Basra (Arabic: البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located
Shatt al-Arab between
Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated
population of 2.5 million in 2012.
Basra is also Iraq's main port,
although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the
port of Umm Qasr.
The city is part of the historic location of Sumer, one of the ports
Sinbad the Sailor
Sinbad the Sailor journeyed. It played an
important role in early
Islamic history and was built in 636 (14 AH).
Basra is consistently one of the hottest cities in Iraq, with summer
temperatures regularly exceeding 50 °C (122 °F). In April
Iraqi Parliament recognized
Basra as Iraq's economic
2.1 Ancient times
2.2 Middle Ages
2.3 Ottoman Empire
2.4 World Wars
2.5 Post 1945
2.5.1 1999: Second revolt
Iraq War and occupation
3 Geography and climate
8 In fiction
9 Twin towns – sister cities
10 See also
14 External links
Basra in circa 1695, by Dutch cartographer Isaak de Graaf
A 1739 advert by Charles Benjamin Incledon for residents of London,
which features a
Mesopotamian lion from the vicinity of 'Bassorah',
besides other creatures.
The city was called by many names throughout its history,
the most common. In Arabic the word baṣrah means "the overwatcher",
which might have been an allusion to the city's origin as an Arab
military base against the Sassanids. Others have argued that the name
is derived from the
Aramaic word basratha, meaning "place of huts,
See also: Timeline of Basra
Ashar Creek and bazaar, c. 1915
The present city was founded in 636 as an encampment and garrison for
Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of the Rashid Caliph
Umar a few
kilometres south of the present city, where a tell still marks its
site. While defeating the forces of the
Sassanid Empire there, the
Utbah ibn Ghazwan erected his camp on the site of an
old Persian settlement called Vaheštābād Ardašīr, which was
destroyed by the Arabs. The name Al-Basrah, which in Arabic means
"the over watching" or "the seeing everything", was given to it
because of its role as a military base against the Sassanid
Empire. However, other sources claim the name
originates from the Persian word Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where
many ways come together".
Umar established this encampment as a city with five districts,
and appointed Abu Musa al-Ash'ari as its first governor. Abu Musa led
the conquest of
Khuzestan from 639 to 642 and was ordered by
Uthman ibn Abu al-ʿAs, then fighting
Iran from a new, more
easterly miṣr at Tawwaj. In 650, the
Rashidun Caliph Uthman
reorganised the Persian frontier, installed ʿAbdullah ibn Amir as
Basra's governor, and put the military's southern wing under Basra's
control. Ibn Amir led his forces to their final victory over Yazdegerd
III, the Sassanid King of Kings.
Uthman was murdered and
Ali was appointed Caliph.
Uthman ibn Hanif as Basra's governor, who was followed by
ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAbbas. These men held the city for
Ali until the
latter's death in 661.
Basra until Yazid I's death in 683. The Sufyanids'
first governor was Umayyad ʿAbdullah, a renowned military leader,
commanding fealty and financial demands from Karballah, but poor
governor. In 664, Muʿawiyah I replaced him with Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan,
often called "ibn Abihi" ("son of his own father"), who became
infamous for his draconian rules regarding public order. On Ziyad's
death in 673, his son ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziyad became governor. In 680,
Yazid I ordered ʿUbaydullah to keep order in
Kufa as a reaction to
Hussein ibn Ali's popularity as the grandson of the Islamic Prophet
Muhammad. ʿUbaydullah took over the control of Kufa. Hussein sent his
cousin as an ambassador to the people of Kufa, but ʿUbaydullah
executed Hussein's cousin
Muslim ibn Aqeel
Muslim ibn Aqeel amid fears of an uprising.
ʿUbaydullah amassed an army of thousands of soldiers and fought
Hussein's army of approximately 70 in a place called
Kufa. ʿUbaydullah's army was victorious; Hussein and his followers
were killed and their heads were sent to Yazid as proof.
