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Batman
Batman
is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger,[4][5] and first appeared in Detective Comics #27 (1939). Originally named the "Bat-Man", the character is also referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, and the World's Greatest Detective.[6] Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy, philanthropist, and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne
Thomas Wayne
and Martha Wayne
Martha Wayne
as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime.[7] Batman
Batman
operates in the fictional Gotham City
Gotham City
with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Gordon, and vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman
Batman
does not possess any superpowers; rather, he relies on his genius intellect, physical prowess, martial arts abilities, detective skills, science and technology, vast wealth, intimidation, and indomitable will. A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including his archenemy, the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, Batman, the following year. As the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman
Batman
television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns
The Dark Knight Returns
by Frank Miller. The success of Warner Bros.' live-action Batman
Batman
feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture.[8] An American cultural icon, Batman
Batman
has garnered enormous popularity and is among the most identifiable comic book characters. Batman
Batman
has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, and appears on merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel, toys, and video games. The character has also intrigued psychiatrists, with many trying to understand his psyche. In 2015, FanSided ranked Batman
Batman
as number one on their list of "50 Greatest Super Heroes In Comic Book
Book
History".[9] Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Bruce Greenwood, Peter Weller, Anthony Ruivivar, Jason O'Mara, and Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations. Batman
Batman
has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, and Ben Affleck.

Contents

1 Publication history

1.1 Creation 1.2 Golden Age

1.2.1 Subsequent creation credit 1.2.2 Early years

1.3 Silver and Bronze Age

1.3.1 1950s and early 1960s 1.3.2 "New Look" Batman
Batman
and camp

1.4 Modern Age

1.4.1 The Dark Knight Returns 1.4.2 "Knightfall" 1.4.3 All-Star Batman
Batman
and Robin 1.4.4 The New 52 1.4.5 DC Universe

2 Characterization

2.1 Bruce Wayne

2.1.1 Personality

2.2 Others

3 Abilities

3.1 Skills and training 3.2 Technology

4 Supporting characters

4.1 Adversaries 4.2 Allies

4.2.1 Alfred 4.2.2 " Batman
Batman
Family" 4.2.3 Civilians 4.2.4 GCPD 4.2.5 Justice League 4.2.6 Robin 4.2.7 Wayne family

4.3 Romantic interests

4.3.1 Catwoman

5 Fictional character biography

5.1 20th century

5.1.1 Origin 5.1.2 Golden Age 5.1.3 Silver Age 5.1.4 Bronze Age 5.1.5 Modern Age

5.2 21st century

5.2.1 2000s 5.2.2 2010s

6 Cultural impact

6.1 In other media

6.1.1 Television 6.1.2 Film 6.1.3 Video games

6.2 Interpretations

6.2.1 Gay interpretations 6.2.2 Psychological interpretations

7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Publication history See also: List of Batman
Batman
comics Creation

First published image of Batman, in Action Comics
Action Comics
#12, announcing the character's debut in the forthcoming Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#27[10]

In early 1939, the success of Superman
Superman
in Action Comics
Action Comics
prompted editors at National Comics Publications (the future DC Comics) to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane
Bob Kane
created "the Bat-Man".[11] Collaborator Bill Finger
Bill Finger
recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called 'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman
Superman
with kind of ... reddish tights, I believe, with boots ... no gloves, no gauntlets ... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings. And under it was a big sign ... BATMAN".[12] The bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device.[13] Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, and gloves; he also recommended removing the red sections from the original costume.[14][15][16][17] Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot. Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock ... then I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne."[18] He later said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was also familiar.[19] Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality, methods, and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, and autobiographical details referring to Kane himself.[20] As an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman
Batman
had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel (created by Baroness Emmuska Orczy, 1903) and Zorro
Zorro
(created by Johnston McCulley, 1919). Like them, Batman
Batman
performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, and marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro
Zorro
(1920) and The Bat Whispers
The Bat Whispers
(1930) in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, and Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.[21][22] In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation:

One day I called Bill and said, 'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin
Robin
later wore, on Batman's face. Bill said, 'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, and take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit; the wings, trunks, and mask were black. I thought that red and black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright: 'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope. Also, he didn't have any gloves on, and we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.[19]

Golden Age Subsequent creation credit Kane signed away ownership in the character in exchange for, among other compensation, a mandatory byline on all Batman
Batman
comics. This byline did not originally say " Batman
Batman
created by Bob Kane"; his name was simply written on the title page of each story. The name disappeared from the comic book in the mid-1960s, replaced by credits for each story's actual writer and artists. In the late 1970s, when Jerry Siegel
Jerry Siegel
and Joe Shuster
Joe Shuster
began receiving a "created by" credit on the Superman
Superman
titles, along with William Moulton Marston
William Moulton Marston
being given the byline for creating Wonder Woman, Batman
Batman
stories began saying "Created by Bob Kane" in addition to the other credits. Finger did not receive the same recognition. While he had received credit for other DC work since the 1940s, he began, in the 1960s, to receive limited acknowledgment for his Batman
Batman
writing; in the letters page of Batman
Batman
#169 (February 1965) for example, editor Julius Schwartz names him as the creator of the Riddler, one of Batman's recurring villains. However, Finger's contract left him only with his writing page rate and no byline. Kane wrote, "Bill was disheartened by the lack of major accomplishments in his career. He felt that he had not used his creative potential to its fullest and that success had passed him by."[18] At the time of Finger's death in 1974, DC had not officially credited Finger as Batman
Batman
co-creator. Jerry Robinson, who also worked with Finger and Kane on the strip at this time, has criticized Kane for failing to share the credit. He recalled Finger resenting his position, stating in a 2005 interview with The Comics Journal:

Bob made him more insecure, because while he slaved working on Batman, he wasn't sharing in any of the glory or the money that Bob began to make, which is why ... [he was] going to leave [Kane's employ]. ... [Kane] should have credited Bill as co-creator, because I know; I was there. ... That was one thing I would never forgive Bob for, was not to take care of Bill or recognize his vital role in the creation of Batman. As with Siegel and Shuster, it should have been the same, the same co-creator credit in the strip, writer, and artist.[23]

Although Kane initially rebutted Finger's claims at having created the character, writing in a 1965 open letter to fans that "it seemed to me that Bill Finger
Bill Finger
has given out the impression that he and not myself created the ''Batman, t' [sic] as well as Robin
Robin
and all the other leading villains and characters. This statement is fraudulent and entirely untrue." Kane himself also commented on Finger's lack of credit. "The trouble with being a 'ghost' writer or artist is that you must remain rather anonymously without 'credit'. However, if one wants the 'credit', then one has to cease being a 'ghost' or follower and become a leader or innovator."[24] In 1989, Kane revisited Finger's situation, recalling in an interview:

In those days it was like, one artist and he had his name over it [the comic strip] — the policy of DC in the comic books was, if you can't write it, obtain other writers, but their names would never appear on the comic book in the finished version. So Bill never asked me for it [the byline] and I never volunteered — I guess my ego at that time. And I felt badly, really, when he [Finger] died.[25]

In September 2015, DC Entertainment
DC Entertainment
revealed that Finger would be receiving credit for his role in Batman's creation on the 2016 superhero film Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice and the second season of Gotham after a deal was worked out between the Finger family and DC.[4] Finger received credit as a creator of Batman
Batman
for the first time in a comic in October 2015 with Batman
Batman
and Robin
Robin
Eternal #3 and Batman: Arkham Knight
Arkham Knight
Genesis #3. The updated acknowledgment for the character appeared as " Batman
Batman
created by Bob Kane
Bob Kane
with Bill Finger".[5] Early years

Batman
Batman
made his debut in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#27 (May 1939). Cover art by Bob Kane.

