BASRA, also AL-BAṣRAH (Arabic : البصرة), is an Iraqi
city located on the
Shatt al-Arab between
Iran . It had an
estimated population of 1.5 million in 2012.
Basra is also Iraq's
main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is
handled at the port of
Umm Qasr .
The city is part of the historic location of
Sumer , one of the ports
Sinbad the Sailor
Sinbad the Sailor journeyed, and a proposed location of the
Garden of Eden . It played an important role in early Islamic history
and was built in 636 (14 AH ).
Basra is consistently one of the
hottest cities in Iraq, with summer temperatures regularly exceeding
50 °C (122 °F). In April 2017 the
Iraqi Parliament recognized Basra
as Iraq\'s economic capital .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Ancient times
* 2.2 Middle Ages
* 2.4 World Wars
* 2.5 Post 1945
* 2.5.1 1999: Second revolt
* 2.5.2 2003-07:
Iraq War and occupation
* 2.5.3 2008
* 2.5.4 2014
* 3 Geography and climate
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Religion
* 5 Cityscape
* 6 Economy
* 7 Sports
* 8 In fiction
* 9 Twin towns – sister cities
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Bibliography
* 13 External links
A 1739 advert by Charles Benjamin Incledon for residents of
London , which features a
Mesopotamian lion from the vicinity of
'Bassorah', besides other creatures.
The city was called by many names throughout its history, Basrah
being the most common. In Arabic the word baṣrah means "the
overwatcher", which might have been an allusion to the city's origin
Arab military base against the
Sassanids . Some sources claim
that the name is derived from the Persian word Bas-rah, which means
"where many paths meet". Others have argued that the name is derived
Aramaic word basratha, meaning "place of huts, settlement".
During the pre-Islamic era, the area was known to the
al-Khariba due to the existence of an ancient city called al-Kharba.
After the present city was built, it was called by many names,
including "the mother of Iraq", "the reservoir of Arabs", "the
prosperous city", and "al-Faiha".
Timeline of Basra
Ashar Creek and bazaar, c. 1915
Shanasheel of the old
Basra city, 1954
The present city was founded in 636 as an encampment and garrison for
Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of the Rashid Caliph
Umar a few
kilometres south of the present city, where a tell still marks its
site. While defeating the forces of the
Sassanid Empire there, the
Utbah ibn Ghazwan erected his camp on the site of an
old Persian settlement called Vaheštābād Ardašīr, which was
destroyed by the Arabs. The name Al-Basrah, which in Arabic means
"the over watching" or "the seeing everything", was given to it
because of its role as a military base against the
Sassanid Empire .
However, other sources claim the name originates from the Persian word
Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where many ways come together".
Umar established this encampment as a city with five
districts, and appointed Abu Musa al-Ash\'ari as its first governor.
Abu Musa led the conquest of
Khuzestan from 639 to 642 and was ordered
Umar to aid
Uthman ibn Abu al-ʿAs, then fighting
Iran from a new,
more easterly miṣr at Tawwaj. In 650, the
Rashidun Caliph Uthman
reorganised the Persian frontier, installed ʿAbdullah ibn Amir as
Basra's governor, and put the military's southern wing under Basra's
control. Ibn Amir led his forces to their final victory over Yazdegerd
III , the Sassanid King of Kings .
Uthman was murdered and
Ali was appointed Caliph.
Uthman ibn Hanif as Basra's governor, who was followed by
ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAbbas. These men held the city for
Ali until the
latter's death in 661.
Yazid I 's death in 683. The
Sufyanids' first governor was Umayyad ʿAbdullah, a renowned military
leader, commanding fealty and financial demands from Karballah, but
poor governor. In 664, Muʿawiyah I replaced him with Ziyad ibn Abi
Sufyan , often called "ibn Abihi" ("son of his own father"), who
became infamous for his draconian rules regarding public order. On
Ziyad's death in 673, his son ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziyad became governor.
Yazid I ordered ʿUbaydullah to keep order in
Kufa as a
reaction to Hussein ibn
Ali 's popularity as the grandson of the
Muhammad . ʿUbaydullah took over the control of Kufa
. Hussein sent his cousin as an ambassador to the people of Kufa, but
ʿUbaydullah executed Hussein's cousin
Muslim ibn Aqeel
Muslim ibn Aqeel amid fears of
an uprising. ʿUbaydullah amassed an army of thousands of soldiers and
fought Hussein's army of approximately 70 in a place called Karbala
near Kufa. ʿUbaydullah's army was victorious; Hussein and his
followers were killed and their heads were sent to Yazid as proof.