Ibn al-Harith spent his year in office trying to put down Nafi' ibn
al-Azraq's Kharijite uprising in Khuzestan. In 685, Ibn al-Zubayr,
requiring a practical ruler, appointed
Umar ibn Ubayd Allah ibn
Ma'mar Finally, Ibn al-Zubayr appointed his own brother Mus'ab. In
686, the revolutionary al-Mukhtar led an insurrection at Kufa, and put
an end to ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziyad near Mosul. In 687, Musʿab defeated
al-Mukhtar with the help of Kufans who Mukhtar exiled.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan reconquered
Basra in 691, and
loyal to his governor al-Hajjaj during Ibn Ashʿath's mutiny
Basra did support the rebellion of Yazid ibn
Yazid II during the 720s. In the 740s,
to as-Saffah of the Abbasid Caliphate.
During the time of the Abbasids
Basra became an intellectual centre as
it was the home city of the
Arab polymath Ibn al-Haytham, the Arab
literary giant al-Jahiz, and the
Sufi mystic Rabia Basri. The Zanj
Rebellion by the agricultural slaves of the lowlands affected the
area. In 871, the
Zanj sacked Basra. In 923, the Qarmatians, an
extremist Muslim sect, invaded and devastated Basra. From 945 to
Buyid dynasty ruled
Baghdad and most of Iraq. Abu al Qasim
al-Baridis, who still controlled
Basra and Wasit, were defeated and
their lands taken by the Buyids in 947. Adud al-Dawla and his sons
Diya' al-Dawla and
Samsam al-Dawla were the Buyid rulers of Basra
during the 970s, 980s and 990s.
Sanad al-Dawla al-Habashi was governor of
Basra and built a library of
The Great Friday Mosque was constructed in Basra. In 1122, Imad ad-Din
Basra as a fief. In 1126, Zengi suppressed a revolt
and in 1129, Dabis looted the
Basra state treasury. A 1200 map "on the
eve of the Mongol invasions" shows the
Abbasid Caliphate as ruling
Iraq and, presumably, Basra.
The Assassin Rashid-ad-Din-Sinan was born in
Basra on or between 1131
In 1258, the Mongols under Hulegu Khan sacked
Baghdad and ended
Abbasid rule. By some accounts,
Basra capitulated to the Mongols to
avoid a massacre. The Mamluk
Bahri dynasty map (1250–1382) shows
Basra as being under their area of control, and the Mongol Dominions
map (1300–1405) shows
Basra as being under their control.
In 1290 fighting erupted at the Persian Gulf port of
the Genoese, between the Guelph and the Ghibelline factions. In 1327,
Ibn Battuta visited Basra, which was in decline with the great mosque
being 3 kilometres (2 mi) out of town. An Ilkhanid governor
received him. In 1411, the Jalayirid leader was ousted from
the Black Sheep Turkmen. In 1523, the Portuguese under the command of
António Tenreiro crossed from Aleppo to Basra. By 1546, the Turks had
reached Basra. In 1550, the Portuguese threatened Basra. In 1624, the
Basra Pasha in repelling a Persian invasion. The
Portuguese were granted a share of customs and freedom from tolls.
From about 1625 until 1668,
Basra and the Delta marshlands were in the
hands of local chieftains independent of the Ottoman administration at
Basra Eyalet and
Arab girls, c. 1917
Basra was, for a long time, a flourishing commercial and cultural
centre. It was captured by the
Ottoman Empire in 1668. It was fought
over by Turks and Persians and was the scene of repeated attempts at
Zand Dynasty under
Karim Khan Zand
Karim Khan Zand briefly occupied
Basra after a
long siege in 1775-9. Zand introduced Shi'iah religious practices in
In 1911, the Encyclopædia Britannica reported "about 4000 Jews and
perhaps 6000 Christians" living in Basra, but no Turks other than
Ottoman officials. In 1884 the Ottomans responded to local pressure
from the Shi'as of the south by detaching the southern districts of
Baghdad vilayet and creating a new vilayet of Basra.