The first Batman
Batman
story, "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate", was published in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#27 (May 1939). Finger said, " Batman
Batman
was originally written in the style of the pulps",[26] and this influence was evident with Batman
Batman
showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals. Batman
Batman
proved a hit character, and he received his own solo title in 1940 while continuing to star in Detective Comics. By that time, Detective Comics
Detective Comics
was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry; Batman
Batman
and the company's other major hero, Superman, were the cornerstones of the company's success.[27] The two characters were featured side-by-side as the stars of World's Finest Comics, which was originally titled World's Best Comics when it debuted in fall 1940. Creators including Jerry Robinson
Jerry Robinson
and Dick Sprang also worked on the strips during this period. Over the course of the first few Batman
Batman
strips elements were added to the character and the artistic depiction of Batman
Batman
evolved. Kane noted that within six issues he drew the character's jawline more pronounced, and lengthened the ears on the costume. "About a year later he was almost the full figure, my mature Batman", Kane said.[28] Batman's characteristic utility belt was introduced in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939), followed by the boomerang-like batarang and the first bat-themed vehicle, the Batplane, in #31 (Sept. 1939). The character's origin was revealed in #33 (Nov. 1939), unfolding in a two-page story that establishes the brooding persona of Batman, a character driven by the death of his parents. Written by Finger, it depicts a young Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
witnessing his parents' murder at the hands of a mugger. Days later, at their grave, the child vows that "by the spirits of my parents [I will] avenge their deaths by spending the rest of my life warring on all criminals".[29][30][31] The early, pulp-inflected portrayal of Batman
Batman
started to soften in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#38 (April 1940) with the introduction of Robin, Batman's junior counterpart.[32] Robin
Robin
was introduced, based on Finger's suggestion, because Batman
Batman
needed a "Watson" with whom Batman could talk.[33] Sales nearly doubled, despite Kane's preference for a solo Batman, and it sparked a proliferation of "kid sidekicks".[34] The first issue of the solo spin-off series Batman
Batman
was notable not only for introducing two of his most persistent enemies, the Joker and Catwoman, but for a story in which Batman
Batman
shoots some monstrous giants to death. That story prompted editor Whitney Ellsworth
Whitney Ellsworth
to decree that the character could no longer kill or use a gun.[35] By 1942, the writers and artists behind the Batman
Batman
comics had established most of the basic elements of the Batman
Batman
mythos.[36] In the years following World War II, DC Comics
DC Comics
"adopted a postwar editorial direction that increasingly de-emphasized social commentary in favor of lighthearted juvenile fantasy". The impact of this editorial approach was evident in Batman
Batman
comics of the postwar period; removed from the "bleak and menacing world" of the strips of the early 1940s, Batman
Batman
was instead portrayed as a respectable citizen and paternal figure that inhabited a "bright and colorful" environment.[37] Silver and Bronze Age 1950s and early 1960s Batman
Batman
was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the 1950s. In the story "The Mightiest Team in the World" in Superman
Superman
#76 (June 1952), Batman
Batman
teams up with Superman
Superman
for the first time and the pair discover each other's secret identity.[38] Following the success of this story, World's Finest Comics
World's Finest Comics
was revamped so it featured stories starring both heroes together, instead of the separate Batman
Batman
and Superman features that had been running before.[39] The team-up of the characters was "a financial success in an era when those were few and far between";[40] this series of stories ran until the book's cancellation in 1986. Batman
Batman
comics were among those criticized when the comic book industry came under scrutiny with the publication of psychologist Fredric Wertham's book Seduction of the Innocent
Seduction of the Innocent
in 1954. Wertham's thesis was that children imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupted the morals of the youth. Wertham criticized Batman comics for their supposed homosexual overtones and argued that Batman and Robin
Robin
were portrayed as lovers.[41] Wertham's criticisms raised a public outcry during the 1950s, eventually leading to the establishment of the Comics Code Authority, a code that is no longer in use by the comic book industry. The tendency towards a "sunnier Batman" in the postwar years intensified after the introduction of the Comics Code.[42] Scholars have suggested that the characters of Batwoman
Batwoman
(in 1956) and the pre- Barbara Gordon
Barbara Gordon
Bat-Girl (in 1961) were introduced in part to refute the allegation that Batman
Batman
and Robin
Robin
were gay, and the stories took on a campier, lighter feel.[43] In the late 1950s, Batman
Batman
stories gradually became more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of other DC characters that had dabbled in the genre.[44] New characters such as Batwoman, Ace the Bat-Hound, and Bat-Mite
Bat-Mite
were introduced. Batman's adventures often involved odd transformations or bizarre space aliens. In 1960, Batman
Batman
debuted as a member of the Justice League
Justice League
of America in The Brave and the Bold
The Brave and the Bold
#28 (Feb. 1960), and went on to appear in several Justice League
Justice League
comic series starting later that same year. "New Look" Batman
Batman
and camp By 1964, sales of Batman
Batman
titles had fallen drastically. Bob Kane
Bob Kane
noted that, as a result, DC was "planning to kill Batman
Batman
off altogether".[45] In response to this, editor Julius Schwartz was assigned to the Batman
Batman
titles. He presided over drastic changes, beginning with 1964's Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#327 (May 1964), which was cover-billed as the "New Look". Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman
Batman
more contemporary, and to return him to more detective-oriented stories. He brought in artist Carmine Infantino
Carmine Infantino
to help overhaul the character. The Batmobile
Batmobile
was redesigned, and Batman's costume was modified to incorporate a yellow ellipse behind the bat-insignia. The space aliens, time travel, and characters of the 1950s such as Batwoman, Ace, and Bat-Mite
Bat-Mite
were retired. Bruce Wayne's butler Alfred was killed off (though his death was quickly reversed) while a new female relative for the Wayne family, Aunt Harriet, came to live with Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
and Dick Grayson.[46] The debut of the Batman
Batman
television series in 1966 had a profound influence on the character. The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman
Batman
reached a circulation of close to 900,000 copies.[47] Elements such as the character of Batgirl
Batgirl
and the show's campy nature were introduced into the comics; the series also initiated the return of Alfred. Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in 1968. In the aftermath, the Batman
Batman
comics themselves lost popularity once again. As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books."[48] Starting in 1969, writer Dennis O'Neil
Dennis O'Neil
and artist Neal Adams
Neal Adams
made a deliberate effort to distance Batman
Batman
from the campy portrayal of the 1960s TV series and to return the character to his roots as a "grim avenger of the night".[49] O'Neil said his idea was "simply to take it back to where it started. I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after."[50] O'Neil and Adams first collaborated on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#395 (January 1970). Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inker Dick Giordano, and in actuality these men were mixed and matched with various other creators during the 1970s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous".[51] Giordano said: "We went back to a grimmer, darker Batman, and I think that's why these stories did so well ..."[52] While the work of O'Neil and Adams was popular with fans, the acclaim did little to improve declining sales; the same held true with a similarly acclaimed run by writer Steve Englehart
Steve Englehart
and penciler Marshall Rogers
Marshall Rogers
in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#471–476 (August 1977 – April 1978), which went on to influence the 1989 movie Batman
Batman
and be adapted for Batman: The Animated Series, which debuted in 1992.[53] Regardless, circulation continued to drop through the 1970s and 1980s, hitting an all-time low in 1985.[54] Modern Age The Dark Knight Returns See also: Alternative versions of Batman Frank Miller's limited series The Dark Knight Returns
The Dark Knight Returns
(February–June 1986) returned the character to his darker roots, both in atmosphere and tone. The comic book, which tells the story of a 55-year-old Batman
Batman
coming out of retirement in a possible future, reinvigorated the character. The Dark Knight Returns
The Dark Knight Returns
was a financial success and has since become one of the medium's most noted touchstones.[55] The series also sparked a major resurgence in the character's popularity.[56] That year Dennis O'Neil
Dennis O'Neil
took over as editor of the Batman
Batman
titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman
Batman
following DC's status quo-altering miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before.[57] One outcome of this new approach was the "Year One" storyline in Batman
Batman
#404–407 (February–May 1987), in which Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli
David Mazzucchelli
redefined the character's origins. Writer Alan Moore
Alan Moore
and artist Brian Bolland
Brian Bolland
continued this dark trend with 1988's 48-page one-shot Batman: The Killing Joke, in which the Joker, attempting to drive Commissioner Gordon
Commissioner Gordon
insane, cripples Gordon's daughter Barbara, and then kidnaps and tortures the commissioner, physically and psychologically. The Batman
Batman
comics garnered major attention in 1988 when DC Comics created a 900 number for readers to call to vote on whether Jason Todd, the second Robin, lived or died. Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes (see Batman: A Death in the Family).[58] "Knightfall" The 1993 "Knightfall" story arc introduced a new villain, Bane, who critically injures Batman
Batman
after pushing him to the limits of his endurance. Jean-Paul Valley, known as Azrael, is called upon to wear the Batsuit
Batsuit
during Bruce Wayne's convalescence. Writers Doug Moench, Chuck Dixon, and Alan Grant worked on the Batman
Batman
titles during "Knightfall", and would also contribute to other Batman
Batman
crossovers throughout the 1990s. 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline served as the precursor to 1999's "No Man's Land", a year-long storyline that ran through all the Batman-related titles dealing with the effects of an earthquake-ravaged Gotham City. At the conclusion of "No Man's Land", O'Neil stepped down as editor and was replaced by Bob Schreck.[59] Another writer who rose to prominence on the Batman
Batman
comic series, was Jeph Loeb. Along with longtime collaborator Tim Sale, they wrote two miniseries ("The Long Halloween" and "Dark Victory") that pit an early in his career version of Batman
Batman
against his entire rogues gallery (most notably Two-Face, whose origin was re-envisioned by Loeb) while dealing with various mysteries involving serial killers Holiday and the Hangman. In 2003, Loeb teamed with artist Jim Lee
Jim Lee
to work on another mystery arc: "Batman: Hush" for the main Batman
Batman
book. The twelve–issue storyline has Batman
Batman
and Catwoman
Catwoman
teaming up against Batman's entire rogues gallery, including an apparently resurrected Jason Todd, while seeking to find the identity of the mysterious supervillain Hush.[60] While the character of Hush failed to catch on with readers, the arc was a sales success for DC. As the storyline was Jim Lee's first regular comic book work in nearly a decade, the series became #1 on the Diamond Comic Distributors sales chart for the first time since Batman
Batman
#500 (October 1993) and Jason Todd's appearance laid the groundwork for writer Judd Winick's subsequent run as writer on Batman, with another multi-issue epic, "Under the Hood", which ran from Batman
Batman
#637–650 (April 2005–April 2006). All-Star Batman
Batman
and Robin See also: All Star DC Comics In 2005, DC launched All-Star Batman
Batman
and Robin, a stand-alone comic series set outside the main DC Universe
DC Universe
continuity. Written by Frank Miller and drawn by Jim Lee, the series was a commercial success for DC Comics,[61][62] although it was widely panned by critics for its writing and strong depictions of violence.[63][64] Starting in 2006, Grant Morrison
Grant Morrison
and Paul Dini
Paul Dini
were the regular writers of Batman
Batman
and Detective Comics, with Morrison reincorporating controversial elements of Batman
Batman
lore. Most notably of these elements were the science fiction themed storylines of the 1950s Batman
Batman
comics, which Morrison revised as hallucinations Batman
Batman
suffered under the influence of various mind-bending gases and extensive sensory deprivation training. Morrison's run climaxed with " Batman
Batman
R.I.P.", which brought Batman
Batman
up against the villainous "Black Glove" organization, which sought to drive Batman
Batman
into madness. "Batman R.I.P." segued into Final Crisis
Final Crisis
(also written by Morrison), which saw the apparent death of Batman
Batman
at the hands of Darkseid. In the 2009 miniseries Batman: Battle for the Cowl, Wayne's former protégé Dick Grayson becomes the new Batman, and Wayne's son Damian becomes the new Robin.[65][66] In June 2009, Judd Winick
Judd Winick
returned to writing Batman, while Grant Morrison
Grant Morrison
was given his own series, titled Batman
Batman
and Robin.[67] In 2010, the storyline Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
saw Bruce travel through history, eventually returning to the present day. Although he reclaimed the mantle of Batman, he also allowed Grayson to continue being Batman
Batman
as well. Bruce decided to take his crime-fighting cause globally, which is the central focus of Batman Incorporated. DC Comics
DC Comics
would later announce that Grayson would be the main character in Batman, Detective Comics, and Batman
Batman
and Robin, while Wayne would be the main character in Batman
Batman
Incorporated. Also, Bruce appeared in another ongoing series, Batman: The Dark Knight. The New 52 See also: The New 52 In September 2011, DC Comics' entire line of superhero comic books, including its Batman
Batman
franchise, were canceled and relaunched with new #1 issues as part of the New 52 reboot. Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
is the only character to be identified as Batman
Batman
and is featured in Batman, Detective Comics, Batman
Batman
and Robin, and Batman: The Dark Knight. Dick Grayson returns to the mantle of Nightwing
Nightwing
and appears in his own ongoing series. While many characters have their histories significantly altered to attract new readers, Batman's history remains mostly intact. Batman Incorporated
Batman Incorporated
was relaunched in 2012–2013 to complete the "Leviathan" storyline. With the beginning of the New 52, Scott Snyder
Scott Snyder
was the writer of the Batman
Batman
title. His first major story arc was "Night of the Owls", where Batman
Batman
confronts the Court of Owls, a secret society that has controlled Gotham for centuries. The second story arc was "Death of the Family", where the Joker returns to Gotham and simultaneously attacks each member of the Batman
Batman
family. The third story arc was "Batman: Zero Year", which redefined Batman's origin in The New 52. It followed Batman
Batman
#0, published in June 2012, which explored the character's early years. The final storyline before the "Convergence" (2015) storyline was "Endgame", depicting the supposed final battle between Batman
Batman
and the Joker when he unleashes the deadly Endgame virus onto Gotham City. The storyline ends with Batman
Batman
and the Joker's supposed deaths. Starting with Batman
Batman
vol. 2, #41, Commissioner James Gordon takes over Bruce's mantle as a new, state-sanctioned, robotic-Batman, debuting in the Free Comic Book Day
Free Comic Book Day
special comic Divergence. However, Bruce Wayne is soon revealed to be alive, albeit now suffering almost total amnesia of his life as Batman
Batman
and only remembering his life as Bruce Wayne through what he has learned from Alfred. Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
finds happiness and proposes to his girlfriend, Julie Madison, but Mr. Bloom heavily injures Jim Gordon and takes control of Gotham City
Gotham City
and threatens to destroy the city by energizing a particle reactor to create a "strange star" to swallow the city. Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
discovers the truth that he was Batman
Batman
and after talking to a stranger who smiles a lot (it is heavily implied that this is the amnesic Joker) he forces Alfred to implant his memories as Batman, but at the cost of his memories as the reborn Bruce Wayne. He returns and helps Jim Gordon defeat Mr. Bloom and shut down the reactor. Gordon gets his job back as the commissioner, and the government Batman
Batman
project is shut down.[68] In 2015, DC Comics
DC Comics
released The Dark Knight III: The Master Race, the sequel to Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns
The Dark Knight Returns
and The Dark Knight Strikes Again.[69] DC Universe In June 2016, the DC Rebirth
DC Rebirth
event relaunched DC Comics' entire line of comic book titles. Batman
Batman
was rebooted as starting with a one-shot issue entitled Batman: Rebirth #1 (August 2016). The series then began shipping twice-monthly as a third volume, starting with Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #1 (August 2016). The third volume of Batman
Batman
was written by Tom King, and artwork was provided by David Finch and Mikel Janín. The Batman series introduced two vigilantes, Gotham and Gotham Girl. Detective Comics resumed its original numbering system starting with June 2016's #934, and the New 52 series was labeled as volume 2 with issues numbering from #1-52.[70] Similarly with the Batman
Batman
title, the New 52 issues were labeled as volume 2 and encompassed issues #1-52. Writer James Tynion IV and artists Eddy Barrows
Eddy Barrows
and Alvaro Martinez worked on Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#934, and the series initially featured a team consisting of Tim Drake, Stephanie Brown, Cassandra Cain, and Clayface, led by Batman
Batman
and Batwoman. DC Comics
DC Comics
ended the Rebirth branding in December 2017, opting to include everything under a larger "DC Universe" banner and naming. The continuity established by Rebirth continues across DC's comic book titles, including volume one of Detective Comics
Detective Comics
and the third volume of Batman.[71][72] Characterization Bruce Wayne

DC Comics
DC Comics
concept art of Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
by Mikel Janín

Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American industrialist. As a child, Bruce witnessed the murder of his parents, Dr. Thomas Wayne
Thomas Wayne
and Martha Wayne, which ultimately led him to craft the Batman
Batman
persona and seek justice against criminals. He resides on the outskirts of Gotham City
Gotham City
in his personal residence, Wayne Manor. Wayne averts suspicion by acting the part of a superficial playboy idly living off his family's fortune and the profits of Wayne Enterprises, his inherited conglomerate.[73][74] He supports philanthropic causes through his nonprofit Wayne Foundation, but is more widely known as a celebrity socialite.[75] In public, he frequently appears in the company of high-status women, which encourages tabloid gossip. Although Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
leads an active romantic life, his vigilante activities as Batman
Batman
account for most of his time.[76] Various modern stories have portrayed the extravagant, playboy image of Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
as a facade.[77] This is in contrast to the post-Crisis Superman, whose Clark Kent
Clark Kent
persona is the true identity, while the Superman
Superman
persona is the facade.[78][79] In Batman
Batman
Unmasked, a television documentary about the psychology of the character, behavioral scientist Benjamin Karney notes that Batman's personality is driven by Bruce Wayne's inherent humanity; that "Batman, for all its benefits and for all of the time Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
devotes to it, is ultimately a tool for Bruce Wayne's efforts to make the world better". Writers of Batman
Batman
and Superman
Superman
stories have often compared and contrasted the two. Interpretations vary depending on the writer, the story, and the timing. Grant Morrison[80] notes that both heroes "believe in the same kind of things" despite the day/night contrast their heroic roles display. He notes an equally stark contrast in their real identities. Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
and Clark Kent
Clark Kent
belong to different social classes: "Bruce has a butler, Clark has a boss." T. James Musler's book Unleashing the Superhero
Superhero
in Us All explores the extent to which Bruce Wayne's vast personal wealth is important in his life story, and the crucial role it plays in his efforts as Batman.[81] Will Brooker notes in his book Batman
Batman
Unmasked that "the confirmation of the Batman's identity lies with the young audience ... he doesn't have to be Bruce Wayne; he just needs the suit and gadgets, the abilities, and most importantly the morality, the humanity. There's just a sense about him: 'they trust him ... and they're never wrong."[82] Personality

"I must have a disguise. Criminals are a superstitious cowardly lot. So my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts. I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible...a...a...a bat!"

Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#33 (November 1939)[83]

Batman's primary character traits can be summarized as "wealth; physical prowess; deductive abilities and obsession".[84] The details and tone of Batman
Batman
comic books have varied over the years due to different creative teams. Dennis O'Neil
Dennis O'Neil
noted that character consistency was not a major concern during early editorial regimes: "Julie Schwartz did a Batman
Batman
in Batman
Batman
and Detective and Murray Boltinoff did a Batman
Batman
in the Brave and the Bold
Brave and the Bold
and apart from the costume they bore very little resemblance to each other. Julie and Murray did not want to coordinate their efforts, nor were they asked to do so. Continuity was not important in those days."[85] The driving force behind Bruce Wayne's character is his parents' murder and their absence. Bob Kane
Bob Kane
and Bill Finger
Bill Finger
discussed Batman's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes".[86] Despite his trauma, he sets his mind on studying to become a scientist[87][88] and to train his body into physical perfection[87][88] to fight crime in Gotham City
Gotham City
as Batman, an inspired idea from Wayne's insight into the criminal mind.[87][88] Another of Batman's characterizations is that of a vigilante; in order to stop evil that started with the death of his parents, he must sometimes break the law himself. Although manifested differently by being re-told by different artists, it is nevertheless that the details and the prime components of Batman's origin have never varied at all in the comic books, the "reiteration of the basic origin events holds together otherwise divergent expressions".[89] The origin is the source of the character's traits and attributes, which play out in many of the character's adventures.[84] Batman
Batman
is often treated as a vigilante by other characters in his stories. Frank Miller views the character as "a dionysian figure, a force for anarchy that imposes an individual order".[90] Dressed as a bat, Batman
Batman
deliberately cultivates a frightening persona in order to aid him in crime-fighting,[91] a fear that originates from the criminals' own guilty conscience.[92] Miller is often credited with reintroducing anti-heroic traits into Batman's characterization,[93] such as his brooding personality, willingness to use violence and torture, and increasingly alienated behavior. Batman's original character was changed in the 1950s when the now-defunct comic book codes went into effect, and DC editor Whitney Ellsworth
Whitney Ellsworth
reinvented Batman
Batman
as having a stringent moral code which never allowed him to kill.[93] Miller's Batman
Batman
was closer to the original, Golden Age version, who was willing to kill criminals if necessary.[94] Others Main article: Alternative versions of Batman On several occasions former Robin
Robin
Dick Grayson
Dick Grayson
has served as Batman; most notably in 2009 while Wayne was believed dead, and served as a second Batman
Batman
even after Wayne returned in 2010.[60] As part of DC's 2011 continuity relaunch, Grayson returned to being Nightwing following the Flashpoint crossover event. In an interview with IGN, Morrison detailed that having Dick Grayson as Batman
Batman
and Damian Wayne
Damian Wayne
as Robin
Robin
represented a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman
Batman
and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman
Batman
and a scowling, badass Robin". Morrison explained his intentions for the new characterization of Batman: "Dick Grayson is kind of this consummate superhero. The guy has been Batman's partner since he was a kid, he's led the Teen Titans, and he's trained with everybody in the DC Universe. So he's a very different kind of Batman. He's a lot easier; He's a lot looser and more relaxed."[65] Over the years, there have been numerous others to assume the name of Batman, or to officially take over for Bruce during his leaves of absence. Jean Paul Valley, also known as Azrael, assumed the cowl after the events of the Knightfall saga.[60] James Gordon, donned a mech-suit after the events of Batman: Endgame, and served as Batman
Batman
in 2015 and 2016. Additionally, members of the group Batman, Incorporated, Bruce Wayne's experiment at franchising his brand of vigilantism, have at times stood in as the official Batman
Batman
in cities around the world.[60] Various others have also taken up the role of Batman
Batman
in stories set in alternative universes and possible futures, including, among them, various former proteges of Bruce Wayne. Abilities Skills and training Batman
Batman
has no inherent superhuman powers; he relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess".[32] Batman's inexhaustible wealth gives him access to advanced technologies, and as a proficient scientist, he is able to use and modify these technologies to his advantage. In the stories, Batman
Batman
is regarded as one of the world's greatest detectives, if not the world's greatest crime solver.[95] Batman
Batman
has been repeatedly described as having a genius-level intellect, being one of the greatest martial artists in the DC Universe, and having peak human physical conditioning.[96] As a polymath, his knowledge and expertise in countless disciplines is nearly unparalleled by any other character in the DC Universe.[97] He has traveled the world acquiring the skills needed to aid him in his endeavors as Batman. In the Superman: Doomed story arc, Superman
Superman
considers Batman
Batman
to be one of the most brilliant minds on the planet.[98] Batman
Batman
has trained extensively in various martial arts, mastering many different types, making him one of the best hand-to-hand fighters in the DC Universe. Superman
Superman
describes Batman
Batman
as "the most dangerous man on Earth", able to defeat an entire team of superpowered extraterrestrials by himself in order to rescue his imprisoned teammates in Grant Morrison's first storyline in JLA. Batman
Batman
has the ability to function under great physical pain and to resist telepathy and mind control. He is a master of disguise, multilingual, and an expert in espionage, often gathering information under the identity of a notorious gangster named Matches Malone. Batman
Batman
is highly skilled in stealth movement and escapology, which allows him to appear and disappear at will and to break free of nearly inescapable deathtraps with little to no harm. Batman
Batman
is an expert in interrogation techniques and his intimidating and frightening appearance alone is often all that is needed in getting information from suspects. Despite having the potential to harm his enemies, Batman's most defining characteristic is his strong commitment to justice and his reluctance to take a life. This unyielding moral rectitude has earned him the respect of several heroes in the DC Universe, most notably that of Superman
Superman
and Wonder Woman. Among physical and other crime fighting related training, he is also proficient at other types of skills. Some of these include being a licensed pilot (in order to operate the Batplane), as well as being able to operate other types of machinery. In some publications, he underwent some magician training. Technology Batman
Batman
utilizes a vast arsenal of specialized, high-tech vehicles and gadgets in his war against crime, the designs of which usually share a bat motif. Batman
Batman
historian Les Daniels credits Gardner Fox
Gardner Fox
with creating the concept of Batman's arsenal with the introduction of the utility belt in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#29 (July 1939) and the first bat-themed weapons the batarang and the "Batgyro" in Detective Comics #31 and #32 (September; October 1939).[28]

Personal armor

Main article: Batsuit Batman's body armored costume incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals.[99] The details of the Batman
Batman
costume change repeatedly through various decades, stories, media and artists' interpretations, but the most distinctive elements remain consistent: a scallop-hem cape; a cowl covering most of the face; a pair of bat-like ears; a stylized bat emblem on the chest; and the ever-present utility belt. Finger and Kane originally conceptualized Batman
Batman
as having a black cape and cowl and grey suit, but conventions in coloring called for black to be highlighted with blue.[99] Hence, the costume's colors have appeared in the comics as dark blue and grey;[99] as well as black and grey. In the Tim Burton's Batman
Batman
and Batman
Batman
Returns films, Batman
Batman
has been depicted as completely black with a bat in the middle surrounded by a yellow background. Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy
The Dark Knight Trilogy
depicted Batman
Batman
wearing high-tech gear painted completely black with a black bat in the middle. Ben Affleck's Batman
Batman
in the DC Extended Universe
DC Extended Universe
films wears a suit grey in color with a black cowl, cape, and bat symbol. Batman's batsuit aids in his combat against enemies, having the properties of both Kevlar
Kevlar
and Nomex. It protects him from gunfire and other significant impacts. His gloves typically feature three scallops that protrude from long, gauntlet-like cuffs, although in his earliest appearances he wore short, plain gloves without the scallops.[100] The overall look of the character, particularly the length of the cowl's ears and of the cape, varies greatly depending on the artist. Dennis O'Neil said, "We now say that Batman
Batman
has two hundred suits hanging in the Batcave
Batcave
so they don't have to look the same ... Everybody loves to draw Batman, and everybody wants to put their own spin on it."[101]

Batmobile

Main article: Batmobile

The 1966 television Batmobile, built by George Barris from a Lincoln Futura concept car

Batman's primary vehicle is the Batmobile, which is usually depicted as an imposing black car, often with tailfins that suggest a bat's wings. Batman
Batman
also has an aircraft called the Batplane
Batplane
(later called the "Batwing"), along with various other means of transportation. In proper practice, the "bat" prefix (as in Batmobile
Batmobile
or batarang) is rarely used by Batman
Batman
himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals (primarily the 1960s Batman live-action television show and the Super Friends
Super Friends
animated series) stretched the practice to campy proportions. For example, the 1960s television show depicted a Batboat, Bat-Sub, and Batcycle, among other bat-themed vehicles. The 1960s television series Batman
Batman
has an arsenal that includes such "bat-" names as the bat-computer, bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, bat-shark repellent bat-spray, and bat-rope. The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own. In The Dark Knight Returns, Batman
Batman
tells Carrie Kelley that the original Robin
Robin
came up with the name "Batmobile" when he was young, since that is what a kid would call Batman's vehicle. The Batmobile
Batmobile
was redesigned in 2011 when DC Comics
DC Comics
relaunched its entire line of comic books, with the batmobile being given heavier armor and new aesthetics.

Utility belt

Main article: Batman's utility belt Batman
Batman
keeps most of his field equipment in his utility belt. Over the years it has shown to contain an assortment of crime-fighting tools, weapons, and investigative and technological instruments. Different versions of the belt have these items stored in compartments, often as pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it. Batman
Batman
is often depicted as carrying a projectile which shoots a retractable grappling hook attached to a cable. This allows him to attach to distant objects, be propelled into the air, and thus swing from the rooftops of Gotham City. An exception to the range of Batman's equipment are guns, which he refuses to use on principle, since a gun was used in his parents' murder.

Bat-Signal

Main article: Bat-Signal When Batman
Batman
is needed, the Gotham City
Gotham City
police activate a searchlight with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens called the Bat-Signal, which shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham. The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium. In various incarnations, most notably the 1960s Batman
Batman
TV series, Commissioner Gordon
Commissioner Gordon
also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone (in the TV series) which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent top. The line connects directly to Batman's residence, Wayne Manor, specifically both to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study and the extension phone in the Batcave.

Batcave

Main article: Batcave The Batcave
Batcave
is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of a series of subterranean caves beneath his mansion, Wayne Manor. As his command center, the Batcave
Batcave
serves multiple purposes, such as surveillance, and it houses the vehicles and equipment Batman
Batman
uses in his campaign to fight crime. It is also a storeroom for Batman's unique memorabilia collected over the years from various cases he has worked on. In both the comic Batman: Shadow of the Bat
Bat
#45 and the 2005 film Batman Begins, the cave is said to have been part of the Underground Railroad. Supporting characters Main article: List of Batman
Batman
supporting characters Batman's interactions with both villains and cohorts have, over time, developed a strong supporting cast of characters.[84] Adversaries

Batman
Batman
surrounded by his enemies. Art by Alex Ross.

Main article: List of Batman
Batman
Family adversaries Batman
Batman
faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains. Many of them mirror aspects of the Batman's character and development, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime.[102] These foes are commonly referred to as Batman's rogues gallery. Batman's "most implacable foe" is the Joker, a homicidal maniac with a clown-like appearance. The Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary, since he is the antithesis of Batman
Batman
in personality and appearance; the Joker has a maniacal demeanor with a colorful appearance, while Batman
Batman
has a serious and resolute demeanor with a dark appearance. As a "personification of the irrational", the Joker represents "everything Batman
Batman
[opposes]".[36] Other long time recurring foes that are part of Batman's rogues gallery include Catwoman
Catwoman
(a cat burglar antiheroine who is an occasional ally and romantic interest), the Penguin, Ra's al Ghul, Two-Face, the Riddler, the Scarecrow, Mr. Freeze, Poison Ivy, Harley Quinn, Bane, Clayface, and Killer Croc
Killer Croc
among others. Many of Batman's adversaries are often psychiatric patients at Arkham Asylum. Allies Alfred Main article: Alfred Pennyworth Batman's butler, Alfred Pennyworth, first appeared in Batman
Batman
#16 (1943). He serves as Bruce Wayne's loyal father figure and is one of the few persons to know his secret identity. Alfred raised Bruce after his parents' death and knows him on a very personal level. He is sometimes portrayed as a sidekick to Batman
Batman
and the only other resident of Wayne Manor
Wayne Manor
aside from Bruce. The character "[lends] a homely touch to Batman's environs and [is] ever ready to provide a steadying and reassuring hand" to the hero and his sidekick.[102] " Batman
Batman
Family" The informal name " Batman
Batman
family" is used for a group of characters closely allied with Batman, generally masked vigilantes who either have been trained by Batman
Batman
or operate in Gotham City
Gotham City
with his tacit approval. They include: Barbara Gordon, Commissioner Gordon's daughter, who has fought crime under the vigilante identity of Batgirl and, during a period in which she was confined to a wheelchair due to a gunshot wound inflicted by the Joker, the computer hacker Oracle; Helena Bertinelli, the sole surviving member of a mob family turned vigilante, who has worked with Batman
Batman
on occasion, primarily as the Huntress and as Batgirl
Batgirl
for a brief stint; Cassandra Cain, the daughter of professional assassins David Cain, and Lady Shiva, who succeeded Bertinelli as Batgirl. Civilians Lucius Fox, a technology specialist and Bruce Wayne's business manager who is well aware of his employer's clandestine vigilante activities; Dr. Leslie Thompkins, a family friend who like Alfred became a surrogate parental figure to Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
after the deaths of his parents, and is also aware of his secret identity; Vicki Vale, an investigative journalist who often reports on Batman's activities for the Gotham Gazette; Ace the Bat-Hound, Batman's canine partner who was predominantly active in the 1950s and 1960s;[103] and Bat-Mite, an extra-dimensional imp predominately active in the 1960s who idolizes Batman.[103] GCPD Main article: Gotham City
Gotham City
Police Department As Batman's ally in the Gotham City
Gotham City
police, Commissioner James "Jim" Gordon debuted along with Batman
Batman
in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#27 and has been a consistent presence ever since. As a crime-fighting everyman, he shares Batman's goals while offering, much as the character of Watson does in Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
stories, a normal person's perspective on the work of Batman's extraordinary genius. Justice League Main article: Justice League Batman
Batman
is at times a member of superhero teams such as the Justice League of America and the Outsiders. Batman
Batman
has often been paired in adventures with his Justice League
Justice League
teammate Superman, notably as the co-stars of World's Finest and Superman/ Batman
Batman
series. In pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they are still close friends but an uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crime-fighting and justice. In Superman/ Batman
Batman
#3 (December 2003), Superman
Superman
observes, "Sometimes, I admit, I think of Bruce as a man in a costume. Then, with some gadget from his utility belt, he reminds me that he has an extraordinarily inventive mind. And how lucky I am to be able to call on him."[104] Robin

Main article: Robin
Robin
(comics)

Batman
Batman
and Robin. Art by Jack Burnley.

