not wait for the attack and
instead retreated northwards across the Juah. Descriptions differ as
to the manner of their departure:
Maratha sources claim the line
marched away from the battlefield in an orderly manner on Pohlmann's
orders but British accounts claim the
Maratha infantry fled in an
uncontrolled panic. Berar's irregulars inside Assaye, now
leaderless and having witnessed the fate of the regular infantry,
abandoned the village and marched off northwards at around 18:00,
followed shortly afterwards by the
Maratha cavalry. Wellesley's
troops, however, were exhausted and in no condition to pursue and the
native allied cavalry which had remained on the south bank of the
Kailna and had not been engaged, refused to pursue without the support
of the British and Madras cavalry.
The whole country [was] strewn with killed and wounded, both Europeans
and natives, ours as well as the enemies.
An unnamed British cavalry officer in the aftermath of Assaye.
India Company and
British Army casualties amounted to 428 killed,
1138 wounded and 18 missing; a total of 1,584 – over a third of
the force engaged in combat. The 74th and the picket battalion were
decimated; from a strength of about 500, the 74th lost ten officers
killed and seven wounded, and 124 other ranks killed and 270
wounded. The pickets lost all their officers except their
commander, Lieutenant Colonel William Orrock, and had only about 75
men remaining. Of the ten officers forming the general's staff,
eight were wounded or had their horses killed. Wellesley himself
lost two horses; the first was shot from underneath him and the second
was speared as he led the charge to re-capture the
line. The number of
Maratha casualties is more difficult to
ascertain. Despatches from British officers give a figure of 1,200
dead and many more wounded but some modern historians have estimated a
total of 6,000 dead and wounded. The Marathas also
surrendered seven stands of colours, large amounts of stores and
ammunition and 98 cannon – most of which were later taken into
service by the East
India Company. Although
Berar's army was not finished as a fighting force, several of
Scindia's regular infantry battalions and artillery crews had been
destroyed. Their command structure had also been damaged: many of
their European officers, including Colonel Pohlmann and Major Dupont,
surrendered to the Company – which had offered amnesty to
Europeans in the service of the
Maratha armies – or deserted
and sought employment with other native chieftains.
The sound of the guns at
Assaye was heard by Stevenson who immediately
broke up his camp 10 miles (16 km) to the west in an attempt to
join the battle. However, he was misled by his guide and marched first
on Borkardan before he reached the battlefield on the evening of 24
September. Suspecting that his guide had intentionally led him astray,
Stevenson later had him hanged. He remained with Wellesley to
assist with the wounded – troops were still being carried from
the battlefield four days after the engagement – until ordered
to recommence the pursuit of the
Maratha army on 26 September.
Wellesley remained to the south while he established a hospital at
Ajanta and awaited reinforcements from Poona. Two months later, he
combined with Stevenson to rout
Scindia and Berar's demoralised and
weakened army at Argaon, and shortly afterwards stormed Berar's
fortress at Gawilghur. These victories, coupled with Lieutenant
General Lake's successful campaign in the north, induced the two
Maratha chiefs to sue for peace.
Assaye elephant emblem awarded to the Madras Sappers
Wellesley later told Stevenson that "I should not like to see again
such a loss as I sustained on the 23rd September, even if attended by
such a gain", and in later life he referred to
Assaye as "the
bloodiest for the numbers that I ever saw". Lieutenant Colonel
Thomas Munro, the Company's district collector at Mysore, was critical
of the high proportion of casualties and questioned Wellesley's
decision not to wait for Stevenson. He wrote to Wellesley: "I am
tempted to think that you did it with a view of sharing the glory with
the smallest numbers". In response, Wellesley politely rebuffed
Munro's accusations and defended his action as necessary because he
had received and acted upon incorrect intelligence regarding the
Assaye was 34-year-old Wellesley's first major
success and despite his anguish over the heavy losses, it was a battle
he always held in the highest estimation. After his retirement from
active military service, the
Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington (as he later became
Assaye the finest thing he ever did in the way of
fighting even when compared to his later military career.
Lord Mornington and his Council lauded the battle as a "most brilliant
and important victory", and presented each of the Madras units and
British regiments involved in the engagement with a set of honorary
colours. The British regiments and native units were also awarded the
Assaye battle honour and most were later given permission to adopt an
Assaye elephant as part of their insignia. A public monument was also
erected by the East
India Company at Fort William,
commemorate the victory. The 74th Regiment of foot later became
known as the
Assaye regiment due to their stand at the battle and
their modern-day successors, the
Royal Highland Fusiliers
Royal Highland Fusiliers (2 SCOTS),
still celebrate the anniversary of the battle each year. Of the
native infantry battalions, only the
Madras Sappers survive in their
original form in the
Indian Army but they no longer celebrate Assaye
as it has been declared a repugnant battle honour by the Government of
Cornwell, Bernard, Sharpe's Triumph: Richard Sharpe and the Battle of
Assaye, September 1803, HarperCollins, 1998, ISBN 0-00-225630-4.