Turkish prisoners passing along the bank of Ashar Creek, nearing
Battle of Basra (1914) during World War I, the occupying
British modernized the port (works designed by Sir George Buchanan);
these British commercial interests made it one of the most important
ports in the Persian Gulf "with shipping and trade links to the Far
World War II
World War II it was an important port through which flowed much
of the equipment and supplies sent to
Russia by the other allies. At
the end of the Second World War, the population was some 93,000
Shanasheel of the old part of
Basra city, 1954
The population of
Basrah was 101,535 in 1947, and reached 219,167
in 1957. The
University of Basrah
University of Basrah was founded in 1964. By 1977,
the population had risen to a peak population of some 1.5 million. The
population declined during the Iran–
Iraq War, being under 900,000 in
the late 1980s, possibly reaching a low point of just over 400,000
during the worst of the war. The city was repeatedly shelled by Iran
and was the site of many fierce battles, such as
Operation Ramadan and
After the war, Saddam erected 99 memorial statues to Iraqi generals
and commanders killed during the war along the bank of the
Shatt-al-arab river, all pointing their fingers towards Iran.
After the first Persian Gulf War, which the US called Operation Desert
Storm, in 1991, a rebellion struck Basra. The widespread revolt was
Saddam Hussein who violently put down the rebellion, with much
death and destruction inflicted on Basra.
1999: Second revolt
On 25 January 1999,
Basra was the scene of scores of civilian
casualties when a missile fired by a US warplane was dropped in a
civilian area. Eleven persons were killed and fifty-nine injured.
General Anthony Zinni, then commander of US forces in the Persian
Gulf, acknowledged that it was possible that "a missile may have been
errant". While such casualty numbers pale in comparison to later
events, the bombing occurred one day after
Arab foreign ministers,
meeting in Egypt, refused to condemn four days of air strikes against
Iraq in December 1998. This was described by Iraqi information
minister Human Abdel-Khaliq[a] as giving the
United States and Britain
Arab green card" to attack Iraq.
A second revolt in 1999 led to mass executions in and around Basra.
Subsequently, the Iraqi government deliberately neglected the city,
and much commerce was diverted to Umm Qasr. These alleged abuses are
to feature amongst the charges against the former regime to be
considered by the
Special Tribunal set up by the
Government following the 2003 invasion.
Workers in Basra's oil industry have been involved in extensive
organization and labour conflict. They held a two-day strike in August
2003, and formed the nucleus of the independent General Union of Oil
Employees (GUOE) in June 2004. The union held a one-day strike in July
2005, and publicly opposes plans for privatizing the industry.
Iraq War and occupation
Main article: Battle of
In March through to May 2003, the outskirts of
Basra were the scene of
some of the heaviest fighting in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. British
forces, led by the 7th Armoured Brigade, took the city on 6 April
2003. This city was the first stop for the
United States and the
United Kingdom during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
On 21 April 2004, a series of bomb blasts ripped through the city,
killing 74 people. The Multi-National Division (South-East), under
British Command, was engaged in Security and Stabilization missions in
Basra Governorate and surrounding areas during this time. Political
groups centered in
Basra were reported to have close links with
political parties already in power in the Iraqi government, despite
opposition from Iraqi Sunnis and the more secular Kurds. January 2005
elections saw several radical politicians gain office, supported by
religious parties. American journalist Steven Vincent, who had been
researching and reporting on corruption and militia activity in the
city, was kidnapped and killed on 2 August 2005.
On 19 September 2005, two undercover British SAS soldiers disguised in
Arab civilian clothes and headdresses opened fire on Iraqi police
officers after having been stopped at a roadblock, killing at least
one. After the two soldiers were arrested, the British Army raided the
jail they were being held in to rescue them, killing several people
from among their nominal allies – the Iraqi security forces.
British troops transferred control of
Basra province to the Iraqi
authorities in 2007, four-and-a-half years after the invasion. A
BBC survey of local residents found that 86% thought the presence of
British troops since 2003 had had an overall negative effect on the
Major-General Abdul Jalil Khalaf was appointed Police Chief by the
central government with the task of taking on the militias. He was
outspoken against the targeting of women by the militias. Talking
to the BBC, he said that his determination to tackle the militia had
led to almost daily assassination attempts. This was taken as sign
that he was serious in opposing the militias.
Main article: Battle of
In March 2008, the Iraqi Army launched a major offensive, code-named
Saulat al-Fursan (Charge of the White Knights), aimed at forcing the
Mahdi Army out of Basra. The assault was planned by General Mohan
Furaiji and approved by Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.
In April 2008, following the failure to disarm militant groups, both
Major-General Abdul Jalil Khalaf and General Mohan Furaiji were
removed from their positions in Basra.