Robin, Batman's vigilante partner, has been a widely recognized supporting character for many years.[105] Bill Finger
Bill Finger
stated that he wanted to include Robin
Robin
because " Batman
Batman
didn't have anyone to talk to, and it got a little tiresome always having him thinking."[106] The first Robin, Dick Grayson, was introduced in 1940. In the 1970s he finally grew up, went off to college and became the hero Nightwing. A second Robin, Jason Todd, appeared in the 1980s. In the stories he was eventually badly beaten and then killed in an explosion set by the Joker, but was later revived. He used the Joker's old persona, the Red Hood, and became an antihero vigilante with no qualms about using firearms or deadly force. Carrie Kelly, the first female Robin
Robin
to appear in Batman
Batman
stories, was the final Robin
Robin
in the continuity of Frank Miller's graphic novels The Dark Knight Returns
The Dark Knight Returns
and The Dark Knight Strikes Again, fighting alongside an aging Batman
Batman
in stories set out of the mainstream continuity. The third Robin
Robin
in mainstream comics is Tim Drake, who first appeared in 1989. He went on to star in his own comic series, and currently goes by Red Robin, a variation on the traditional Robin
Robin
persona. In the first decade of the new millennium, Stephanie Brown served as the fourth in-universe Robin
Robin
between stints as her self-made vigilante identity The Spoiler, and later as Batgirl.[107] After Stephanie Brown's apparent death, Drake resumed the role of Robin
Robin
for a time. The role eventually passed to Damian Wayne, the ten-year-old son of Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
and Talia al Ghul, in the late 2000s.[108] Damian's tenure as du jour Robin
Robin
ended when the character was killed off in the pages of Batman Incorporated
Batman Incorporated
in 2013.[109] Batman's next young sidekick is Harper Row, a streetwise young woman who avoids the name Robin
Robin
but followed the ornithological theme nonetheless; she debuted the codename and identity of Bluebird in 2014. Unlike the Robins, Bluebird is willing and permitted to use a gun, albeit non-lethal; her weapon of choice is a modified rifle that fires taser rounds.[110] In 2015, a new series titled We Are Robin
Robin
will focus on a group of teenagers using the Robin
Robin
persona to fight crime in Gotham City. Wayne family Helena Wayne is the biological daughter of Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
and Selina Kyle of an alternate universe established in the early 1960s (Multiverse) where the Golden Age stories took place. Damian Wayne
Damian Wayne
is the biological son of Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
and Talia al Ghul,[65][111][112] and thus the grandson of Ra's al Ghul. Terry McGinnis
Terry McGinnis
is the biological son of Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
in the DC animated universe, and has taken over the role as Batman
Batman
when Bruce has become too elderly to do it. Romantic interests Writers have varied in the approach over the years to the "playboy" aspect of Bruce Wayne's persona. Some writers show his playboy reputation as a manufactured illusion to support his mission as Batman, while others have depicted Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
as genuinely enjoying the benefits of being "Gotham's most eligible bachelor". Bruce Wayne has been portrayed as being romantically linked with many women throughout his various incarnations. The most significant relationships occurred with Selina Kyle, who is also Catwoman[113] and Talia al Ghul, as both women gave birth to his biological offsprings, Helena Wayne and Damian Wayne, respectively. Batman's first romantic interest was Julie Madison
Julie Madison
in Detective Comics #31 (Sept. 1939), however their romance was short-lived. Some of Batman's romantic interests have been women with a respected status in society, such as Julie Madison, Vicki Vale, and Silver St. Cloud. Batman
Batman
has also been romantically involved with allies, such as Kathy Kane (Batwoman), Sasha Bordeaux, and Wonder Woman, and with villains, such as Selina Kyle (Catwoman), Jezebel Jet, Pamela Isley (Poison Ivy), and Talia al Ghul. Catwoman Main article: Catwoman

Catwoman
Catwoman
is Batman's most enduring romance.[114] Art by Adam Hughes.

While most of Batman's romantic relationships tend to be short in duration, Catwoman
Catwoman
has been his most enduring romance throughout the years.[114] The attraction between Batman
Batman
and Catwoman, whose real name is Selina Kyle, is present in nearly every version and medium in which the characters appear. Although Catwoman
Catwoman
is typically portrayed as a villain, Batman
Batman
and Catwoman
Catwoman
have worked together in achieving common goals and are usually depicted as having a romantic connection. In an early 1980s storyline, Selina Kyle and Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
develop a relationship, in which the closing panel of the final story shows her referring to Batman
Batman
as "Bruce". However, a change in the editorial team brought a swift end to that storyline and, apparently, all that transpired during the story arc. Out of costume, Bruce and Selina develop a romantic relationship during The Long Halloween. The story shows Selina saving Bruce from Poison Ivy. However, the relationship ends when Bruce rejects her advances twice; once as Bruce and once as Batman. In Batman: Dark Victory, he stands her up on two holidays, causing her to leave him for good and to leave Gotham City
Gotham City
for a while. When the two meet at an opera many years later, during the events of the twelve-issue story arc called "Hush", Bruce comments that the two no longer have a relationship as Bruce and Selina. However, "Hush" sees Batman
Batman
and Catwoman
Catwoman
allied against the entire rogues gallery and rekindling their romantic relationship. In "'Hush", Batman
Batman
reveals his true identity to Catwoman. The Earth-Two Batman, a character from a parallel world, partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Selina Kyle, as shown in Superman Family #211. They have a daughter named Helena Wayne, who becomes the Huntress. Along with Dick Grayson, the Earth-Two Robin, the Huntress takes the role as Gotham's protector once Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
retires to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman. Batman
Batman
and Catwoman
Catwoman
are shown having a sexual encounter on the roof of a building in Catwoman
Catwoman
vol. 4, #1 (2011); the same issue implies that the two have an ongoing sexual relationship.[115] Following the 2016 DC Rebirth
DC Rebirth
continuity reboot, the two once again have a sexual encounter on top of a building in Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #14 (2017).[116] Following the 2016 DC Rebirth
DC Rebirth
continuity reboot, Batman
Batman
and Catwoman work together in the third volume of Batman. The two also have a romantic relationship, in which they are shown having a sexual encounter on a rooftop and sleeping together.[116][117][118] Bruce proposes to Selina in Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #24 (2017),[119] and in issue #32, Selina asks Bruce to propose to her again. When he does so, she says, "Yes." [120] Batman
Batman
Annual vol. 3, #2 (January 2018) centers on a romantic storyline between Batman
Batman
and Catwoman. Towards the end, the story is flash-forwarded to the future, in which Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
and Selina Kyle are a married couple in their golden years. Bruce receives a terminal medical diagnosis, and Selina cares for him until his death.[121] Fictional character biography Batman's history has undergone many retroactive continuity revisions, both minor and major. Elements of the character's history have varied greatly. Scholars William Uricchio and Roberta E. Pearson noted in the early 1990s, "Unlike some fictional characters, the Batman
Batman
has no primary urtext set in a specific period, but has rather existed in a plethora of equally valid texts constantly appearing over more than five decades."[122] 20th century Origin

Thomas and Martha Wayne
Martha Wayne
are shot by Joe Chill
Joe Chill
in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#33 (Nov. 1939). Art by Bob Kane.

The central fixed event in the Batman
Batman
stories is the character's origin story.[84] As a young boy, Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
was horrified and traumatized when he watched his parents, the physician Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, murdered with a gun by a mugger named Joe Chill. Batman
Batman
refuses to utilize any sort of gun on the principle that a gun was used to murder his parents. This event drove him to train his body to its peak condition and fight crime in Gotham City
Gotham City
as Batman. Pearson and Uricchio also noted beyond the origin story and such events as the introduction of Robin, "Until recently, the fixed and accruing and hence, canonized, events have been few in number",[84] a situation altered by an increased effort by later Batman
Batman
editors such as Dennis O'Neil
Dennis O'Neil
to ensure consistency and continuity between stories.[123] Golden Age See also: Batman
Batman
(Earth-Two) In Batman's first appearance in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#27, he is already operating as a crime-fighter.[124] Batman's origin is first presented in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#33 (November 1939) and is later expanded upon in Batman
Batman
#47. As these comics state, Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
is born to Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable Gotham City socialites. Bruce is brought up in Wayne Manor, and leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of eight, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named Joe Chill
Joe Chill
while on their way home from a movie theater. That night, Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
swears an oath to spend his life fighting crime. He engages in intense intellectual and physical training; however, he realizes that these skills alone would not be enough. "Criminals are a superstitious cowardly lot", Wayne remarks, "so my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts. I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible ..." As if responding to his desires, a bat suddenly flies through the window, inspiring Bruce to craft the Batman
Batman
persona.[125] In early strips, Batman's career as a vigilante earns him the ire of the police. During this period, Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
has a fiancée named Julie Madison.[126] In Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#38, Wayne takes in an orphaned circus acrobat, Dick Grayson, who becomes his vigilante partner, Robin. Batman
Batman
also becomes a founding member of the Justice Society of America,[127] although he, like Superman, is an honorary member,[128] and thus only participates occasionally. Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of Gotham City's police department.[129] During this time, Alfred Pennyworth arrives at Wayne Manor, and after deducing the Dynamic Duo's secret identities, joins their service as their butler.[130] Silver Age The Silver Age of Comic Books
Silver Age of Comic Books
in DC Comics
DC Comics
is sometimes held to have begun in 1956 when the publisher introduced Barry Allen as a new, updated version of The Flash. Batman
Batman
is not significantly changed by the late 1950s for the continuity which would be later referred to as Earth-One. The lighter tone Batman
Batman
had taken in the period between the Golden and Silver Ages led to the stories of the late 1950s and early 1960s that often feature many science-fiction elements, and Batman
Batman
is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#327 (May 1964), in which Batman
Batman
reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series. After the introduction of DC Comics' multiverse in the 1960s, DC established that stories from the Golden Age star the Earth-Two Batman, a character from a parallel world. This version of Batman partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Catwoman, Selina Kyle. The two have a daughter, Helena Wayne, who becomes the Huntress. She assumes the position as Gotham's protector along with Dick Grayson, the Earth-Two Robin, once Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
retires to become police commissioner. Wayne holds the position of police commissioner until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman. Batman
Batman
titles however often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen (since unlike The Flash or Green Lantern, Batman
Batman
comics had been published without interruption through the 1950s) and would occasionally make reference to stories from the Golden Age.[131] Nevertheless, details of Batman's history were altered or expanded upon through the decades. Additions include meetings with a future Superman
Superman
during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne (introduced in Batman
Batman
#208, January/February 1969) after his parents' death, and appearances of his father and himself as prototypical versions of Batman
Batman
and Robin, respectively.[132][133] In 1980 then-editor Paul Levitz
Paul Levitz
commissioned the Untold Legend of the Batman
Batman
limited series to thoroughly chronicle Batman's origin and history. Batman
Batman
meets and regularly works with other heroes during the Silver Age, most notably Superman, whom he began regularly working alongside in a series of team-ups in World's Finest Comics, starting in 1954 and continuing through the series' cancellation in 1986. Batman
Batman
and Superman
Superman
are usually depicted as close friends. As a founding member of the Justice League
Justice League
of America, Batman
Batman
appears in its first story, in 1960's Brave and the Bold
Brave and the Bold
#28. In the 1970s and 1980s, Brave and the Bold became a Batman
Batman
title, in which Batman
Batman
teams up with a different DC Universe
DC Universe
superhero each month. Bronze Age In 1969, Dick Grayson
Dick Grayson
attends college as part of DC Comics' effort to revise the Batman
Batman
comics. Additionally, Batman
Batman
also moves from his mansion, Wayne Manor
Wayne Manor
into a penthouse apartment atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime. Batman
Batman
spends the 1970s and early 1980s mainly working solo, with occasional team-ups with Robin
Robin
and/or Batgirl. Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crimes, including the first appearance (since the early Golden Age) of the Joker as a homicidal psychopath, and the arrival of Ra's al Ghul, a centuries-old terrorist who knows Batman's secret identity. In the 1980s, Dick Grayson becomes Nightwing.[7] In the final issue of Brave and the Bold
Brave and the Bold
in 1983, Batman
Batman
quits the Justice League
Justice League
and forms a new group called the Outsiders. He serves as the team's leader until Batman
Batman
and the Outsiders #32 (1986) and the comic subsequently changed its title. Modern Age After the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics retconned the histories of some major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences. Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline "Year One" from Batman
Batman
#404–407, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character.[134] Though the Earth-Two Batman
Batman
is erased from history, many stories of Batman's Silver Age/ Earth-One
Earth-One
career (along with an amount of Golden Age ones) remain canonical in the post-Crisis universe, with his origins remaining the same in essence, despite alteration. For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence. The guardian Phillip Wayne is removed leaving young Bruce to be raised by Alfred Pennyworth. Additionally, Batman
Batman
is no longer a founding member of the Justice League
Justice League
of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in 1987. To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman
Batman
following Crisis, DC launched a new Batman
Batman
title called Legends of the Dark Knight
Legends of the Dark Knight
in 1989 and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period. Subsequently, Batman
Batman
begins exhibiting an excessive, reckless approach to his crime-fighting, a result of the pain of losing Jason Todd. Batman
Batman
works solo until the decade's close, when Tim Drake
Tim Drake
becomes the new Robin.[135] Many of the major Batman
Batman
storylines since the 1990s have been inter-title crossovers that run for a number of issues. In 1993, DC published "Knightfall". During the storyline's first phase, the new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask Azrael
Azrael
to take on the role. After the end of "Knightfall", the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman
Batman
once more. The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd", as Azrael
Azrael
becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne. Wayne hands the Batman
Batman
mantle to Dick Grayson (then Nightwing) for an interim period, while Wayne trains for a return to the role.[136] The 1994 company-wide crossover storyline "Zero Hour" changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman. Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now considers Batman
Batman
an urban legend rather than a known force. Batman
Batman
once again becomes a member of the Justice League
Justice League
during Grant Morrison's 1996 relaunch of the series, titled JLA. During this time, Gotham City
Gotham City
faces catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc. In 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline, Gotham City
Gotham City
is devastated by an earthquake and ultimately cut off from the United States. Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman
Batman
fights to reclaim the city from legions of gangs during 1999's "No Man's Land". Meanwhile, Batman's relationship with the Gotham City
Gotham City
Police Department changed for the worse with the events of "Batman: Officer Down" and "Batman: War Games/War Crimes"; Batman's long-time law enforcement allies Commissioner Gordon
Commissioner Gordon
and Harvey Bullock are forced out of the police department in "Officer Down", while "War Games" and "War Crimes" saw Batman
Batman
become a wanted fugitive after a contingency plan of his to neutralize Gotham City's criminal underworld is accidentally triggered, resulting in a massive gang war that ends with the sadistic Black Mask the undisputed ruler of the city's criminal gangs. Lex Luthor
Lex Luthor
arranges for the murder of Batman's on-again, off-again love interest Vesper (introduced in the mid-1990s) during the "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?" and "Bruce Wayne: Fugitive" story arcs. Though Batman
Batman
is able to clear his name, he loses another ally in the form of his new bodyguard Sasha, who is recruited into the organization known as "Checkmate" while stuck in prison due to her refusal to turn state's evidence against her employer. While he was unable to prove that Luthor was behind the murder of Vesper, Batman does get his revenge with help from Talia al Ghul
Talia al Ghul
in Superman/Batman #1–6. 21st century 2000s DC Comics' 2005 limited series Identity Crisis reveals that JLA member Zatanna
Zatanna
had edited Batman's memories to prevent him from stopping the Justice League
Justice League
from lobotomizing Dr. Light after he raped Sue Dibny. Batman
Batman
later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over and if necessary, kill the other heroes after he remembered. The revelation of Batman's creation and his tacit responsibility for Blue Beetle's death becomes a driving force in the lead-up to the Infinite Crisis
Infinite Crisis
miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity. Batman
Batman
and a team of superheroes destroy Brother Eye and the OMACs, though at the very end Batman
Batman
reaches his apparent breaking point when Alexander Luthor Jr. seriously wounds Nightwing. Picking up a gun, Batman
Batman
nearly shoots Luthor in order to avenge his former sidekick, until Wonder Woman
Wonder Woman
convinces him to not pull the trigger. Following Infinite Crisis, Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson
Dick Grayson
(having recovered from his wounds), and Tim Drake
Tim Drake
retrace the steps Bruce had taken when he originally left Gotham City, to "rebuild Batman".[137] In the Face the Face storyline, Batman
Batman
and Robin
Robin
return to Gotham City
Gotham City
after their year-long absence. Part of this absence is captured during Week 30 of the 52 series, which shows Batman
Batman
fighting his inner demons.[138] Later on in 52, Batman
Batman
is shown undergoing an intense meditation ritual in Nanda Parbat. This becomes an important part of the regular Batman
Batman
title, which reveals that Batman
Batman
is reborn as a more effective crime fighter while undergoing this ritual, having "hunted down and ate" the last traces of fear in his mind.[139][140] At the end of the "Face the Face" story arc, Bruce officially adopts Tim (who had lost both of his parents at various points in the character's history) as his son.[141] The follow-up story arc in Batman, Batman
Batman
and Son, introduces Damian Wayne, who is Batman's son with Talia al Ghul. Although originally in Son of the Demon, Bruce's coupling with Talia was implied to be consensual, this arc ret-conned it into Talia forcing herself on Bruce.[142] Batman, along with Superman
Superman
and Wonder Woman, reforms the Justice League in the new Justice League
Justice League
of America series,[143] and is leading the newest incarnation of the Outsiders.[144] Grant Morrison's 2008 storyline, " Batman
Batman
R.I.P." featured Batman
Batman
being physically and mentally broken by the enigmatic villain Doctor Hurt and attracted news coverage in advance of its highly promoted conclusion, which would speculated to feature the death of Bruce Wayne.[145][146] However, though Batman
Batman
is shown to possibly perish at the end of the arc, the two-issue arc "Last Rites", which leads into the crossover storylines "Final Crisis", shows that Batman
Batman
survives his helicopter crash into the Gotham City
Gotham City
River and returns to the Batcave, only to be summoned to the Hall of Justice by the JLA to help investigate the New God Orion's death. The story ends with Batman retrieving the god-killing bullet used to kill Orion, setting up its use in "Final Crisis".[147] In the pages of Final Crisis
Final Crisis
Batman
Batman
is reduced to a charred skeleton.[148] In Final Crisis
Final Crisis
#7 Wayne is shown witnessing the passing of the first man, Anthro.[149][150] Wayne's "death" sets up the three-issue Battle for the Cowl
Cowl
miniseries in which Wayne's ex-proteges compete for the "right" to assume the role of Batman, which concludes with Grayson becoming Batman,[151] while Tim Drake
Tim Drake
takes on the identity of Red Robin.[152] Dick and Damian continue as Batman
Batman
and Robin, and in the crossover storyline "Blackest Night", what appears to be Bruce's corpse is reanimated as a Black Lantern zombie,[153] but is later shown that Bruce's corpse is one of Darkseid's failed Batman
Batman
clones. Dick and Batman's other friends conclude that Bruce is alive.[154][155] 2010s Bruce subsequently returned in Morrison's miniseries Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne, which depicted his travels through time from prehistory to present-day Gotham.[156][157][158] Bruce's return set up Batman
Batman
Incorporated, an ongoing series which focused on Wayne franchising the Batman
Batman
identity across the globe, allowing Dick and Damian to continue as Gotham's Dynamic Duo. Bruce publicly announced that Wayne Enterprises
Wayne Enterprises
will aid Batman
Batman
on his mission, known as "Batman, Incorporated". However, due to rebooted continuity that occurred as part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of all of its comic books, the New 52, Dick Grayson
Dick Grayson
was restored as Nightwing
Nightwing
with Wayne serving as the sole Batman
Batman
once again. The relaunch also interrupted the publication of Batman, Incorporated, which resumed its story in 2012–2013 with changes to suit the new status quo. Cultural impact Batman
Batman
has become a pop culture icon, recognized around the world. The character's presence has extended beyond his comic book origins; events such as the release of the 1989 Batman
Batman
film and its accompanying merchandising "brought the Batman
Batman
to the forefront of public consciousness".[159] In an article commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of the character, The Guardian
The Guardian
wrote, " Batman
Batman
is a figure blurred by the endless reinvention that is modern mass culture. He is at once an icon and a commodity: the perfect cultural artefact for the 21st century."[160] In other media Main article: Batman
Batman
franchise media