Ibn al-Harith spent his year in office trying to put down Nafi' ibn
al-Azraq's Kharijite uprising in
Khuzestan . In 685, Ibn al-Zubayr,
requiring a practical ruler, appointed
Umar ibn Ubayd Allah ibn Ma'mar
Finally, Ibn al-Zubayr appointed his own brother Mus'ab. In 686, the
revolutionary al-Mukhtar led an insurrection at Kufa, and put an end
to ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziyad near
Mosul . In 687, Musʿab defeated
al-Mukhtar with the help of Kufans who Mukhtar exiled.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan reconquered
Basra in 691, and
loyal to his governor al-Hajjaj during Ibn Ashʿath's mutiny
Basra did support the rebellion of Yazid ibn
Yazid II during the 720s. In the 740s,
to as-Saffah of the
Abbasid Caliphate .
During the time of the Abbasids
Basra became an intellectual centre
as it was the home city of the
Arab polymath Ibn al-Haytham , the Arab
literary giant al-Jahiz , and the
Rabia Basri . The Zanj
Rebellion by the agricultural slaves of the lowlands affected the
area. In 871, the
Zanj sacked Basra. In 923, the
Qarmatians , an
extremist Muslim sect, invaded and devastated Basra. From 945 to
Buyid dynasty ruled
Baghdad and most of Iraq. Abu al Qasim
al-Baridis, who still controlled
Wasit , were defeated and
their lands taken by the Buyids in 947. Adud al-Dawla and his sons
Diya\' al-Dawla and
Samsam al-Dawla were the Buyid rulers of Basra
during the 970s, 980s and 990s.
Sanad al-Dawla al-Habashi was governor of
Basra and built a library
of 15,000 books.
Basra at night
The Great Friday Mosque was constructed in Basra. In 1122, Imad
ad-Din Zengi received
Basra as a fief. In 1126, Zengi suppressed a
revolt and in 1129, Dabis looted the
Basra state treasury. A 1200 map
"on the eve of the Mongol invasions" shows the
Abbasid Caliphate as
Iraq and, presumably, Basra.
The Assassin Rashid-ad-Din-Sinan was born in
Basra on or between 1131
In 1258, the Mongols under Hulegu Khan sacked
Baghdad and ended
Abbasid rule. By some accounts,
Basra capitulated to the Mongols to
avoid a massacre. The Mamluk
Bahri dynasty map (1250–1382) shows
Basra as being under their area of control, and the Mongol Dominions
map (1300–1405) shows
Basra as being under their control.
In 1290 fighting erupted at the Persian Gulf port of
Basra among the
Genoese , between the Guelph and the Ghibelline factions. In 1327, Ibn
Battuta visited Basra, which was in decline with the great mosque
being 3 kilometres (2 mi) out of town. An Ilkhanid governor received
him. In 1411, the Jalayirid leader was ousted from
Basra by the Black
Sheep Turkmen . In 1523, the Portuguese under the command of António
Tenreiro crossed from Aleppo to Basra. By 1546, the Turks had reached
Basra. In 1550, the Portuguese threatened Basra. In 1624, the
Basra Pasha in repelling a Persian invasion. The
Portuguese were granted a share of customs and freedom from tolls.
From about 1625 until 1668,
Basra and the Delta marshlands were in the
hands of local chieftains independent of the Ottoman administration at
Basra Eyalet and
Arab girls, c. 1917
Basra was, for a long time, a flourishing commercial and cultural
centre. It was captured by the
Ottoman Empire in 1668. It was fought
over by Turks and Persians and was the scene of repeated attempts at
Zand Dynasty under
Karim Khan Zand briefly occupied
Basra after a
long siege in 1775-9. Zand introduced Shi'iah religious practices in
In 1911, the Encyclopædia Britannica reported "about 4000 Jews and
perhaps 6000 Christians" living in Basra, but no Turks other than
Ottoman officials. In 1884 the Ottomans responded to local pressure
from the Shi\'as of the south by detaching the southern districts of
Baghdad vilayet and creating a new vilayet of
Turkish prisoners passing along the bank of Ashar Creek, nearing
Battle of Basra (1914) during
World War I
World War I , the occupying
British modernized the port (works designed by Sir George Buchanan );
these British commercial interests made it one of the most important
ports in the Persian Gulf "with shipping and trade links to the Far
World War II
World War II it was an important port through which flowed
much of the equipment and supplies sent to
Russia by the other allies.
