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BASRA, also AL-BAṣRAH (Arabic : البصرة‎‎), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
between Kuwait
Kuwait
and Iran
Iran
. It had an estimated population of 1.5 million in 2012. Basra
Basra
is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr .

The city is part of the historic location of Sumer
Sumer
, one of the ports from which Sinbad the Sailor
Sinbad the Sailor
journeyed, and a proposed location of the Garden of Eden . It played an important role in early Islamic history and was built in 636 (14 AH ). Basra
Basra
is consistently one of the hottest cities in Iraq, with summer temperatures regularly exceeding 50 °C (122 °F). In April 2017 the Iraqi Parliament recognized Basra as Iraq\'s economic capital .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Ancient times * 2.2 Middle Ages * 2.3 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* 2.4 World Wars

* 2.5 Post 1945

* 2.5.1 1999: Second revolt * 2.5.2 2003-07: Iraq
Iraq
War and occupation * 2.5.3 2008 * 2.5.4 2014

* 3 Geography and climate

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Religion

* 5 Cityscape * 6 Economy * 7 Sports * 8 In fiction * 9 Twin towns – sister cities * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

A 1739 advert by Charles Benjamin Incledon for residents of London
London
, which features a Mesopotamian lion from the vicinity of 'Bassorah', besides other creatures.

The city was called by many names throughout its history, Basrah being the most common. In Arabic the word baṣrah means "the overwatcher", which might have been an allusion to the city's origin as an Arab
Arab
military base against the Sassanids . Some sources claim that the name is derived from the Persian word Bas-rah, which means "where many paths meet". Others have argued that the name is derived from the Aramaic
Aramaic
word basratha, meaning "place of huts, settlement".

During the pre-Islamic era, the area was known to the Arabs
Arabs
as al-Khariba due to the existence of an ancient city called al-Kharba. After the present city was built, it was called by many names, including "the mother of Iraq", "the reservoir of Arabs", "the prosperous city", and "al-Faiha".

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Basra

ANCIENT TIMES

Ashar Creek and bazaar, c. 1915 Shanasheel of the old part of Basra
Basra
city, 1954

The present city was founded in 636 as an encampment and garrison for Arab
Arab
tribesmen constituting the armies of the Rashid Caliph Umar
Umar
a few kilometres south of the present city, where a tell still marks its site. While defeating the forces of the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
there, the Muslim commander Utbah ibn Ghazwan erected his camp on the site of an old Persian settlement called Vaheštābād Ardašīr, which was destroyed by the Arabs. The name Al-Basrah, which in Arabic means "the over watching" or "the seeing everything", was given to it because of its role as a military base against the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
. However, other sources claim the name originates from the Persian word Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where many ways come together".

In 639 Umar
Umar
established this encampment as a city with five districts, and appointed Abu Musa al-Ash\'ari as its first governor. Abu Musa led the conquest of Khuzestan
Khuzestan
from 639 to 642 and was ordered by Umar
Umar
to aid Uthman
Uthman
ibn Abu al-ʿAs, then fighting Iran
Iran
from a new, more easterly miṣr at Tawwaj. In 650, the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph Uthman reorganised the Persian frontier, installed ʿAbdullah ibn Amir as Basra's governor, and put the military's southern wing under Basra's control. Ibn Amir led his forces to their final victory over Yazdegerd III , the Sassanid King of Kings .

In 656, Uthman
Uthman
was murdered and Ali
Ali
was appointed Caliph. Ali
Ali
first installed Uthman
Uthman
ibn Hanif as Basra's governor, who was followed by ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAbbas. These men held the city for Ali
Ali
until the latter's death in 661.