Basra was scheduled to host the
22nd Arabian Gulf Cup
22nd Arabian Gulf Cup tournament in
Basra Sports City, a newly built multi-use sports complex. The
tournament was shifted to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, after concerns over
preparations and security.
Iraq was also due to host the 2013
tournament, but that was moved to Bahrain.
Geography and climate
Basra at night
Basra Times square shopping centre
Basra is located on the Shatt-Al-
Arab waterway, downstream of which is
the Persian Gulf. The Shatt-Al-
Basra waterways define the
eastern and western borders of Basra, respectively. The city is
penetrated by a complex network of canals and streams, vital for
irrigation and other agricultural use. These canals were once used to
transport goods and people throughout the city, but during the last
two decades, pollution and a continuous drop in water levels have made
river navigation impossible in the canals.
Basra is roughly
110 km (68 mi) from the Persian Gulf.
Basra has a hot desert climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification BWh),
like the rest of the surrounding region, though it receives slightly
more precipitation than inland locations due to its location near the
coast. During the summer months, from June to August,
consistently one of the hottest cities on the planet, with
temperatures regularly exceeding 50 °C (122 °F) in July
and August. In winter
Basra experiences mild weather with average high
temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F). On some winter nights,
minimum temperatures are below 0 °C (32 °F). High humidity
– sometimes exceeding 90% – is common due to the proximity to the
marshy Persian Gulf.
An all-time high temperature was recorded on July 22, 2016, when
daytime readings soared to 53.8 °C (128.8 °F). This is one
of the hottest ever measured temperatures on the planet. The following
night, the nighttime low temperature was 38.8 °C
(101.8 °F), which also accounts for one of the highest minimum
temperatures on any given day, only outshone by Death Valley,
California, USA, and Khasab, Oman.
Climate data for Basra
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Mean daily sunshine hours
Source #1: Climate-Data.org
Source #2: Weather2Travel for rainy days and sunshine "Weather2"
for monthly extremes
Chaldean Catholic Church in Basra.
Basra the vast majority of the population are ethnic
Arabs of the
Adnanite or the
Qahtanite tribes. The tribes located in
Al-Emarah, Bani Mansour, Dulaim, Shammar, Jubur, Bani Tamim, Bani
Malik, Zubaid, Al-shwelat, Suwa'id, Al-bo Mohammed, Al-Badr, Al-Ubadi,
Ruba'ah Sayyid tribes (descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammed)
In addition to the Arabs, there is also a community of Afro-Iraqi
peoples, known as Zanj. The
Zanj are a Muslim Ethnic group living in
Iraq and are a mix of African peoples taken from the coast of the area
Kenya as slaves in the 900s. They now number around 1.5
million in Iraq.
In 2006, Muslim adherents were about 95% Shia and 5%
Sunni but in 2014
99.3% Shia, 0.4%
Sunni and 0.3% other.
Assyrians were recorded in the Ottoman census as early as 1911, and a
small number of them live in Basra. However, a significant number of
the modern community are refugees fleeing persecution from ISIS in the
Nineveh Plains, Mosul, and northern Iraq. One of the largest
communities of pre-Islamic
Mandaeans live in the city, whose
headquarters was in the area formerly called Suk esh-Sheikh. They
number around 3,000.
Ali Bin Abi Talib mosque
The old mosque of Basra, the first mosque in Islam outside the Arabian
Sinbad Island is located in the centre of Shatt Al-Arab, near the
Miinaalmakl, and extends above the bridge Khaled and is a tourist
Sayab's House Ruins is the site of the most famous home of the poet
Badr Shakir al-Sayyab. There is also a statue of Sayab, one of the
Basra done by the artist and sculptor nada' Kadhum, located
Basrah Corniche; it was unveiled in 1972.
Basra Sports City
Basra Sports City is the largest sport city in the Middle East,
located on the Shatt al-Basra.
Palm tree forests are largely located on the shores of shatt-al Arab
waterway, especially in the nearby village of Abu Al-Khasib.
Basra is a street which runs on the shore of the Shatt
al-Arab; it goes from the Lion of Babylon Square to the Four Palaces.