At the end of the Second World War, the population was some 93,000
University of Basrah was founded in 1964. By 1977, the population
had risen to a peak population of some 1.5 million. The population
declined during the Iran–
Iraq War , being under 900,000 in the late
1980s, possibly reaching a low point of just over 400,000 during the
worst of the war. The city was repeatedly shelled by
Iran and was the
site of many fierce battles, such as
Operation Ramadan and Operation
Karbala 5 .
After the war, Saddam erected 99 memorial statues to Iraqi generals
and commanders killed during the war along the bank of the
Shatt-al-arab river, all pointing their fingers towards Iran.
After the first Persian
Gulf War , which the US called Operation
Desert Storm , in 1991, a rebellion struck Basra. The widespread
revolt was against
Saddam Hussein who violently put down the
rebellion, with much death and destruction inflicted on Basra.
1999: Second Revolt
On 25 January 1999,
Basra was the scene of scores of civilian
casualties when a missile fired by a US warplane was dropped in a
civilian area. Eleven persons were killed and fifty-nine injured.
Anthony Zinni , then commander of US forces in the Persian
Gulf, acknowledged that it was possible that "a missile may have been
errant". While such casualty numbers pale in comparison to later
events, the bombing occurred one day after
Arab foreign ministers,
meeting in Egypt, refused to condemn four days of air strikes against
Iraq in December 1998. This was described by Iraqi information
minister Human Abdel-Khaliq as giving the
United States and Britain
Arab green card" to attack Iraq.
A second revolt in 1999 led to mass executions in and around Basra.
Subsequently, the Iraqi government deliberately neglected the city,
and much commerce was diverted to
Umm Qasr . These alleged abuses are
to feature amongst the charges against the former regime to be
considered by the
Special Tribunal set up by the
Government following the 2003 invasion.
Workers in Basra's oil industry have been involved in extensive
organization and labour conflict. They held a two-day strike in August
2003, and formed the nucleus of the independent General Union of Oil
Employees (GUOE) in June 2004. The union held a one-day strike in July
2005, and publicly opposes plans for privatizing the industry.
Iraq War And Occupation
Battle of Basra (2003)
Battle of Basra (2003)
In March through to May 2003, the outskirts of
Basra were the scene
of some of the heaviest fighting in the 2003 invasion of
British forces, led by the 7th Armoured Brigade , took the city on 6
April 2003. This city was the first stop for the
United States and the
United Kingdom during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
On 21 April 2004, a series of bomb blasts ripped through the city,
killing 74 people. The Multi-National Division (South-East) , under
British Command, was engaged in Security and Stabilization missions in
Basra Governorate and surrounding areas during this time. Political
groups centered in
Basra were reported to have close links with
political parties already in power in the Iraqi government , despite
opposition from Iraqi Sunnis and the more secular Kurds . January 2005
elections saw several radical politicians gain office, supported by
religious parties. American journalist
Steven Vincent , who had been
researching and reporting on corruption and militia activity in the
city, was kidnapped and killed on 2 August 2005.
On 19 September 2005, two undercover British SAS soldiers disguised
Arab civilian clothes and headdresses opened fire on Iraqi police
officers after having been stopped at a roadblock, killing at least
one. After the two soldiers were arrested, the British Army raided the
jail they were being held in to rescue them, killing several people
from among their nominal allies – the Iraqi security forces .
British troops transferred control of
Basra province to the Iraqi
authorities in 2007, four-and-a-half years after the invasion. A BBC
survey of local residents found that 86% thought the presence of
British troops since 2003 had had an overall negative effect on the
Major-General Abdul Jalil Khalaf was appointed Police Chief by the
central government with the task of taking on the militias. He was
outspoken against the targeting of women by the militias. Talking to
the BBC, he said that his determination to tackle the militia had led
to almost daily assassination attempts. This was taken as sign that
he was serious in opposing the militias.