The Sufyanids held Basra
Basra
until Yazid I
Yazid I
's death in 683. The Sufyanids' first governor was Umayyad ʿAbdullah, a renowned military leader, commanding fealty and financial demands from Karballah, but poor governor. In 664, Muʿawiyah I replaced him with Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan , often called "ibn Abihi" ("son of his own father"), who became infamous for his draconian rules regarding public order. On Ziyad's death in 673, his son ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziyad became governor. In 680, Yazid I
Yazid I
ordered ʿUbaydullah to keep order in Kufa
Kufa
as a reaction to Hussein ibn Ali
Ali
's popularity as the grandson of the Islamic Prophet
Islamic Prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
. ʿUbaydullah took over the control of Kufa . Hussein sent his cousin as an ambassador to the people of Kufa, but ʿUbaydullah executed Hussein's cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel
Muslim ibn Aqeel
amid fears of an uprising. ʿUbaydullah amassed an army of thousands of soldiers and fought Hussein's army of approximately 70 in a place called Karbala near Kufa. ʿUbaydullah's army was victorious; Hussein and his followers were killed and their heads were sent to Yazid as proof.

Ibn al-Harith spent his year in office trying to put down Nafi' ibn al-Azraq's Kharijite uprising in Khuzestan
Khuzestan
. In 685, Ibn al-Zubayr, requiring a practical ruler, appointed Umar
Umar
ibn Ubayd Allah ibn Ma'mar Finally, Ibn al-Zubayr appointed his own brother Mus'ab. In 686, the revolutionary al-Mukhtar led an insurrection at Kufa, and put an end to ʿUbaydullah ibn Ziyad near Mosul
Mosul
. In 687, Musʿab defeated al-Mukhtar with the help of Kufans who Mukhtar exiled.

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
reconquered Basra
Basra
in 691, and Basra
Basra
remained loyal to his governor al-Hajjaj during Ibn Ashʿath's mutiny (699–702). However, Basra
Basra
did support the rebellion of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab against Yazid II during the 720s. In the 740s, Basra
Basra
fell to as-Saffah of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
.

During the time of the Abbasids Basra
Basra
became an intellectual centre as it was the home city of the Arab
Arab
polymath Ibn al-Haytham , the Arab literary giant al-Jahiz , and the Sufi
Sufi
mystic Rabia Basri . The Zanj Rebellion by the agricultural slaves of the lowlands affected the area. In 871, the Zanj sacked Basra. In 923, the Qarmatians , an extremist Muslim sect, invaded and devastated Basra. From 945 to 1055, a Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
ruled Baghdad
Baghdad
and most of Iraq. Abu al Qasim al-Baridis, who still controlled Basra
Basra
and Wasit , were defeated and their lands taken by the Buyids in 947. Adud al-Dawla and his sons Diya\' al-Dawla and Samsam al-Dawla were the Buyid rulers of Basra during the 970s, 980s and 990s.

Sanad al-Dawla al-Habashi was governor of Basra
Basra
and built a library of 15,000 books. Basra
Basra
at night

MIDDLE AGES

The Great Friday Mosque was constructed in Basra. In 1122, Imad ad-Din Zengi received Basra
Basra
as a fief. In 1126, Zengi suppressed a revolt and in 1129, Dabis looted the Basra
Basra
state treasury. A 1200 map "on the eve of the Mongol invasions" shows the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
as ruling lower Iraq
Iraq
and, presumably, Basra.

The Assassin Rashid-ad-Din-Sinan was born in Basra
Basra
on or between 1131 and 1135.

In 1258, the Mongols under Hulegu Khan sacked Baghdad
Baghdad
and ended Abbasid rule. By some accounts, Basra
Basra
capitulated to the Mongols to avoid a massacre. The Mamluk Bahri dynasty map (1250–1382) shows Basra
Basra
as being under their area of control, and the Mongol Dominions map (1300–1405) shows Basra
Basra
as being under their control.

In 1290 fighting erupted at the Persian Gulf port of Basra
Basra
among the Genoese , between the Guelph and the Ghibelline factions. In 1327, Ibn Battuta visited Basra, which was in decline with the great mosque being 3 kilometres (2 mi) out of town. An Ilkhanid governor received him. In 1411, the Jalayirid leader was ousted from Basra
Basra
by the Black Sheep Turkmen . In 1523, the Portuguese under the command of António Tenreiro crossed from Aleppo to Basra. By 1546, the Turks had reached Basra. In 1550, the Portuguese threatened Basra. In 1624, the Portuguese assisted Basra
Basra
Pasha in repelling a Persian invasion. The Portuguese were granted a share of customs and freedom from tolls. From about 1625 until 1668, Basra
Basra
and the Delta marshlands were in the hands of local chieftains independent of the Ottoman administration at Baghdad.