Adam West
Adam West
as Batman
Batman
(right) and Burt Ward
Burt Ward
as Robin
Robin
in the 1960s Batman TV series

The character of Batman
Batman
has appeared in various media aside from comic books, such as newspaper syndicated comic strips, books, radio dramas, television, a stage show, and several theatrical feature films. The first adaptation of Batman
Batman
was as a daily newspaper comic strip which premiered on October 25, 1943.[161] That same year the character was adapted in the 15-part serial Batman, with Lewis Wilson becoming the first actor to portray Batman
Batman
on screen. While Batman
Batman
never had a radio series of his own, the character made occasional guest appearances in The Adventures of Superman
Superman
starting in 1945 on occasions when Superman
Superman
voice actor Bud Collyer
Bud Collyer
needed time off.[162] A second movie serial, Batman
Batman
and Robin, followed in 1949, with Robert Lowery taking over the role of Batman. The exposure provided by these adaptations during the 1940s "helped make [Batman] a household name for millions who never bought a comic book".[162] In the 1964 publication of Donald Barthelme's collection of short stories "Come Back, Dr. Caligari", Barthelme wrote "The Joker's Greatest Triumph". Batman
Batman
is portrayed for purposes of spoof as a pretentious French-speaking rich man.[163] Television The Batman
Batman
television series, starring Adam West, premiered in January 1966 on the ABC television network. Inflected with a camp sense of humor, the show became a pop culture phenomenon. In his memoir, Back to the Batcave, West notes his dislike for the term 'camp' as it was applied to the 1960s series, opining that the show was instead a farce or lampoon, and a deliberate one, at that. The series ran for 120 episodes; ending in 1968. In between the first and second season of the Batman
Batman
television series, the cast and crew made the theatrical film Batman
Batman
(1966). The Who
The Who
recorded the theme song from the Batman show for their 1966 EP Ready Steady Who, and The Kinks
The Kinks
performed the theme song on their 1967 album Live at Kelvin Hall. The popularity of the Batman
Batman
TV series also resulted in the first animated adaptation of Batman
Batman
in The Batman/ Superman
Superman
Hour;[164] the Batman
Batman
segments of the series were repackaged as The Adventures of Batman
Batman
and Batman
Batman
with Robin
Robin
the Boy Wonder which produced thirty-three episodes between 1968 and 1977. From 1973 until 1986, Batman
Batman
had a starring role in ABC's Super Friends
Super Friends
series; which was animated by Hanna-Barbera. Olan Soule was the voice of Batman
Batman
in all these shows, but was eventually replaced during Super Friends
Super Friends
by Adam West, who also voiced the character in Filmation's 1977 series The New Adventures of Batman.

Batman
Batman
as depicted in the award-winning 1990s Batman: The Animated Series

In 1992, Batman: The Animated Series premiered on the Fox television network; produced by Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Animation and featuring Kevin Conroy as the voice of Batman. The series received considerable acclaim for its darker tone, mature writing, stylistic design, and thematic complexity compared to previous superhero cartoons,[165][166] in addition to multiple Emmy Awards.[167] The series' success led to the theatrical film Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993),[168] as well as various spin-off TV series; including Superman: The Animated Series, The New Batman
Batman
Adventures, Justice League
Justice League
and Justice League
Justice League
Unlimited (each of which also featured Conroy as Batman's voice). The futuristic series Batman
Batman
Beyond also took place in this same animated continuity and featured a newer, younger Batman
Batman
voiced by Will Friedle, with the elderly Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
(again voiced by Conroy) as a mentor. In 2004, an unrelated animated series titled The Batman
Batman
made its debut with Rino Romano voicing Batman. In 2008, this show was replaced by another animated series, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, featuring Diedrich Bader's voice as Batman. In 2013, a new CGI-animated series titled Beware the Batman
Batman
made its debut, with Anthony Ruivivar
Anthony Ruivivar
voicing Batman.[169] In 2014, the live-action TV series Gotham premiered on the Fox network, featuring David Mazouz
David Mazouz
as a 12-year-old Bruce Wayne. To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the character, Warner Bros aired the television short film, Batman: Strange Days, that was also posted on DC's YouTube channel. Film Main article: Batman
Batman
in film

Michael Keaton
Michael Keaton
as Batman, with Kim Basinger
Kim Basinger
in the 1989 Batman
Batman
film

In 1989, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
released the live-action feature film Batman; directed by Tim Burton
Tim Burton
and starring Michael Keaton
Michael Keaton
as the title character. The film was a huge success; not only was it the top-grossing film of the year, but at the time was the fifth highest-grossing film in history.[170] The film also won the Academy Award for Best Art Direction.[171] The film's success spawned three sequels: Batman
Batman
Returns (1992), Batman
Batman
Forever (1995) and Batman
Batman
& Robin
Robin
(1997); the latter two of which were directed by Joel Schumacher instead of Burton, and replaced Keaton as Batman
Batman
with Val Kilmer
Val Kilmer
and George Clooney, respectively. The second Schumacher film failed to outgross any of its predecessors and was critically panned; causing Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
to cancel the planned fourth sequel, Batman Unchained,[172] and end the initial film series. In 2005, Batman
Batman
Begins was released by Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
as a reboot of the film series; directed by Christopher Nolan
Christopher Nolan
and starring Christian Bale as Batman. Its sequel, The Dark Knight (2008), set the record for the highest grossing opening weekend of all time in the U.S., earning approximately $158 million,[173] and became the fastest film to reach the $400 million mark in the history of American cinema (eighteenth day of release).[174] These record-breaking attendances saw The Dark Knight end its run as the second-highest domestic grossing film (at the time) with $533 million, bested then only by Titanic.[175] The film also won two Academy Awards, including Best Supporting Actor for the late Heath Ledger.[176] It was eventually followed by The Dark Knight Rises (2012), which served as a conclusion to Nolan's film series.