Battle of Basra (2008)
In March 2008, the Iraqi Army launched a major offensive, code-named
Saulat al-Fursan (Charge of the White Knights), aimed at forcing the
Mahdi Army out of Basra. The assault was planned by General Mohan
Furaiji and approved by Iraqi Prime Minister
Nouri al-Maliki .
In April 2008, following the failure to disarm militant groups, both
Major-General Abdul Jalil Khalaf and General Mohan Furaiji were
removed from their positions in Basra.
Basra was scheduled to host the
2014 Gulf Cup of Nations tournament
Basra Sports City , a newly built multi-use sports complex. The
tournament was shifted to
Saudi Arabia , after concerns over
preparations and security.
Iraq was also due to host the 2013
tournament, but that was moved to Bahrain.
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Basra Times square shopping centre
Basra is located on the Shatt-Al-
Arab waterway, downstream of which
is the Persian Gulf. The Shatt-Al-
Basra waterways define the
eastern and western borders of Basra, respectively. The city is
penetrated by a complex network of canals and streams, vital for
irrigation and other agricultural use. These canals were once used to
transport goods and people throughout the city, but during the last
two decades, pollution and a continuous drop in water levels have made
river navigation impossible in the canals.
Basra is roughly 110 km (68
mi) from the Persian Gulf.
Basra has a hot desert climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification BWh),
like the rest of the surrounding region, though it receives slightly
more precipitation than inland locations due to its location near the
coast. During the summer months, from June to August,
consistently one of the hottest cities on the planet, with
temperatures regularly exceeding 50 °C (122 °F) in July and August.
Basra experiences mild weather with average high
temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F). On some winter nights, minimum
temperatures are below 0 °C (32 °F). High humidity – sometimes
exceeding 90% – is common due to the proximity to the marshy Persian
An all-time high temperature was recorded on July 22, 2016, when
daytime readings soared to 53.8 °C (128.8 °F). This is one of the
hottest ever measured temperatures on the planet. The following night,
the nighttime low temperature was 38.8 °C (101.8 °F), which also
accounts for one of the highest minimum temperatures on any given day,
only outshone by Death Valley, California, USA, and Khasab, Oman.
CLIMATE DATA FOR BASRA
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
MEAN DAILY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Climate-Data.org
Source #2: Weather2Travel for rainy days and sunshine
Chaldean Catholic Church in Basra.
Basra the vast majority of the population are ethnic
Arabs of the
Adnanite or the
Qahtanite tribes. The main tribes located in
Bani Mansour ,
Bani Tamim ,
Bani Assad , Bani Ka\'ab , Bani
Bani Khalid , Bani Sa\'ad , Al-shwelat
Suwa\'id , Al-bo Mohammed , Al-Jboor , Duwasir , Dhufair, Shreefat ,
Al-Badr , Al-Ubadi , Ruba\'ah Sayyid tribes (descendants of the
Muhammed ) and hundreds of other
In addition to the Arabs, there is also a community of Afro-Iraqi
peoples, known as
Zanj . The
Zanj are a Muslim Ethnic group living in
Iraq and are a mix of African peoples taken from the coast of the area
Kenya as slaves in the 900s. They now number around 1.5
In 2006, Muslim adherents were about 95% Shia and 5%
Sunni but in
2014 99.3% shia, 0.4% sunni and 0.3% other.
Assyrians were recorded in the Ottoman census as early as 1911, and a
small number of them live in Basra. However, a significant number of
the modern community are refugees fleeing persecution from ISIS in the
Nineveh Plains , Mosul, and northern Iraq. One of the largest
communities of pre-Islamic
Mandaeans live in the city, whose
headquarters was in the area formerly called Suk esh-Sheikh . They
number around 3,000.
Ali Bin Abi Talib mosque Old Basrah
* The old mosque of Basra, the first mosque in Islam outside the
* Sinbad Island is located in the centre of Shatt Al-Arab, near the
Miinaalmakl, and extends above the bridge Khaled and is a tourist
* Sayab's House Ruins is the site of the most famous home of the
Badr Shakir al-Sayyab . There is also a statue of Sayab, one of
the statues in
Basra done by the artist and sculptor nada' Kadhum,
located on al-
Basrah Corniche; it was unveiled in 1972.