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

See also: Basra Eyalet and Basra Vilayet Arab
Arab
girls, c. 1917

Basra
Basra
was, for a long time, a flourishing commercial and cultural centre. It was captured by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1668. It was fought over by Turks and Persians and was the scene of repeated attempts at resistance.

The Zand Dynasty
Zand Dynasty
under Karim Khan Zand briefly occupied Basra
Basra
after a long siege in 1775-9. Zand introduced Shi'iah religious practices in Basra.

In 1911, the Encyclopædia Britannica reported "about 4000 Jews and perhaps 6000 Christians" living in Basra, but no Turks other than Ottoman officials. In 1884 the Ottomans responded to local pressure from the Shi\'as of the south by detaching the southern districts of the Baghdad vilayet and creating a new vilayet of Basra
Basra
.

WORLD WARS

Turkish prisoners passing along the bank of Ashar Creek, nearing Whiteley's Bridge, Basra
Basra
1917.

After the Battle of Basra (1914) during World War I
World War I
, the occupying British modernized the port (works designed by Sir George Buchanan ); these British commercial interests made it one of the most important ports in the Persian Gulf "with shipping and trade links to the Far East.

During World War II
World War II
it was an important port through which flowed much of the equipment and supplies sent to Russia
Russia
by the other allies. At the end of the Second World War, the population was some 93,000 people.

POST 1945

The University of Basrah was founded in 1964. By 1977, the population had risen to a peak population of some 1.5 million. The population declined during the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War , being under 900,000 in the late 1980s, possibly reaching a low point of just over 400,000 during the worst of the war. The city was repeatedly shelled by Iran
Iran
and was the site of many fierce battles, such as Operation Ramadan and Operation Karbala 5 .

After the war, Saddam erected 99 memorial statues to Iraqi generals and commanders killed during the war along the bank of the Shatt-al-arab river, all pointing their fingers towards Iran.

After the first Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
, which the US called Operation Desert Storm , in 1991, a rebellion struck Basra. The widespread revolt was against Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
who violently put down the rebellion, with much death and destruction inflicted on Basra.

1999: Second Revolt

On 25 January 1999, Basra
Basra
was the scene of scores of civilian casualties when a missile fired by a US warplane was dropped in a civilian area. Eleven persons were killed and fifty-nine injured. General Anthony Zinni
Anthony Zinni
, then commander of US forces in the Persian Gulf, acknowledged that it was possible that "a missile may have been errant". While such casualty numbers pale in comparison to later events, the bombing occurred one day after Arab
Arab
foreign ministers, meeting in Egypt, refused to condemn four days of air strikes against Iraq
Iraq
in December 1998. This was described by Iraqi information minister Human Abdel-Khaliq as giving the United States
United States
and Britain "an Arab
Arab
green card" to attack Iraq.

A second revolt in 1999 led to mass executions in and around Basra. Subsequently, the Iraqi government deliberately neglected the city, and much commerce was diverted to Umm Qasr . These alleged abuses are to feature amongst the charges against the former regime to be considered by the Iraq
Iraq
Special
Special
Tribunal set up by the Iraq
Iraq
Interim Government following the 2003 invasion.

Workers in Basra's oil industry have been involved in extensive organization and labour conflict. They held a two-day strike in August 2003, and formed the nucleus of the independent General Union of Oil Employees (GUOE) in June 2004. The union held a one-day strike in July 2005, and publicly opposes plans for privatizing the industry.

2003-07: Iraq
Iraq
War And Occupation

Main article: Battle of Basra (2003)
Battle of Basra (2003)

In March through to May 2003, the outskirts of Basra
Basra
were the scene of some of the heaviest fighting in the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
. British forces, led by the 7th Armoured Brigade , took the city on 6 April 2003. This city was the first stop for the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

On 21 April 2004, a series of bomb blasts ripped through the city, killing 74 people. The Multi-National Division (South-East) , under British Command, was engaged in Security and Stabilization missions in Basra Governorate and surrounding areas during this time. Political groups centered in Basra
Basra
were reported to have close links with political parties already in power in the Iraqi government , despite opposition from Iraqi Sunnis and the more secular Kurds . January 2005 elections saw several radical politicians gain office, supported by religious parties. American journalist Steven Vincent , who had been researching and reporting on corruption and militia activity in the city, was kidnapped and killed on 2 August 2005.