The book includes most of the important events of the battle, although
mostly focusing on the British forces with Indian regiments generally
in the background. Building on the real events, Wellington loses a
third horse and is tipped into the enemy ranks where he is saved by
Sharpe, who in doing so earns his commission as an officer. The battle
is mentioned numerous times throughout the series as a personal
achievement for both Sharpe and Wellington (whose careers progress in
parallel), and whenever characters from 78th or other highland
infantry units appear, as Sharpe feels their actions at
Assaye were a
testament to their courage and discipline.
^ a b c d Millar p. 82.
^ a b c d Holmes p. 81.
^ a b Millar p. 83.
^ Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorourable East India
Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 69–71.
^ Millar p. 28.
^ a b Holmes p. 68.
^ Millar p. 13.
^ a b Holmes p. 69.
^ Severn p. 171.
^ Corrigan p. 72.
^ Holmes p. 70.
^ Severn p. 170.
^ Millar p. 34.
^ Severn p. 176.
^ Severn p. 177.
^ Gurwood p. 69.
^ a b c Holmes p. 73.
^ a b Corrigan p. 73.
^ a b Millar p. 27.
^ Millar p. 37.
^ Cooper p. 92.
^ Cooper pp. 87–88.
^ a b Cooper p. 94.
^ Millar p. 48.
^ a b c Holmes p. 71.
^ a b Cooper p.102
^ Millar p. 22.
^ a b Corrigan p. 74.
^ Cooper p. 99.
^ a b c Cooper p. 100.
^ Black p. 260.
^ Cooper p. 101.
^ Corrigan p. 76.
^ Sandes Military Engineer in
India Vol I, pp. 207–208.
^ Cooper p. 105.
^ Millar p. 57.
^ a b Roy p. 128.
^ a b Cooper p. 108.
^ The picquets of the day were composed of a half company from each of
the Wellesley's seven infantry battalions, and were commanded by the
officer of the day (Biddulph p. 138).
^ Biddulph p. 141.
^ Millar p. 61.
^ a b Cooper p. 110.
^ Millar p. 62.
^ Sandes The Indian Sappers and Miners, p. 41.
^ a b c Cooper p. 111.
^ a b Millar p. 65.
^ a b Millar p. 69.
^ Cooper p. 112.
^ a b Holmes p. 79.
^ Thorn p. 276.
^ Cooper p. 114.
^ Millar p. 73.
^ a b c Cooper p. 115.
^ a b Cooper p. 117.
^ Holmes p. 80.
^ Cooper pp. 114–115.
^ a b Millar p. 81.
^ a b Corrigan p. 77.
^ a b Biddulph p. 144.
^ Bennell p. 290.
^ Weller p. 190.
^ Biddulph p. 145.
^ a b c Corrigan p. 78.
^ Biddulph p. 146.
^ Holmes p. 82.
^ Gurwood p. 170.
^ a b Bradshaw pp. 121–132.
^ Wellesley p. 20.
^ Gurwood p. 335.
^ Singh p. 107.
^ "SCOTS History". Ministry of Defence. 2009. Retrieved
^ Singh p. 297.
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Great Britain: Institution of the Royal Engineers
Severn, John Kenneth (2007), Architects of Empire: The Duke of
Wellington and His Brothers, Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma
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Singh, Sarbans (1993), Battle Honours of the
Indian Army 1757–1971,
New Delhi: Vision Books, ISBN 81-7094-115-6
Thorn, William (1818), Memoir of the War in India, London: Thomas
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Wellington with George William Chad, Cambridge: Saint Nicolas
Moropant Trimbak Pingle
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Parashuram Trimbak Kulkarni
Baji Rao I
Balaji Baji Rao
Baji Rao II
Tulsi Bai Holkar
Bhonsle of Nagpur
Gaekwad of Baroda
Scindia of Gwalior
Holkar of Indore (subsidiary or feudatory states)
Invasions of Bengal
Maratha-Mughal War of 27 years
Nizam of Hyderabad
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Father: Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington
Mother: Anne Hill
Brothers: Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley
William Wellesley-Pole, 3rd Earl of Mornington
Henry Wellesley, 1st Baron Cowley
Sister: Lady Anne Smith
Wife: Catherine Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington
Battles and wars
Battle of Boxtel
Battle of Seringapatam
Battle of Assaye
Battle of Roliça
Battle of Vimeiro
Second Battle of Porto
Battle of Talavera
Battle of Sabugal
Third Siege of Badajoz
Battle of Salamanca
Battle of Vitoria
Battle of Waterloo
Stratfield Saye House
Wellington College, Berkshire