Basra Sports City is the largest sport city in the Middle East,
located on the Shatt al-Basra.
* Palm tree forests are largely located on the shores of shatt-al
Arab waterway, especially in the nearby village of Abu Al-Khasib .
* Corniche al-
Basra is a street which runs on the shore of the Shatt
al-Arab; it goes from the Lion of Babylon Square to the Four Palaces.
Basra International Hotel (formally known as
Basra Sheraton Hotel)
is located on the Corniche street. The only five star hotel in the
city, it is notable for its
Shanasheel style exterior design. The
hotel was heavily looted during the
Iraq War , and it has been
Ali al-Musawi Mosque, also known as the Mosque of the
Children of Amer, is located in the city centre, on Al-Gazear Street,
and it was built for Shia Imami's leader Sayyed
Ali al-Moussawi, whose
followers lived in
Iraq and neighbouring countries.
* The Fun City of Basrah, which is now called
Basra Land, is one of
the oldest theme-park entertainment cities in the south of the
country, and the largest involving a large number of games giants. It
was damaged during the war, and has been rebuilt.
* Akhora Park is one of the city's older parks. It is located on
* There are four formal presidential palaces in Basrah.
* The Latin Church is located on the 14th of July Street.
* Indian Market (Amogaiz) is one of the main bazaars in the city. It
is called the Indian Market, since it had Indian vendors working there
at the beginning of the last century.
* Hanna-Sheikh Bazaar is an old market; it was established by the
powerful and famous Hanna-Sheikh family.
Al Basrah Oil Terminal .
The city is located along the
Shatt al-Arab waterway, 55 kilometers
(34 mi) from the Persian Gulf and 545 kilometers (339 mi) from Baghdad
, Iraq's capital and largest city. Its economy is largely dependent on
the oil industry.
Iraq has the world's 4th largest oil reserves
estimated to be more 115 billion barrels (18.3×10^9 m3). Some of
Iraq's largest oil fields are located in the province, and most of
Iraq's oil exports leave from
Al Basrah Oil Terminal . The South Oil
Company has its headquarters in the city.
Substantial economic activity in
Basrah is centred around the
petrochemical industry, which includes the Southern Fertilizer Company
and The State Company for
Petrochemical Industries (SCPI). The
Southern Fertilizer Company produces ammonia solution, urea and
nitrogen gas, while the SCPI focus on such products as ethylene ,
caustic/chlorine, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), polyvinyl chloride
(PVC), low-density polyethylene , and high-density polyethylene
Basra is in a fertile agricultural region, with major products
including rice, maize corn , barley , pearl millet , wheat, dates ,
and livestock. For a long time,
Basra was known for the superior
quality of its dates.
Basra was known in the 1960s for its sugar
market, a fact that figured heavily in the English contract law
remoteness of damages case
The Heron II 1 AC 350.
Shipping, logistics and transport are also major industries in Basra.
Basra is home to all of Iraq’s six ports;
Umm Qasr is the main
deep-water port with 22 platforms, some of which are dedicated to
specific goods (such as sulphur, seeds, lubricant oil, etc.) The other
five ports are smaller in scale and more narrowly specialized. Fishing
was an important business before the oil boom. The city also has an
international airport , with service into
Baghdad with Iraqi Airways
—the national airline.
Basra International Stadium Opening
The city is home to the sports team Al-Mina\'a . Its basketball
division is among the
Arab elite teams that compete at the
Basketball Championship .
Zadig "Bassora" is the site of an international
market where the hero meets representatives of all the world religions
and concludes that "the world is one large family which meets at
* The city of
Basra has a major role in
H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells 's 1933 future
The Shape of Things to Come ", where the "Modern State" is at
the centre of a world state emerging after a collapse of civilization,
and becomes in effect the capital of the world.