On 19 September 2005, two undercover British SAS soldiers disguised in Arab
Arab
civilian clothes and headdresses opened fire on Iraqi police officers after having been stopped at a roadblock, killing at least one. After the two soldiers were arrested, the British Army raided the jail they were being held in to rescue them, killing several people from among their nominal allies – the Iraqi security forces .

British troops transferred control of Basra
Basra
province to the Iraqi authorities in 2007, four-and-a-half years after the invasion. A BBC survey of local residents found that 86% thought the presence of British troops since 2003 had had an overall negative effect on the province.

Major-General Abdul Jalil Khalaf was appointed Police Chief by the central government with the task of taking on the militias. He was outspoken against the targeting of women by the militias. Talking to the BBC, he said that his determination to tackle the militia had led to almost daily assassination attempts. This was taken as sign that he was serious in opposing the militias.

2008

Main article: Battle of Basra (2008)

In March 2008, the Iraqi Army launched a major offensive, code-named Saulat al-Fursan (Charge of the White Knights), aimed at forcing the Mahdi Army out of Basra. The assault was planned by General Mohan Furaiji and approved by Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki .

In April 2008, following the failure to disarm militant groups, both Major-General Abdul Jalil Khalaf and General Mohan Furaiji were removed from their positions in Basra.

2014

Basra
Basra
was scheduled to host the 2014 Gulf Cup of Nations tournament in Basra Sports City , a newly built multi-use sports complex. The tournament was shifted to Riyadh
Riyadh
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, after concerns over preparations and security. Iraq
Iraq
was also due to host the 2013 tournament, but that was moved to Bahrain.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Basra
Basra
Times square shopping centre

Basra
Basra
is located on the Shatt-Al- Arab
Arab
waterway, downstream of which is the Persian Gulf. The Shatt-Al- Arab
Arab
and Basra
Basra
waterways define the eastern and western borders of Basra, respectively. The city is penetrated by a complex network of canals and streams, vital for irrigation and other agricultural use. These canals were once used to transport goods and people throughout the city, but during the last two decades, pollution and a continuous drop in water levels have made river navigation impossible in the canals. Basra
Basra
is roughly 110 km (68 mi) from the Persian Gulf.

Basra
Basra
has a hot desert climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BWh), like the rest of the surrounding region, though it receives slightly more precipitation than inland locations due to its location near the coast. During the summer months, from June to August, Basra
Basra
is consistently one of the hottest cities on the planet, with temperatures regularly exceeding 50 °C (122 °F) in July and August. In winter Basra
Basra
experiences mild weather with average high temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F). On some winter nights, minimum temperatures are below 0 °C (32 °F). High humidity – sometimes exceeding 90% – is common due to the proximity to the marshy Persian Gulf.

An all-time high temperature was recorded on July 22, 2016, when daytime readings soared to 53.8 °C (128.8 °F). This is one of the hottest ever measured temperatures on the planet. The following night, the nighttime low temperature was 38.8 °C (101.8 °F), which also accounts for one of the highest minimum temperatures on any given day, only outshone by Death Valley, California, USA, and Khasab, Oman.