Basra International Hotel (formally known as
Basra Sheraton Hotel) is
located on the Corniche street. The only five star hotel in the city,
it is notable for its
Shanasheel style exterior design. The hotel was
heavily looted during the
Iraq War, and it has been renovated
Ali al-Musawi Mosque, also known as the Mosque of the Children
of Amer, is located in the city centre, on Al-Gazear Street, and it
was built for Shia Imami's leader Sayyed
Ali al-Moussawi, whose
followers lived in
Iraq and neighbouring countries.
The Fun City of Basrah, which is now called
Basra Land, is one of the
oldest theme-park entertainment cities in the south of the country,
and the largest involving a large number of games giants. It was
damaged during the war, and has been rebuilt.
Akhora Park is one of the city's older parks. It is located on
There are four formal presidential palaces in Basrah.
The Latin Church is located on the 14th of July Street.
Indian Market (Amogaiz) is one of the main bazaars in the city. It is
called the Indian Market, since it had Indian vendors working there at
the beginning of the last century.
Hanna-Sheikh Bazaar is an old market; it was established by the
powerful and famous Hanna-Sheikh family.
Basrah Oil Terminal.
The city is located along the
Shatt al-Arab waterway, 55 kilometers
(34 mi) from the Persian Gulf and 545 kilometers (339 mi)
from Baghdad, Iraq's capital and largest city. Its economy is largely
dependent on the oil industry.
Iraq has the world's 4th largest oil
reserves estimated to be more 115 billion barrels
(18.3×10^9 m3). Some of Iraq's largest oil fields are located in
the province, and most of Iraq's oil exports leave from Al
South Oil Company
South Oil Company has its headquarters in the city.
Substantial economic activity in
Basrah is centred around the
petrochemical industry, which includes the Southern Fertilizer Company
and The State Company for
Petrochemical Industries (SCPI). The
Southern Fertilizer Company produces ammonia solution, urea and
nitrogen gas, while the SCPI focus on such products as ethylene,
caustic/chlorine, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), polyvinyl chloride
(PVC), low-density polyethylene, and high-density polyethylene
Basra is in a fertile agricultural region, with major products
including rice, maize corn, barley, pearl millet, wheat, dates, and
livestock. For a long time,
Basra was known for the superior quality
of its dates.
Basra was known in the 1960s for its sugar market, a
fact that figured heavily in the
English contract law
English contract law remoteness of
The Heron II
The Heron II  1 AC 350.
Shipping, logistics and transport are also major industries in Basra.
Basra is home to all of Iraq’s six ports;
Umm Qasr is the main
deep-water port with 22 platforms, some of which are dedicated to
specific goods (such as sulphur, seeds, lubricant oil, etc.) The other
five ports are smaller in scale and more narrowly specialized. Fishing
was an important business before the oil boom. The city also has an
international airport, with service into
Baghdad with Iraqi
Airways—the national airline.
Basra International Stadium Opening
The city is home to the sports team Al-Mina'a. Its basketball division
is among the
Arab elite teams that compete at the
Arab Club Basketball
Zadig "Bassora" is the site of an international market
where the hero meets representatives of all the world religions and
concludes that "the world is one large family which meets at Bassora".
The city of
Basra has a major role in H. G. Wells's 1933 future
history "The Shape of Things to Come", where the "Modern State" is at
the centre of a world state emerging after a collapse of civilization,
and becomes in effect the capital of the world.
In the 1940 film The Thief of Bagdad, Ahmad and Abu flee to the city
from Bagdad. Ahmad falls in love with the sultan's beautiful daughter,
who is also desired by his enemy, and former Grand Vizier, Jaffar.
In Scott K. Andrews' "Operation Motherland", the second book in the
post-apocalyptic "Afterblight Chronicles", the character Lee Keegan
crash lands his plane in the streets of
Basra during the opening
The Simpsons Season 28 episode "Trust but Clarify" had Kent Brockman's
false war story having him being with a platoon in Basra, Iraq.
In Tom Clancy's The Division, a third-person open-world game by
Ubisoft, the in-game character Paul Rhodes says, "If you want quality,
go private. That's what I learnt in Basra."