* In the 1940 film The Thief of Bagdad , Ahmad and Abu flee to the
city from Bagdad. Ahmad falls in love with the sultan's beautiful
daughter, who is also desired by his enemy, and former Grand Vizier,
* In Scott K. Andrews\' "Operation Motherland", the second book in
the post-apocalyptic "Afterblight Chronicles ", the character Lee
Keegan crash lands his plane in the streets of
Basra during the
The Simpsons Season 28 episode "
Trust but Clarify " had Kent
Brockman's false war story having him being with a platoon in Basra,
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Basra is twinned with:
Baghdad , Iraq
Dubai , United
Texas , United States
Nishapur , Iran
Aqaba , Jordan
* List of places in
Basra International Airport
Basra reed warbler
University of Basrah
Umm Qasr Port
* ^ Sam Dagher (18 September 2007). "In the \'Venice of the East,\'
a history of diversity".
The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor . Retrieved 2
* ^ A B "
Basra city Profile" (PDF). UN Joint Analysis Unit.
* ^ "Iraqi parliament recognizes
Basra as economic capital".
* ^ Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade
in Eighteenth ... - Thabit Abdullah - Google Boeken
* ^ according to
Encyclopædia Iranica , E. Yarshater , Columbia
University , p851
* ^ See Mohammadi Malayeri, M. Dil-i Iranshahr.
* ^ (Madelung p. 303-4)
* ^ (Brock p.66)
* ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World,
Vol.2, (Brill, 2002), 17. – via
Questia (subscription required)
* ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World,
Vol.2, 17. – via
Questia (subscription required)
* ^ Penny Encyclopedia
Buscarello de Ghizolfi
* ^ Yitzhak Nakash, The Shi'is of
Iraq (Princeton: University
Press, 1994), p. 15
* ^ "Basra". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). 1911. p.
* ^ His proper name and position description appears to be in
error, in that he appears to have held a more junior role at the time.
Humam Abd al-Khaliq Abd al-Ghafur was Iraqi Information Minister
between 1997 and 2001. The Iraqi Information Minister between 1991 and
1996 was Hamid Yusuf Hammadi. See List of Iraqi Information Ministers
* ^ Paul Koring, "USAF air strikes kill 11, injure 59: Iraq". The
Globe and Mail
Globe and Mail (Toronto), 26 January 1999: A8. These air strikes, by
British and USAF warplanes and U.S. cruise missiles, were said to be
in response to a release of a report by UN weapons inspectors stating
that, as of 1998, the government of
Iraq was obstructing their
inspection work. Following the four days of bombing in December, the
Iraqi government commenced challenging the "no fly zones" unilaterally
imposed on the country by the United States, following the 1991
Persian Gulf war. During the month of January, 1999, there were more
than 100 incursions by Iraqi aircraft and 20 instances of Iraqi
surface-to-air missiles being filed. The January bombing of Basra
occurred in the context of retaliatory attacks by the United States.
* ^ "UK soldiers \'freed from militia\'". BBC. 20 September 2005.
Retrieved 17 March 2012.
* ^ "British smash jail walls to free 2 arrested soldiers". San
Francisco Gate. 20 September 2005. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
* ^ "UK troops return
Basra to Iraqis". BBC News. 16 December 2007.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
* ^ "
Basra residents blame UK troops". BBC News. 14 December 2007.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
* ^ "
Basra militants targeting women". BBC News. 15 November 2007.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
* ^ "Basra: The Legacy". BBC News. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 1
* ^ "Uncertainty follows
Basra exit". BBC News. 15 December 2007.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
* ^ Glanz, James (27 March 2008). "Iraqi Army’s Assault on
Basra Stalls". New York Times. Archived from the original
on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2008.
* ^ "
Basra security leaders removed". BBC News. 16 April 2008.
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
* ^ "Climate:
Basra - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate
table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
* ^ "
Basra Climate and Weather Averages, Iraq". Weather2Travel.
Retrieved 22 August 2013.
* ^ "Al
Basrah Climate History". Myweather.com. Weather2. Retrieved
23 July 2016.
Basra Shi\'a militias and British forces in the south
Barnabas - Christian persecution
* ^ “... produce the finest dates known” 1st paragraph.
"Basra". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 489.
* ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved
See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Hallaq, Wael. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge
University Press, 2005
* Hawting, Gerald R. The First Dynasty of Islam. Routledge. 2nd ed,
* Madelung, Wilferd. "Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and the Mahdi" in the
Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40. 1981. pp. 291–305.
* Vincent, Stephen. Into The Red Zone: A Journey Into the Soul of
Iraq. ISBN 1-890626-57-0 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to BASRA .
* "Basra". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3