CLIMATE DATA FOR BASRA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 34 (93) 29 (84) 39 (102) 42 (108) 48 (118) 51 (124) 54 (129) 51 (124) 49 (120) 43 (109) 37 (99) 30 (86) 54 (129)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 17.7 (63.9) 20.0 (68) 24.5 (76.1) 30.6 (87.1) 36.8 (98.2) 39.7 (103.5) 41.3 (106.3) 41.8 (107.2) 39.9 (103.8) 34.9 (94.8) 27.1 (80.8) 20.3 (68.5) 31.22 (88.18)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 12.2 (54) 14.2 (57.6) 18.3 (64.9) 23.9 (75) 30.2 (86.4) 32.9 (91.2) 34.3 (93.7) 33.9 (93) 31.2 (88.2) 26.4 (79.5) 20.4 (68.7) 14.5 (58.1) 24.37 (75.86)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 8.4 (47.1) 12.2 (54) 17.2 (63) 23.6 (74.5) 26.2 (79.2) 27.4 (81.3) 26.1 (79) 22.6 (72.7) 18.0 (64.4) 13.7 (56.7) 8.7 (47.7) 17.57 (63.65)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −1 (30) −5 (23) 3 (37) 8 (46) 16 (61) 16 (61) 18 (64) 21 (70) 9 (48) 12 (54) 3 (37) −6 (21) −6 (21)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 31 (1.22) 21 (0.83) 19 (0.75) 17 (0.67) 5 (0.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (0.12) 23 (0.91) 33 (1.3) 152 (6)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 6 5 5 4 2 0 0 0 0 1 4 5 32

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 186 198 217 248 279 330 341 310 300 279 210 186 3,084

MEAN DAILY SUNSHINE HOURS 6 7 7 8 9 11 11 10 10 9 7 6 8.4

Source #1: Climate-Data.org

Source #2: Weather2Travel for rainy days and sunshine

DEMOGRAPHICS

A Chaldean Catholic Church in Basra.

In Basra
Basra
the vast majority of the population are ethnic Arabs
Arabs
of the Adnanite
Adnanite
or the Qahtanite tribes. The main tribes located in Basra
Basra
are Al-Emarah, Bani Mansour , Bani Tamim , Bani Assad , Bani Ka\'ab , Bani Malik , Shammar , Bani Khalid , Bani Sa\'ad , Al-shwelat `Anizzah
`Anizzah
, Suwa\'id , Al-bo Mohammed , Al-Jboor , Duwasir , Dhufair, Shreefat , Al-Badr , Al-Ubadi , Ruba\'ah Sayyid tribes (descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammed ) and hundreds of other Arab
Arab
tribes.

In addition to the Arabs, there is also a community of Afro-Iraqi peoples, known as Zanj . The Zanj are a Muslim Ethnic group living in Iraq
Iraq
and are a mix of African peoples taken from the coast of the area of modern-day Kenya
Kenya
as slaves in the 900s. They now number around 1.5 million in Iraq
Iraq
.

RELIGION

In 2006, Muslim adherents were about 95% Shia and 5% Sunni
Sunni
but in 2014 99.3% shia, 0.4% sunni and 0.3% other.

Assyrians were recorded in the Ottoman census as early as 1911, and a small number of them live in Basra. However, a significant number of the modern community are refugees fleeing persecution from ISIS in the Nineveh Plains , Mosul, and northern Iraq. One of the largest communities of pre-Islamic Mandaeans
Mandaeans
live in the city, whose headquarters was in the area formerly called Suk esh-Sheikh . They number around 3,000.

CITYSCAPE

Shatt Al- Arab
Arab
Ali
Ali
Bin Abi Talib mosque Old Basrah

* The old mosque of Basra, the first mosque in Islam outside the Arabian peninsula. * Sinbad Island is located in the centre of Shatt Al-Arab, near the Miinaalmakl, and extends above the bridge Khaled and is a tourist landmark. * Sayab's House Ruins is the site of the most famous home of the poet Badr Shakir al-Sayyab . There is also a statue of Sayab, one of the statues in Basra
Basra
done by the artist and sculptor nada' Kadhum, located on al- Basrah
Basrah
Corniche; it was unveiled in 1972. * Basra Sports City is the largest sport city in the Middle East, located on the Shatt al-Basra. * Palm tree forests are largely located on the shores of shatt-al Arab
Arab
waterway, especially in the nearby village of Abu Al-Khasib . * Corniche al- Basra
Basra
is a street which runs on the shore of the Shatt al-Arab; it goes from the Lion of Babylon Square to the Four Palaces. * Basra
Basra
International Hotel (formally known as Basra
Basra
Sheraton Hotel) is located on the Corniche street. The only five star hotel in the city, it is notable for its Shanasheel style exterior design. The hotel was heavily looted during the Iraq
Iraq
War , and it has been renovated recently. * Sayyed Ali
Ali
al-Musawi Mosque, also known as the Mosque of the Children of Amer, is located in the city centre, on Al-Gazear Street, and it was built for Shia Imami's leader Sayyed Ali
Ali
al-Moussawi, whose followers lived in Iraq
Iraq
and neighbouring countries. * The Fun City of Basrah, which is now called Basra
Basra
Land, is one of the oldest theme-park entertainment cities in the south of the country, and the largest involving a large number of games giants. It was damaged during the war, and has been rebuilt. * Akhora Park is one of the city's older parks. It is located on al- Basra
Basra
Street. * There are four formal presidential palaces in Basrah. * The Latin Church is located on the 14th of July Street. * Indian Market (Amogaiz) is one of the main bazaars in the city. It is called the Indian Market, since it had Indian vendors working there at the beginning of the last century. * Hanna-Sheikh Bazaar is an old market; it was established by the powerful and famous Hanna-Sheikh family.