Twin towns – sister cities
Basra is twinned with:
Houston, Texas, United States
List of places in Iraq
Basra International Airport
Basra reed warbler
University of Basrah
Umm Qasr Port
^ His proper name and position description appears to be in error, in
that he appears to have held a more junior role at the time. Humam Abd
al-Khaliq Abd al-Ghafur was Iraqi Information Minister between 1997
and 2001. The Iraqi Information Minister between 1991 and 1996 was
Hamid Yusuf Hammadi. See List of Iraqi Information Ministers.
^ Sam Dagher (18 September 2007). "In the 'Venice of the East,' a
history of diversity". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2
^ a b "
Basra city Profile" (PDF). UN Joint Analysis Unit.
^ "Iraqi parliament recognizes
Basra as economic capital".
^ Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade in
Eighteenth ... - Thabit Abdullah - Google Boeken
^ Encyclopædia Iranica, E. Yarshater, Columbia University, p851
^ See Mohammadi Malayeri, M. Dil-i Iranshahr.
^ (Madelung p. 303-4)
^ (Brock p.66)
^ a b Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World,
Vol.2, 17. – via
Questia (subscription required)
^ Penny Encyclopedia
^ Buscarello de Ghizolfi
^ Yitzhak Nakash, The Shi'is of
Iraq (Princeton: University Press,
1994), p. 15
^ a b "Basra". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). 1911.
^ "Population of capital city and cities of 100,000 or more
inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 1955. New York: Statistical Office
of the United Nations.
^ "National Intelligence Survey. Iraq. Section 41, Population" (PDF).
^ Paul Koring (26 January 1999). "USAF air strikes kill 11, injure 59:
Iraq". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. p. A8. These air strikes, by
British and USAF warplanes and U.S. cruise missiles, were said to be
in response to a release of a report by UN weapons inspectors stating
that, as of 1998, the government of
Iraq was obstructing their
inspection work. Following the four days of bombing in December, the
Iraqi government commenced challenging the "no fly zones" unilaterally
imposed on the country by the United States, following the 1991
Persian Gulf war. During the month of January, 1999, there were more
than 100 incursions by Iraqi aircraft and 20 instances of Iraqi
surface-to-air missiles being filed. The January bombing of Basra
occurred in the context of retaliatory attacks by the United
^ "Steven Vincent". Committee to Protect Journalists. 2005.
^ "UK soldiers 'freed from militia'". BBC. 20 September 2005.
Retrieved 17 March 2012.
^ "British smash jail walls to free 2 arrested soldiers". San
Francisco Gate. 20 September 2005. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
^ "UK troops return
Basra to Iraqis". BBC News. 16 December 2007.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
Basra residents blame UK troops". BBC News. 14 December 2007.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
Basra militants targeting women". BBC News. 15 November 2007.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
^ "Basra: The Legacy". BBC News. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 1 January
^ "Uncertainty follows
Basra exit". BBC News. 15 December 2007.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
^ Glanz, James (27 March 2008). "Iraqi Army's Assault on Militias in
Basra Stalls". New York Times. Archived from the original on 11
December 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2008.
Basra security leaders removed". BBC News. 16 April 2008. Retrieved
1 January 2010.
Basra - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table".
Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
Basra Climate and Weather Averages, Iraq". Weather2Travel.
Retrieved 22 August 2013.
Basrah Climate History". Weather2. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
Shi'a militias and British forces in the south".
Barnabas Aid. 8 August 2006. Archived from the original on
^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved
See also: Bibliography of the history of Basra
Hallaq, Wael. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge
University Press, 2005
Hawting, Gerald R. The First Dynasty of Islam. Routledge. 2nd ed, 2000
Madelung, Wilferd. "Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and the Mahdi" in the
Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40. 1981. pp. 291–305.
Vincent, Stephen. Into The Red Zone: A Journey Into the Soul of Iraq.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Basra.
"Basra". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). 1911.