Promotional poster of Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
as Batman
Batman
in the DC Extended Universe

Since 2008, Batman
Batman
has also starred in various direct-to-video animated films under the DC Universe
DC Universe
Animated Original Movies banner. Kevin Conroy
Kevin Conroy
has reprised his voice role of Batman
Batman
for several of these films, while others have featured celebrity voice actors in the role; including Jeremy Sisto, William Baldwin, Bruce Greenwood, Ben McKenzie, and Peter Weller.[177] A Lego-themed version of Batman
Batman
was also featured as one of the protagonists in the animated film The Lego Movie (2014), with Will Arnett
Will Arnett
providing the voice.[178] Arnett reprised the voice role for the spin-off film The Lego
Lego
Batman
Batman
Movie (2017).[179] In 2016, Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
began portraying Batman
Batman
in the DC Extended Universe with the release of the film Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice, directed by Zack Snyder.[180] Affleck also made a cameo appearance as Batman
Batman
in David Ayer's film Suicide Squad
Suicide Squad
(2016).[181] Affleck reprised the role in the 2017 film Justice League[182] and will star in an upcoming Batman
Batman
film,[183] also set in the DC Extended Universe.[184][185][186] Video games See also: List of Batman
Batman
video games Since 1986, Batman
Batman
has starred in multiple video games, most of which were adaptations of the various cinematic or animated incarnations of the character. Among the most successful of these games is the Batman: Arkham series. The first installment, Batman: Arkham Asylum
Arkham Asylum
(2009), was released by Rocksteady Studios
Rocksteady Studios
to critical acclaim; review aggregator Metacritic
Metacritic
reports it as having received 92% positive reviews.[187] It was followed by the sequel Batman: Arkham City (2011), which also received widespread acclaim and holds a Metacritic ranking of 94%.[188] A prequel game titled Batman: Arkham Origins (2013) was later released by WB Games Montréal.[189] A fourth game titled Batman: Arkham Knight
Arkham Knight
(2015) has also been released by Rocksteady.[190] As with most animated Batman
Batman
productions, Kevin Conroy has provided the voice of the character for these games; excluding Arkham Origins, in which the younger Batman
Batman
is voiced by Roger Craig Smith. In 2016, Telltale Games released Batman: The Telltale Series adventure game, which changed the Wayne Family's history as it is depicted in the Batman
Batman
mythos.[191] A sequel, titled Batman: The Enemy Within, was released in 2017. [192] Interpretations Gay interpretations Further information: Homosexuality in the Batman
Batman
franchise Gay interpretations of the character have been part of the academic study of Batman
Batman
since psychologist Fredric Wertham
Fredric Wertham
asserted in Seduction of the Innocent
Seduction of the Innocent
in 1954 that " Batman
Batman
stories are psychologically homosexual ... The Batman
Batman
type of story may stimulate children to homosexual fantasies, of the nature of which they may be unconscious."[193] Andy Medhurst wrote in his 1991 essay "Batman, Deviance, and Camp" that Batman
Batman
is interesting to gay audiences because "he was one of the first fictional characters to be attacked on the grounds of his presumed homosexuality".[194] Professor of film and cultural studies Will Brooker argues the validity of a queer reading of Batman, and that gay readers would naturally find themselves drawn to the lifestyle depicted within, whether the character of Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
himself were explicitly gay or not. He also identifies a homophobic element to the vigor with which mainstream fandom rejects the possibility of a gay reading of the character.[195] Creators associated with the character have expressed their own opinions. Writer Alan Grant has stated, "The Batman
Batman
I wrote for 13 years isn't gay ... everybody's Batman
Batman
all the way back to Bob Kane ... none of them wrote him as a gay character. Only Joel Schumacher might have had an opposing view."[196] Frank Miller views the character as sublimating his sexual urges into crimefighting, concluding, "He'd be much healthier if he were gay."[197] Grant Morrison said that "Gayness is built into Batman ... Obviously as a fictional character he's intended to be heterosexual, but the basis of the whole concept is utterly gay. I think that's why people like it. All these women fancy him and they all wear fetish clothes and jump around rooftops to get to him. He doesn't care—he's more interested in hanging out with the old guy and the kid."[198] In 2000, DC refused permission for the reprinting of four panels (from Batman
Batman
#79, 92, 105, and 139) to illustrate Christopher York's paper All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman
Batman
Comics in the 1950s.[199] In 2005, painter Mark Chamberlain displayed a number of watercolors depicting both Batman
Batman
and Robin
Robin
in suggestive and sexually explicit poses,[200] prompting DC to threaten legal action.[201] Psychological interpretations Batman
Batman
has been the subject of psychological study for some time, and there have been a number of interpretations into the character's psyche. In Batman
Batman
and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight, Travis Langley argues that the concept of archetypes as described by psychologists Carl Jung
Carl Jung
and Joseph Campbell
Joseph Campbell
is present in the Batman
Batman
mythos, such that the character represents the "shadow archetype". This archetype, according to Langley, represents a person's own dark side; it is not necessarily an evil one, but rather one that is hidden from the outside and concealed from both the world and oneself. Langley argues that Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
confronts his own darkness early in life; he chooses to use it to instill fear in wrongdoers, with his bright and dark sides working together to fight evil. Langley uses the Jungian perspective to assert that Batman
Batman
appeals to our own need to face our "shadow selves".[202][203] References

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Book
Encyclopedia (Harper Entertainment, New York, 2004) ISBN 978-0-06-053816-3 ^ Batman
Batman
#242 (June 1972) ^ Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#846 (Sept. 2008) ^ a b " DC Entertainment
DC Entertainment
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Batman
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Batman
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Bill Finger
Has A Creator Credit On This Week's Batman
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Book
Heroes Volume 1 Batman
Batman
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Heroes. New York: Billboard Books/Watson-Guptill Publications, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8230-7919-3, p. 23. ^ Boichel, Bill. "Batman: Commodity as Myth." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero
Superhero
and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6, pp. 6–7. ^ Les Daniels. Batman
Batman
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Nation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8018-7450-5, p. 19. ^ a b Daniels (1999), p. 29 ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p), Sheldon Moldoff (i). "The Batman
Batman
and How He Came to Be" Detective Comics 33: 1–2 (Nov. 1939), DC Comics ^ Detective Comics
Detective Comics
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and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6, p. 18. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 140. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 141. ^ " Batman
Batman
Artist Rogers is Dead". SciFi Wire. March 28, 2007. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009 : "Even though their Batman run was only six issues, the three laid the foundation for later Batman
Batman
comics. Their stories include the classic 'Laughing Fish' (in which the Joker's face appeared on fish); they were adapted for Batman: The Animated Series in the 1990s. Earlier drafts of the 1989 Batman
Batman
movie with Michael Keaton
Michael Keaton
as the Dark Knight were based heavily on their work." ^ Boichel, p. 15 ^ Daniels (1999), pp. 147, 149. ^ Wright, p. 267. ^ Daniels (1999), pp. 155, 157. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 161. ^ Weldon, Glen (2016). The Caped Crusade: Batman
Batman
and the Rise of Nerd Culture. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4767-5669-1. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b c d "2000s". DC Comics
DC Comics
Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. 2010. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.  ^ "Diamond's 2005 Year-End Sales Charts & Market Share". newsarama.com. 2006. Archived from the original on May 25, 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2006.  ^ "July 2005 Sales Charts: All-Star Batman
Batman
& Robin
Robin
Lives Up To Its Name". newsarama.com. 2005. Archived from the original on September 7, 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2006.  ^ Review by Iann Robinson, Crave Online ^ Review by William Gatevackes, PopMatters, February 10, 2006 Archived January 18, 2010, at WebCite ^ a b c Phillips, Dan (August 8, 2009). "Grant Morrison's New Batman and Robin". IGN. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2009.  ^ George, Richard (March 11, 2009). "Morrison discusses Batman
Batman
and Robin". IGN. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2009.  ^ Wilkins, Alasdair (June 27, 2009). " Batman
Batman
Is Reborn ... With A Vengeance". io9. Archived from the original on June 30, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.  ^ Joshua Yehl (March 23, 2016). "Batman's Scott Snyder
Scott Snyder
and Greg Capullo on the New Batsuit
Batsuit
and Bloom's Identity". IGN. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016.  ^ "'Dark Knight III: The Master Race' Comic Book
Book
Prompts Reflection and a Look Ahead". The New York Times. November 23, 2015. Archived from the original on November 26, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2017.  ^ ""Action," "Detective Comics" Return To Original Numbering For "Rebirth"". ComicBookResources.com. February 18, 2016. Archived from the original on February 23, 2016. "Action Comics'" numbering will pick up with #957 and "Detective" will be at #934. Both series will be released on a twice-monthly schedule, at a $2.99 price.  ^ Johnston, Rich (October 6, 2017). "The End Of DC Rebirth
DC Rebirth
Announced At New York Comic-Con". bleedingcool. Retrieved March 11, 2018.  ^ Bonthuys, Darryn (December 1, 2017). "The Rebirth era is over, as a new direction begins in DC Universe". criticalhit. Retrieved March 11, 2018.  ^ Dennis O'Neil
Dennis O'Neil
Batman: Knightfall. 1994, Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-09673-6 ^ Daniels, 1999[page needed] ^ Pearson & Uricchio (1991), p. 202 ^ Morrison, Grant (w).  Batman Incorporated
Batman Incorporated
v2, 0 (September 2012), DC Comics ^ Scott Beatty, The Batman
Batman
Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual. 2005, Quirk Books, p51. ISBN 978-1-59474-023-7 ^ Aichele, G. (1997). Rewriting Superman. In G. Aichele & T. Pippin (Eds.), The Monstrous and the Unspeakable: The Bible as Fantastic Literature, pp. 75–101. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. ^ Superman
Superman
vol. 2, #53 ^ Boucher, Geoff (Aug 13, 2010). " Batman
Batman
versus Superman
Superman
as class warfare? Grant Morrison: 'Bruce has a butler, Clark has a boss'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012.  ^ T. James Musler. 2006. Unleashing the Superhero
Superhero
in Us All. ^ Brooker, Will (2001). Batman
Batman
Unmasked. NY/London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-8264-1343-7.  ^ http://readcomiconline.to/Comic/Detective-Comics-1937/Issue-33?id=5141&readType=1 ^ a b c d e Pearson; Uricchio. "'I'm Not Fooled By That Cheap Disguise.'" p. 186. ^ Pearson; Uricchio. "Notes from the Batcave: An Interview with Dennis O'Neil" p. 23. ^ Daniels (1999), p. 31. ^ a b c Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#33, November 1939, Bill Finger, Bob Kane ^ a b c Batman
Batman
#1 Spring 1940, Bill Finger, Bob Kane ^ Pearson & Uricchio (1991), p. 194 ^ Sharrett, Christopher. " Batman
Batman
and the Twilight of the Idols: An Interview with Frank Miller". The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero
Superhero
and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6, p. 44. ^ Pearson, p. 208. ^ Dennis O'Neil, Wizard Batman
Batman
Special
Special
1998 ^ a b Terrence R. Wandtke. The Amazing Transforming Superhero!: Essays on the Revision of Characters on the Revision of Characters in Comic Books, Film and Television. p. 91.  ^ Alex S. Romagnoli; Gian S. Pagnucci. Enter the Superheroes: American Values, Culture, and the Canon of Superhero
Superhero
Literature. p. 27.  ^ Mike Conray, 500 Great Comicbook Action Heroes. 2002, Collins & Brown. ISBN 978-1-84411-004-9 ^ Greenberger, Robert (2008). The Essential Batman
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Ed Benes
and Jack Herbert (p). "Superman: Doomed" Superman 31 (July 2014), DC Comics ^ a b c Daniels (1999) ^ Daniels (1999), p. 98. ^ Daniels (1999), pp. 159–60. ^ a b Boichel, p. 8. ^ a b Daniels (1995), p. 138. ^ Loeb, Jeph (w), McGuinness, Ed (p), Vines, Dexter (i). "Running Wild" Superman/Batman 3 (December 2003), DC Comics ^ Boichel, p. 7. ^ Langley, Travis (2012). Batman
Batman
and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight. John Wiley & Sons. p. 179.  ^ Langley, 180–210 ^ Esposito, Joey (March 5, 2013). "Why Damian Wayne
Damian Wayne
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Damian Wayne
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Batman
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Batman
#666 (page 2) ^ Grant Morrison. Batman
Batman
#676 ^ geek-news.mtv.com/2011/03/22/batman's-top-10-love-interests/[dead link] ^ a b "Batman's Top 10 Love Interests". MTV News. 2011-03-22. Archived from the original on 2016-04-10. Retrieved 2016-05-01.  ^ Catwoman
Catwoman
#1 (September 2011) ^ a b Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #14 (March 2017) ^ Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #15 (March 2017) ^ Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #32 (December 2017) ^ Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #24 (August 2017) ^ Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #32 (December 2017) ^ Batman
Batman
vol. 3, #32 (December 2017) ^ Batman
Batman
Annual vol. 3, #2 (January 2018) ^ Pearson, p. 191. ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate" Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#27 (May 1939), DC Comics ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The Batman
Batman
Wars Against the Dirigible of Doom" Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#33 (November 1939), DC Comics ^ She first appears in Detective Comics
Detective Comics
#31 (Sept. 1939) ^ Paul Levitz (w), Joe Staton (p). "The Untold Origin of the Justice Society" DC Special 29 (August/September 1977), DC Comics ^ Gardner Fox (w). All Star Comics 3 (Winter 1940/41), DC Comics ^ Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). Batman 7 (November 1941), DC Comics ^ Batman
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#16 (May 1943); his original last name, Beagle, is revealed in Detective Comics
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#96 (Feb. 1945) ^ One example is the Englehart/Rogers run of the late 1970s, which has editorial notes directing readers to issues such as Batman
Batman
#1 ^ Bill Finger (w), Sheldon Moldoff (p). "The First Batman" Detective Comics 235 (September 1956), DC Comics ^ Edmond Hamilton (w), Dick Sprang (p). "When Batman
Batman
Was Robin" Detective Comics 226 (December 1955), DC Comics ^ Miller, Frank; David Mazzucchelli; Richmond Lewis (1987). Batman: Year One. DC Comics. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-85286-077-6.  ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p). "Master of Fear" Batman 457 (December 1990), DC Comics ^ Dixon, Chuck. et al. "Batman: Prodigal". Batman
Batman
512–514, Shadow of the Bat
Bat
32–34, Detective Comics
Detective Comics
679–681, Robin
Robin
11–13. New York: DC Comics, 1995. ^ "Infinite Crisis" #7, p. 32 ^ 52 #30 ^ Batman
Batman
#673 ^ Batman
Batman
#681 ^ James Robinson (w), Don Kramer (p). "Face the Face – Conclusion" Batman 654 (August 2006), DC Comics ^ Batman
Batman
issue 656 published October 2006: Bruce: "I remember being drugged senseless and refusing to co-operate in some depraved eugenics experiment." Talia: "Believe me, you cooperated ... magnificently." ^ Brad Meltzer (w), Ed Benes (p). "The Tornado's Path" Justice League
Justice League
of America (vol. 2) 1 (August 2006), DC Comics ^ Chuck Dixon (w), Julian Lopex (p).  Batman
Batman
and the Outsiders (vol. 2) 1 (November 2007), DC Comics ^ Rothstein, Simon. " Batman
Batman
killed by his OWN dad". November 28, 2008. The Sun. Archived November 28, 2008. ^ Adams, Guy. "Holy smoke, Batman! Are you dead?" November 28, 2008, The Independent. Archived November 28, 2008. ^ Newsarama: " Batman
Batman
R.I.P. – Finally?" January 15, 2009 Archived January 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Grant Morrison (w), J. G. Jones (p). "How to Murder the Earth" Final Crisis
Final Crisis
#6 (January 2009), DC Comics ^ Grant Morrison (w).  Final Crisis
Final Crisis
#7 (January 2009), DC Comics ^ "Grant Morrison: Final Crisis
Final Crisis
Exit Interview, Part 2". Archived from the original on May 20, 2012.  ^ Tony Daniel (w). Battle for the Cowl
Cowl
#3 (May 2009), DC Comics ^ Chris Yost (w). Red Robin
Robin
#1 (August 2009), DC Comics ^ Geoff Johns (w). Blackest Night 0 (June 2009), DC Comics ^ Grant Morrison (w).  Batman
Batman
and Robin 7 (January 2010), DC Comics ^ Grant Morrison (w).  Batman
Batman
and Robin 8 (February 2010), DC Comics ^ Geddes, John (December 9, 2009). " Grant Morrison
Grant Morrison
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Batman
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and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6, p. 1. ^ Finkelstein, David; Macfarlane, Ross (March 15, 1999). "Batman's big birthday". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2007.  ^ Daniels (1999), p. 50 ^ a b Daniels (1999), p. 64. ^ Olsen, Lance. "Linguistic Pratfalls in Barthelme", South Atlantic Review 5.4 (1986), pp. 69–77. Stable URL: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 6, 2015. Retrieved 2009-08-13.  ^ Boichel, p. 14. ^ "The Greatest Comic Book
Book
Cartoons of All Time" Archived May 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. IGN. January 26, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2011. ^ Serafino, Jason (January 13, 2012). "The 25 Best Animated Comic Book TV Shows Of All Time". Complex. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ "Batman" (1992) - Awards Archived January 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. IMDB. Retrieved May 31, 2011. ^ "Top 25 Animated Movies of All-Time". IGN. Archived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2012.  ^ "Good News/Bad News Batman
Batman
Fans". toonami.tumblr.com. September 22, 2014. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014.  ^ " Batman
Batman
(1989)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2007.  ^ "Batman". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved October 4, 2008. [permanent dead link] ^ "Before ' Batman
Batman
Begins': Secret History of the Movies That Almost Got Made". Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved January 16, 2017.  ^ "Opening Weekends". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on July 23, 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2008.  ^ "Fastest to $400 million". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2008.  ^ "All Time Domestic Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008.  ^ "Academy Awards Database - Actor in a Supporting Role, 2008". [permanent dead link] ^ "Voice(s) of Batman". Archived from the original on December 25, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2017.  ^ Sneider, Jeff (June 26, 2012). "Super voices in play for WB's Lego movie". Variety. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.  ^ Kit, Borys (October 10, 2014). "' Lego
Lego
Batman' Spinoff Movie in the Works at Warner Bros". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 11, 2014.  ^ " Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
To Play Batman
Batman
In Warner Bros' Batman- Superman
Superman
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Superman
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Justice League
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Ben Affleck
keeps the title for his Batman
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Batman
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Batmobile
Is More Than Just a Car, it's a Tank" Archived June 3, 2014, at WebCite GameSpot. Retrieved June 7, 2015. ^ Webster, Andrew (September 24, 2016). "Telltale's Batman
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Bibliography