ECONOMY

Al Basrah Oil Terminal .

The city is located along the Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
waterway, 55 kilometers (34 mi) from the Persian Gulf and 545 kilometers (339 mi) from Baghdad , Iraq's capital and largest city. Its economy is largely dependent on the oil industry. Iraq
Iraq
has the world's 4th largest oil reserves estimated to be more 115 billion barrels (18.3×10^9 m3). Some of Iraq's largest oil fields are located in the province, and most of Iraq's oil exports leave from Al Basrah Oil Terminal . The South Oil Company has its headquarters in the city.

Substantial economic activity in Basrah
Basrah
is centred around the petrochemical industry, which includes the Southern Fertilizer Company and The State Company for Petrochemical
Petrochemical
Industries (SCPI). The Southern Fertilizer Company produces ammonia solution, urea and nitrogen gas, while the SCPI focus on such products as ethylene , caustic/chlorine, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene , and high-density polyethylene

Basra
Basra
is in a fertile agricultural region, with major products including rice, maize corn , barley , pearl millet , wheat, dates , and livestock. For a long time, Basra
Basra
was known for the superior quality of its dates. Basra
Basra
was known in the 1960s for its sugar market, a fact that figured heavily in the English contract law remoteness of damages case The Heron II 1 AC 350.

Shipping, logistics and transport are also major industries in Basra. Basra
Basra
is home to all of Iraq’s six ports; Umm Qasr is the main deep-water port with 22 platforms, some of which are dedicated to specific goods (such as sulphur, seeds, lubricant oil, etc.) The other five ports are smaller in scale and more narrowly specialized. Fishing was an important business before the oil boom. The city also has an international airport , with service into Baghdad
Baghdad
with Iraqi Airways —the national airline.

SPORTS

Basra
Basra
International Stadium Opening

The city is home to the sports team Al-Mina\'a . Its basketball division is among the Arab
Arab
elite teams that compete at the Arab
Arab
Club Basketball Championship .

IN FICTION

* In Voltaire
Voltaire
's Zadig "Bassora" is the site of an international market where the hero meets representatives of all the world religions and concludes that "the world is one large family which meets at Bassora". * The city of Basra
Basra
has a major role in H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
's 1933 future history " The Shape of Things to Come ", where the "Modern State" is at the centre of a world state emerging after a collapse of civilization, and becomes in effect the capital of the world. * In the 1940 film The Thief of Bagdad , Ahmad and Abu flee to the city from Bagdad. Ahmad falls in love with the sultan's beautiful daughter, who is also desired by his enemy, and former Grand Vizier, Jaffar. * In Scott K. Andrews\' "Operation Motherland", the second book in the post-apocalyptic "Afterblight Chronicles ", the character Lee Keegan crash lands his plane in the streets of Basra
Basra
during the opening chapter. * The Simpsons
The Simpsons
Season 28 episode " Trust but Clarify " had Kent Brockman's false war story having him being with a platoon in Basra, Iraq.