Iraq Inter-Agency Information & Analysis Unit Reports, Maps and
Assessments of Iraq's Governorates from the UN Inter-Agency
Information & Analysis Unit
Iraq Image –
Basra Satellite Observation
Basra map (NIMA)
Muhammad and the Spread of Islam by Sanderson Beck
The Textual History of the Qur'an, Arthur Jeffery, 1946
Codex of Abu Musa al-Ashari, Arthur Jeffery, 1936
Coordinates: 30°30′N 47°49′E / 30.500°N 47.817°E /
Iraq and their capitals
Anah District (Anah)
Falluja District (Fallujah)
Haditha District (Haditha)
Hīt District (Hīt)
al-Qa'im District (Al-Ka'im)
Ramadi District (Ramadi)
Rawah District (Rawah)
ar-Rutba District (Al-Rutba)
Hashimiya District (Al Hashimiyah)
Hilla District (Hilla)
al-Mahawil District (Al-Mahawil)
al-Musayab District (Al-Musayab)
Abu Ghraib District
Mahmudiya District (Mahmudiya)
Baghdad: 9 Nissan
Abu Al-Khaseeb District (Abu Al-Khaseeb)
Basrah District (Basrah)
al-Faw District (al-Faw)
al-Midaina District (Al-Midaina)
al-Qurna District (Al-Qurna)
Arab District (Shatt Al-Arab)
al-Zubair District (Al-Zubair)
Dhi Qar Governorate
al-Chibayish District (Al-Chibayish)
Nasiriyah District (Nasiriyah)
al-Rifa'i District (Al-Rifa'i)
al-Shatrah District (Al-Shatrah)
Suq Al-Shoyokh District (Suq Al-Shoyokh)
Baladrooz District (Baladrooz)
Ba'quba District (Ba'quba)
al-Khalis District (Al-Khalis)
Khanaqin District (Khanaqin)
Kifri District (Kifri)
al-Miqdadiya District (Al-Miqdadiya)
Amadiya District (Amadiya)
Dohuk District (Dohuk)
Sumel District (Sumel)
Zakho District (Zakho)
Erbil District (Erbil)
Koisanjaq District (Koisanjaq)
Makhmur District (Makhmur)
Shaqlawa District (Shaqlawa)
Byara District (Byara)
Ain Al-Tamur District
Ain Al-Tamur District (Ain Al-Tamur)
al-Hindiya District (Al-Hindiya)
Kerbala District (Kerbala)
Daquq District (Daquq)
Dibis District (Dibis)
Hawija District (Hawija)
Kirkuk District (Kirkuk)
Ali Al-Gharbi District (
Amara District (Amarah)
al-Kahla District (Al-Kahla)
al-Maimouna District (Al-Maimouna)
al-Mejar Al-Kabi District (Al-Mejar Al-Kabi)
Qal'at Saleh District (Qal'at Saleh)
al-Khidhir District (Al-Khidhir)
al-Rumaitha District (Al-Rumaitha)
al-Salman District (Al-Salman)
Samawa District (Samawa)
Kufa District (Kufa)
al-Manathera District (Al-Manathera)
al-Meshkhab district (Al-Meshkhab)
Najaf District (Najaf)
Aqrah District (Aqrah)
al-Ba'aj District (Al-Ba'aj)
al-Hamdaniya District (Bakhdida)
Hatra District (Hatra)
Mosul District (Mosul)
Shekhan District (Ain Sifni)
Sinjar District (Sinjar)
Tel Afar District
Tel Afar District (Tel Afar)
Tel Keppe District
Tel Keppe District (Tel Keppe)
Afak District (Afak)
Diwaniya District (Al Diwaniyah)
Hamza District (Hamza)
al-Shamiya District (Al-Shamiya )
Baiji District (Baiji)
Balad District (Balad)
al-Daur District (Al-Daur)
Dujail District (Dujail)
Samarra District (Samarra)
al-Shirqat District (Al-Shirqat)
Tikrit District (Tikrit)
Tooz District (Tooz)
Chamchamal District (Chamchamal)
Darbandokeh District (Darbandikhan)
Dokan District (Dokan)
Kalar District (Kalar)
Mawat District (Mawat)
Penjwin District (Penjwin)
Pshdar District (Qaladiza)
Qaradagh District (Qaradagh)
Ranya District (Ranya)
Saidsadiq District (Said Sadiq)
Sharazoor District (Zarayan)
Sharbazher District (Sharbazher)
Sulaymaniya District (Sulaymaniya)
Badra District (Badra)
al-Hai District (Al-Hai)
Kut District (Kut)
al-Nu'maniya District (Al-Nu'maniya)
al-Suwaira District (Al-Suwaira)