Beatty, Scott (2005). The Batman
Batman
Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual. Quirk Books. ISBN 978-1-59474-023-7.  Daniels, Les (1999). Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-2470-5.  Daniels, Les (1995). DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book
Book
Heroes. Bulfinch. ISBN 978-0-8212-2076-4.  Jones, Gerard (1995). Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-03657-8.  Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William (editors). (1991). The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero
Superhero
and His Media. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-85170-276-6.  Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book
Book
Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6514-5. 

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Crime Doctor Doctor Death Dollmaker Jeremiah Arkham Professor Milo Professor Pyg

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Amygdala Anthony Lupus Cavalier Clock King Cluemaster Composite Superman Copperhead Cornelius Stirk Crazy Quilt David Cain Deacon Blackfire Doctor Double X Doctor Phosphorus Electrocutioner Emperor Blackgate Film Freak Firebug Flamingo Gearhead Gentleman Ghost Gorilla Boss Great White Shark Humpty Dumpty Joker's Daughter Key King Snake Kite Man Kobra Mister Toad Monk Nightslayer Nocturna Nyssa Raatko Orca Owlman Phosphorus Rex Planet Master Prometheus Rag Doll Ratcatcher Reaper Sensei Signalman Simon Hurt Snowman Spellbinder Tally Man Ten-Eyed Man Tiger Shark Tweedledum and Tweedledee Wrath Zebra-Man

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Azrael Batman: Arkham Unhinged Batman: The Dark Knight Batman: Gotham Knights Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight Batman: Shadow of the Bat Batman: Streets of Gotham The Batman
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Storylines

"The Case of the Chemical Syndicate" "Dark Moon Rising" "The Man Behind the Red Hood!" "Joker's Millions" "Year One" "Year Two" "A Death in the Family" "Year Three" "The Man Who Falls" " Anarky
Anarky
in Gotham City" "Gothic" "The Return of the Joker" "Prey" "The Last Arkham" "Knightfall" "Contagion" "Legacy" "Cataclysm" "No Man's Land" "Joker: Last Laugh" "Bruce Wayne: Fugitive" "Hush" "Broken City" "War Games" "City of Crime" "Under the Hood" "War Crimes" "Face the Face" " Batman
Batman
and Son" "The Resurrection of Ra's al Ghul" " Batman
Batman
R.I.P." "Whatever Happened to the Caped Crusader?" "Batwoman: Elegy" "Bruce Wayne: The Road Home" "Night of the Owls" "Death of the Family" "Zero Year" "Endgame" " Robin
Robin
War"

Inter-company crossovers

Batman/Aliens Batman/Hellboy/Starman Batman/Daredevil: King of New York Batman/Judge Dredd: Judgment on Gotham Batman
Batman
& Spider-Man: New Age Dawning Batman/Tarzan: Claws of the Cat-woman Batman/Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Batman/The Spirit Batman
Batman
versus Predator Daredevil/Batman: Eye for an Eye Spawn/Batman Batman-Spawn: War Devil Superman
Superman
and Batman
Batman
versus Aliens and Predator Spider-Man and Batman: Disordered Minds

Incomplete

All Star Batman
Batman
& Robin, the Boy Wonder Batman: The Dark Prince Charming Batman: White Knight

Related topics

Batman: Anarky Batman: Child of Dreams Batman: Haunted Knight The Batman
Batman
Chronicles Batman
Batman
Legends Elseworlds

Publications are listed alphabetically by published titles. Storylines are listed in publication order. Compiled without respect for canon or "current" continuity.

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Batman
Batman
franchise media

Live-action television

Batman

episodes

Legends of the Superheroes OnStar commercials Birds of Prey Return to the Batcave: The Misadventures of Adam and Burt Gotham

episodes

season 3 4

characters

Live-action serials and films

Batman
Batman
(1943) Batman
Batman
and Robin Batman
Batman
(1966)

1989–1997 film series

Batman
Batman
(1989) Batman
Batman
Returns Batman
Batman
Forever Batman
Batman
& Robin

The Dark Knight Trilogy

Batman
Batman
Begins The Dark Knight The Dark Knight Rises

DC Extended Universe

Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice Suicide Squad Justice League

Animated television

Featuring Batman

The Adventures of Batman The Batman/ Superman
Superman
Hour The Batman/Tarzan Adventure Hour The New Adventures of Batman Batman: The Animated Series

episodes

The New Batman
Batman
Adventures Batman
Batman
Beyond

episodes

The Batman

episodes

Batman: The Brave and the Bold

episodes

Beware the Batman

episodes

With other heroes

Super Friends

episodes

Justice League

episodes

Justice League
Justice League
Unlimited

episodes

Young Justice

episodes

Justice League
Justice League
Action

episodes

Animated films

Featuring Batman

Mask of the Phantasm SubZero Return of the Joker Mystery of the Batwoman The Batman
Batman
vs. Dracula Gotham Knight Under the Red Hood Year One The Dark Knight Returns DC Super Heroes Unite Son of Batman Assault on Arkham Batman
Batman
vs. Robin Bad Blood The Killing Joke Return of the Caped Crusaders The Lego
Lego
Batman
Batman
Movie Batman
Batman
and Harley Quinn Batman
Batman
vs. Two-Face Scooby-Doo! & Batman: The Brave and the Bold Gotham by Gaslight Batman
Batman
Ninja

With Justice League

Justice League: The New Frontier Superman/Batman: Public Enemies Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths Superman/Batman: Apocalypse Justice League: Doom Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox JLA Adventures: Trapped in Time Justice League: War The Lego
Lego
Movie Justice League: Throne of Atlantis Batman
Batman
Unlimited: Animal Instincts Justice League: Gods and Monsters Batman
Batman
Unlimited: Monster Mayhem Justice League
Justice League
vs. Teen Titans Batman
Batman
Unlimited: Mechs vs. Mutants

With Justice League
Justice League
Dark

Justice League
Justice League
Dark

Animated shorts

Chase Me Strange Days

Novels

Dead White Fear Itself Inferno The Ultimate Evil Enemies & Allies Wayne of Gotham

Enemies in other media

Joker Bane Catwoman

Other characters in other media

Robin Barbara Gordon

Related topics

Batman
Batman
& Bill Bruce Wayne
Bruce Wayne
(unproduced series) Batkid
Batkid
Begins Batman
Batman
action figures

Lego
Lego
Batman Batman
Batman
Total Justice

Bat
Bat
phone Bat-Manga!: The Secret History of Batman
Batman
in Japan List of Batman
Batman
films cast members List of Batman
Batman
television series cast members List of Batman
Batman
video games List of Batman
Batman
children's books Batman
Batman
music

v t e

Batman
Batman
music

Soundtracks

Films

Batman
Batman
(score) Batman
Batman
(soundtrack) Batman
Batman
Returns Batman
Batman
Forever (soundtrack) Batman
Batman
Forever (score) Batman
Batman
& Robin Batman
Batman
Begins The Dark Knight The Dark Knight Rises Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice

Video games

Batman: Arkham City Batman: Arkham Origins

Songs

TV series

" Batman
Batman
Theme" "Batusi"

Batman

"Batdance" "Partyman" "The Arms of Orion" "Scandalous!" "The Future"

Batman
Batman
Returns

"Face to Face"

Batman
Batman
Forever

"Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me, Kill Me" "Kiss from a Rose" "The Riddler" "Where Are You Now?"

Batman
Batman
& Robin

"The End Is the Beginning Is the End" "Look into My Eyes" "Gotham City" "Foolish Games" "Moaner" "Lazy Eye"

v t e

Batman
Batman
video games

Lego
Lego
series

Lego
Lego
Batman: The Videogame Lego
Lego
Batman
Batman
2: DC Super Heroes Lego
Lego
Batman
Batman
3: Beyond Gotham

Arkham series

Arkham Asylum Arkham City

Lockdown

Arkham Origins

Mobile Blackgate

Arkham Knight Arkham VR

Film-based

Batman
Batman
(Ocean, 1989) Batman: The Video Game (NES, 1989) Batman
Batman
(Mega Drive/Genesis, 1990) Batman
Batman
(arcade, 1990) Returns Forever Forever: The Arcade Game Batman
Batman
& Robin Begins The Dark Knight (cancelled)

Animation-based

The Animated Series The Adventures of Batman
Batman
& Robin Beyond: Return of the Joker Chaos in Gotham Gotham City
Gotham City
Racer Vengeance Rise of Sin Tzu The Brave and the Bold
The Brave and the Bold
– The Videogame

Other games

Batman
Batman
(1986) The Caped Crusader Return of the Joker Dark Tomorrow DC Universe
DC Universe
Online Gotham City
Gotham City
Impostors Batman
Batman
(2013) The Telltale Series (2016) The Enemy Within (2017)

List of Batman
Batman
video games Batman
Batman
franchise media

v t e

Batman
Batman
in amusement parks

Arkham Asylum
Arkham Asylum
– Shock Therapy Batman
Batman
Adventure – The Ride Batman
Batman
Adventure – The Ride 2 Batman: The Dark Knight Batman
Batman
The Escape Batman: Knight Flight Batman: La Fuga Batman: The Ride Batman: The Ride (Six Flags Fiesta Texas) Batwing Spaceshot Batwing Catwoman's Whip The Dark Knight Coaster Gotham City
Gotham City
Gauntlet: Escape from Arkham Asylum Harley Quinn
Harley Quinn
Crazy Train The Joker The Joker (Six Flags Discovery Kingdom) The Joker (Six Flags México) The Joker Funhouse Coaster The Joker's Jinx Justice League: Alien Invasion 3D Justice League: Battle for Metropolis Mind Bender (Six Flags Over Georgia) Mr. Freeze
Mr. Freeze
or Mr Freeze: Reverse Blast The Penguin Riddler's Revenge

v t e

Batman
Batman
in film

1989–1997 series

Batman

Score Soundtrack

Batman
Batman
Returns

Soundtrack

Batman
Batman
Forever

Score Soundtrack

Batman
Batman
& Robin

Soundtrack

The Dark Knight Trilogy

Batman
Batman
Begins

Soundtrack Video game Rachel Dawes

The Dark Knight

Soundtrack Cancelled video game Joker

The Dark Knight Rises

Soundtrack

Video games

Batman
Batman
home computer game Batman: The Video Game for the NES and Game Boy Batman: The Video Game for the Sega Genesis Batman
Batman
arcade game Batman
Batman
Returns Batman
Batman
Forever video game Batman
Batman
Forever pinball Batman
Batman
Forever: The Arcade Game Batman
Batman
and Robin

Unofficial and fan films

Features

Batman
Batman
Dracula Alyas Batman
Batman
at Robin The Wild World of Batwoman James Batman Batman
Batman
Fights Dracula Fight Batman
Batman
Fight! Alyas Batman
Batman
en Robin