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Basra
Basra
is twinned with:

* Baghdad
Baghdad
, Iraq * Dubai
Dubai
, United Arab
Arab
Emirates * Houston
Houston
, Texas
Texas
, United States * Nishapur
Nishapur
, Iran * Baku
Baku
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Aqaba
Aqaba
, Jordan

SEE ALSO

* List of places in Iraq
Iraq
* Afro Iraqis * Basra International Airport * Dua Kumayl * Basra reed warbler * University of Basrah * Umm Qasr Port

REFERENCES

* ^ Sam Dagher (18 September 2007). "In the \'Venice of the East,\' a history of diversity". The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor
. Retrieved 2 January 2014. * ^ A B " Basra
Basra
city Profile" (PDF). UN Joint Analysis Unit. * ^ "Iraqi parliament recognizes Basra
Basra
as economic capital". * ^ Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade in Eighteenth ... - Thabit Abdullah - Google Boeken * ^ according to Encyclopædia Iranica , E. Yarshater , Columbia University , p851 * ^ See Mohammadi Malayeri, M. Dil-i Iranshahr. * ^ (Madelung p. 303-4) * ^ (Brock p.66) * ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, (Brill, 2002), 17. – via Questia (subscription required) * ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, 17. – via Questia (subscription required) * ^ Penny Encyclopedia * ^ Buscarello de Ghizolfi * ^ Yitzhak Nakash, The Shi'is of Iraq
Iraq
(Princeton: University Press, 1994), p. 15 * ^ "Basra". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 489. * ^ His proper name and position description appears to be in error, in that he appears to have held a more junior role at the time. Humam Abd al-Khaliq Abd al-Ghafur was Iraqi Information Minister between 1997 and 2001. The Iraqi Information Minister between 1991 and 1996 was Hamid Yusuf Hammadi. See List of Iraqi Information Ministers . * ^ Paul Koring, "USAF air strikes kill 11, injure 59: Iraq". The Globe and Mail
Globe and Mail
(Toronto), 26 January 1999: A8. These air strikes, by British and USAF warplanes and U.S. cruise missiles, were said to be in response to a release of a report by UN weapons inspectors stating that, as of 1998, the government of Iraq
Iraq
was obstructing their inspection work. Following the four days of bombing in December, the Iraqi government commenced challenging the "no fly zones" unilaterally imposed on the country by the United States, following the 1991 Persian Gulf war. During the month of January, 1999, there were more than 100 incursions by Iraqi aircraft and 20 instances of Iraqi surface-to-air missiles being filed. The January bombing of Basra occurred in the context of retaliatory attacks by the United States. * ^ "UK soldiers \'freed from militia\'". BBC. 20 September 2005. Retrieved 17 March 2012. * ^ "British smash jail walls to free 2 arrested soldiers". San Francisco Gate. 20 September 2005. Retrieved 17 March 2012. * ^ "UK troops return Basra
Basra
to Iraqis". BBC News. 16 December 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2010. * ^ " Basra
Basra
residents blame UK troops". BBC News. 14 December 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2010. * ^ " Basra
Basra
militants targeting women". BBC News. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2010. * ^ "Basra: The Legacy". BBC News. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2010. * ^ "Uncertainty follows Basra
Basra
exit". BBC News. 15 December 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2010. * ^ Glanz, James (27 March 2008). "Iraqi Army’s Assault on Militias in Basra
Basra
Stalls". New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2008. * ^ " Basra
Basra
security leaders removed". BBC News. 16 April 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2010. * ^ "Climate: Basra
Basra
- Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 22 August 2013. * ^ " Basra
Basra
Climate and Weather Averages, Iraq". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 22 August 2013. * ^ "Al Basrah
Basrah
Climate History". Myweather.com. Weather2. Retrieved 23 July 2016. * ^ Iraq
Iraq
- Basra
Basra
Shi\'a militias and British forces in the south Barnabas - Christian persecution * ^ “... produce the finest dates known” 1st paragraph. "Basra". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 489. * ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Basra
Basra

* Hallaq, Wael. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press, 2005 * Hawting, Gerald R. The First Dynasty of Islam. Routledge. 2nd ed, 2000 * Madelung, Wilferd. "Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and the Mahdi" in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40. 1981. pp. 291–305. * Vincent, Stephen. Into The Red Zone: A Journey Into the Soul of Iraq. ISBN 1-890626-57-0 .

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* "Basra". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3

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