Shorts

Batman: Dead End Grayson World's Finest Robin's Big Date City of Scars Seeds of Arkham Batman: Death Wish

See also

Batman
Batman
franchise media Batman: Gotham Knight Batman
Batman
OnStar commercials Catwoman

v t e

Batman: Arkham franchise

Games

Asylum City

Lockdown

Origins

mobile Blackgate

Knight VR

Comics

Batman: Arkham City Batman: Arkham Unhinged

Film

Assault on Arkham

Developers

Rocksteady Studios WB Games Montréal NetherRealm Studios Armature Studio Turbine

Related

Arkham Knight Batman
Batman
franchise media

video games

Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth Injustice: Gods Among Us Injustice
Injustice
2

v t e

Justice League

Gardner Fox

Founding members

Superman Batman Wonder Woman Green Lantern
Green Lantern
(Hal Jordan) Flash (Barry Allen) Aquaman Martian Manhunter
Martian Manhunter
(original) Black Canary
Black Canary
(some retellings) Triumph (some retellings) Cyborg (some retellings)

Enemies

Major antagonists

Amazo Anti-Monitor Appellaxians Brainiac Darkseid Deathstroke Despero Doctor Destiny Doctor Light Doomsday Eclipso Felix Faust General Wade Eiling Imperiex Joker Kanjar Ro Key Lex Luthor Libra Maxwell Lord Neron Professor Ivo Prometheus Queen Bee Queen of Fables Ra's al Ghul Sinestro Sonar Starro T. O. Morrow Vandal Savage White Martians

Organizations

Aryan Brigade Brotherhood of Evil Demons Three Extremists Crime Syndicate of America Kobra Legion of Doom Secret Society of Super Villains Injustice
Injustice
Gang Injustice
Injustice
League League of Assassins Manhunters Royal Flush Gang

Spin-off groups

Extreme Justice Just'a Lotta Animals Justice Guild of America Justice League
Justice League
3000 Justice League
Justice League
Dark Justice League
Justice League
Elite Justice League
Justice League
Europe Justice League
Justice League
International Justice League
Justice League
Task Force Justice League
Justice League
United Justice Legion Alpha Super Buddies Super Jrs. Young Justice

Bases and facilities

Hall of Justice Happy Harbor

Secret Sanctuary

Justice League
Justice League
Satellite Justice League
Justice League
Watchtower

Publications

Storylines

"Breakdowns" "JLApe: Gorilla Warfare!" "World War III" "JLA: Tower of Babel" "JLA: Earth 2" "Justice Leagues" "JLA: Pain of the Gods" "The Lightning Saga" "Throne of Atlantis" "Trinity War"

Current series

Justice League
Justice League
(vol. 3) Justice League
Justice League
of America (vol. 5)

Previous series

Justice League
Justice League
of America Justice League
Justice League
International Justice League
Justice League
Europe Justice League
Justice League
Quarterly Justice League
Justice League
Task Force Extreme Justice JLA Justice JLA: Classified Justice League: Generation Lost Justice League
Justice League
(The New 52) Justice League
Justice League
Dark Justice League
Justice League
United Justice League
Justice League
3000

Limited series

Justice Riders Justice League
Justice League
Elite JLA: The Nail series DC Comics
DC Comics
Two Thousand JLA: Created Equal JLA: Act of God JLA: Destiny JLA: Age of Wonder JLA: Shogun of Steel Justice League: Cry for Justice

Crossovers

JLA/Avengers JLA/The 99 Justice League/Power Rangers

Related articles

A.R.G.U.S. Bizarro League Snapper Carr JL8 Justice League
Justice League
in other media Justice Society of America Squadron Supreme

v t e

Justice League
Justice League
International

Keith Giffen J. M. DeMatteis

Initial members

Pre-Flashpoint

Batman Black Canary Blue Beetle (Ted Kord) Booster Gold Captain Marvel Doctor Fate Doctor Light (Kimiyo Hoshi) Guy Gardner Martian Manhunter Mister Miracle

The New 52

August General in Iron Booster Gold Fire Godiva Green Lantern
Green Lantern
(Guy Gardner) Ice Rocket Red
Rocket Red
(Gavril Ivanovich) Vixen

Supporting characters

L-Ron Catherine Cobert Maxwell Lord Oberon Superman

Antagonists

Black Hand Cadre Despero Doomsday Extremists Injustice
Injustice
League Kite Man Lobo Magog Major Disaster Manga Khan Maxwell Lord Neron (DC comics) Queen Bee Royal Flush Gang Signal Men Sinestro Starbreaker Suicide Squad Darkseid Weapons Master Weather Wizard Wizard

Locations

Bialya The Hall of Justice

Publications and storylines

Legends Formerly Known as the Justice League Justice League: Generation Lost

Spinoff teams

Extreme Justice Justice League
Justice League
America Justice League
Justice League
Europe Justice League
Justice League
Task Force

v t e

Superman
Superman
/ Batman
Batman
crossover media

Comic books

World's Finest Comics Batman/Superman/Wonder Woman: Trinity Superman/Batman Superman
Superman
and Batman
Batman
versus Aliens and Predator

Television

The Batman/ Superman
Superman
Hour The Superman/ Batman
Batman
Adventures The New Batman/ Superman
Superman
Adventures

Books

Enemies & Allies

Film

Superman/Batman: Public Enemies Superman/Batman: Apocalypse Lego
Lego
Batman: The Movie – DC Super Heroes Unite Batman
Batman
v Superman: Dawn of Justice

Video game

Lego
Lego
Batman
Batman
2: DC Super Heroes Lego
Lego
Batman
Batman
3: Beyond Gotham

The Dark Knight Universe

The Dark Knight Returns

film

The Dark Knight Strikes Again The Dark Knight III: The Master Race

Fan films and parodies

World's Finest HISHE: Super Cafe

Miscellanea

Composite Superman Hiro Okamura

v t e

Catwoman

Bob Kane Bill Finger

Catwomen

Selina Kyle Holly Robinson

Supporting characters

Batman Slam Bradley Harley Quinn Helena Poison Ivy Holly Robinson Leslie Thompkins Wildcat Zatanna

Antagonists

Angle Man Black Mask Film Freak Hellhound Hush Joker Penguin Riddler Scarecrow She-Cat Two-Face Zeiss

Publications

Catwoman: Guardian of Gotham Catwoman: When in Rome Gotham City
Gotham City
Sirens

In other media

Catwoman
Catwoman
(film) Chase Me DC Showcase: Catwoman Catwoman
Catwoman
(video game)

Related articles

Catwoman's Whip

v t e

Batgirl

Creators

Bill Finger Sheldon Moldoff
Sheldon Moldoff
(Bette Kane) Gardner Fox Carmine Infantino
Carmine Infantino
(Barbara Gordon) Kelley Puckett Damion Scott
Damion Scott
(Cassandra Cain) Chuck Dixon Tom Lyle
Tom Lyle
(Stephanie Brown)

Batgirls

Bette Kane Barbara Gordon Helena Bertinelli Cassandra Cain Stephanie Brown

Supporting characters

Batman Black Canary James Gordon Nightwing Oracle Alfred Pennyworth Proxy Robin Leslie Thompkins Alysia Yeoh

Enemies

David Cain James Gordon Jr. The Joker Joker's Daughter Killer Moth Knightfall Livewire Lady Shiva

In other media

Batman
Batman
(TV series) The Batman/ Superman
Superman
Hour The New Adventures of Batman Batman: The Animated Series Batman
Batman
& Robin The New Batman
Batman
Adventures Gotham Girls The Batman Young Justice

Related articles

Birds of Prey

Batgirl
Batgirl
and the Birds of Prey

Gotham City

v t e

The Outsiders

Mike W. Barr Jim Aparo

Members

Arsenal Atomic Knight
Atomic Knight
(Gardner Grayle) Batgirl
Batgirl
(Cassandra Cain) Batman Black Lightning Captain Boomerang
Boomerang
(Owen Mercer) Captain Marvel Jr. Grace Choi The Creeper The Eradicator Sebastian Faust Geo-Force Green Arrow Halo Indigo Huntress (Helena Bertinelli) Jade Katana Francine Langstrom Looker Metamorpho Nightwing The Olympian Owlman (Roy Raymond Jr.) Red Robin ReMAC Starfire Technocrat Thunder

Locations

Batcave Markovia Stagg Enterprises

Supporting Characters

Checkmate Alfred Pennyworth Sapphire Stagg Simon Stagg

Enemies

Bad Samaritan Baron Bedlam Brother Blood Doctor Sivana Duke of Oil Felix Faust Fearsome Five Force of July Kobra Masters of Disaster Sabbac (Ishmael Gregor) SKULL Strike Force Kobra

v t e

Birds of Prey

Creators: Chuck Dixon Jordan B. Gorfinkel Gail Simone

Titles

Batgirl
Batgirl
and the Birds of Prey

Main characters

Barbara Gordon Black Canary Huntress (Helena Bertinelli)

Notable members

Big Barda Black Alice Catwoman Gypsy Hawk and Dove Hawkgirl
Hawkgirl
(Kendra Saunders) Jade Canary Judomaster
Judomaster
(Sonia Sato) Katana Lady Blackhawk Manhunter (Kate Spencer) Misfit Poison Ivy Power Girl Strix Vixen

Supporting characters

Batman Blue Beetle (Ted Kord) Creote Kurt Lance Nightwing Power Girl Savant Sin Wildcat

Adversaries

Calculator Cheshire Lady Spellbinder Pistolera Ra's al Ghul Penguin Secret Six The Society Spy Smasher Twelve Brothers in Silk and White Canary

In other media

TV series

v t e

Golden Age of Comic Books

All-American Comics

The Atom (Al Pratt) Black Canary Doctor Mid-Nite Doiby Dickles The Flash (Jay Garrick) The Gay Ghost Green Lantern
Green Lantern
(Alan Scott) Hawkgirl Hawkman Hop Harrigan The King Justice Society of America Mister Terrific (Terry Sloane) Johnny Thunder Red Tornado (Ma Hunkel) Sargon the Sorcerer Ultra-Man The Whip Wildcat Wonder Woman

Archie Comics

The Black Hood Captain Flag The Comet The Firefly The Fox The Shield The Web The Wizard

Centaur Comics

Airman Amazing-Man The Arrow The Clock The Eye The Fantom of the Fair The Masked Marvel Minimidget

National Allied

Air Wave Aquaman Batman Crimson Avenger Dan the Dyna-Mite Doctor Fate Doctor Occult Genius
Genius
Jones Green Arrow Guardian Hourman Johnny Quick (Johnny Chambers) Liberty Belle Manhunter Merry, the Girl of 1000 Gimmicks Mister America Robin

Dick Grayson

Robotman Sandman Sandy the Golden Boy Shining Knight The Spectre Speedy (Roy Harper) Star-Spangled Kid Starman (Ted Knight) Stripesy Superboy (Kal-El) Superman Tarantula TNT Vigilante Wing Zatara Seven Soldiers of Victory

Fawcett Comics

Bulletgirl Bulletman Captain Marvel Captain Marvel Jr. Captain Midnight The Golden Arrow Ibis the Invincible Lieutenant Marvels Mary Marvel Master Man Minute-Man Mr. Scarlet Phantom Eagle Pinky the Whiz Kid Spy Smasher

Fox Comics

Black Fury Blue Beetle The Bouncer Bronze Man Dynamo The Flame Green Mask Samson Spider Queen Stardust the Super Wizard U.S. Jones V-Man Wonder Man

Nedor Comics

American Crusader American Eagle Black Terror Captain Future Cavalier Doc Strange Fighting Yank The Ghost Grim Reaper Judy of the Jungle Lance Lewis, Space Detective Liberator The Magnet Miss Masque Princess Pantha Pyroman The Scarab The Woman in Red

Quality Comics

#711 The Black Condor Blackhawk Blue Tracer Bozo the Iron Man Captain Triumph The Clock Doll Girl Doll Man Firebrand The Human Bomb The Invisible Hood The Jester Kid Eternity Lady Luck Madame Fatal Magno The Manhunter Merlin the Magician Midnight Miss America Mouthpiece Neon the Unknown Phantom Lady Plastic Man Quicksilver The Ray Red Bee Red Torpedo The Spider Spider Widow Uncle Sam Wildfire Wonder Boy

Timely Comics

American Ace The Angel Black Marvel The Black Widow The Blazing Skull The Blonde Phantom The Blue Diamond Breeze Barton Bucky

Bucky Barnes

Captain America Citizen V The Destroyer Dynamic Man Father Time Ferret Fin Golden Girl The Human Torch Jack Frost Laughing Mask Marvel Boy Miss America Mercury Namor Namora The Patriot Red Raven Sun Girl Toro Thin Man Thunderer Venus The Vision The Whizzer

Misc.

Bell Features

Johnny Canuck Nelvana of the Northern Lights The Brain

Cardal Publishing

Streamline

Columbia Comics

The Face Skyman

Crestwood Publications

Atomic-Man Black Owl Green Lama

David McKay Publications

Vulcan

Dell Comics

Owl

Dynamic Publications

Dynamic Man Yankee Girl

EC Comics

Moon Girl

Elliot Publishing Company

Kismet, Man of Fate

Eastern Color Printing

Hydroman

Frew Publications

The Phantom Mandrake the Magician

Harvey Comics

Black Cat Captain Freedom Shock Gibson Spirit of '76

Holyoke Publishing

Cat-Man and Kitten Miss Victory

Lev Gleason Publications

Captain Battle Crimebuster Daredevil Silver Streak

Maple Leaf Publishing

Iron Man Brok Windsor

Novelty Press

Target Comics

Target and the Targeteers

Blue Bolt Dick Cole, The Wonder Boy Twister

Rural Home Publications

The Green Turtle

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 40180673 LCCN: nb2015003207 GND: 119086611 SELIBR: 138653 SUDOC: 078905109 BNF:

.