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Basiliscus
Basiliscus
(Latin: Flavius Basiliscus
Basiliscus
Augustus; Greek: Βασιλίσκος; d. 476/477) was Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476. A member of the House of Leo, he came to power when Emperor Zeno was forced out of Constantinople
Constantinople
by a revolt. Basiliscus
Basiliscus
was the brother of Empress Aelia Verina, who was the wife of Emperor Leo I (457–474). His relationship with the Emperor allowed him to pursue a military career that, after minor initial successes, ended in 468, when he led the disastrous Roman invasion of Vandal Africa, in one of the largest military operations of Late Antiquity. Basiliscus
Basiliscus
succeeded in seizing power in 475, exploiting the unpopularity of Emperor Zeno, the "barbarian" successor to Leo, and a plot organised by Verina
Verina
that had caused Zeno to flee Constantinople. However, during his short rule, Basiliscus
Basiliscus
alienated the fundamental support of the Church and the people of Constantinople, promoting the Miaphysite christological position in opposition to the Chalcedonian faith. Also, his policy of securing his power through the appointment of loyal men to key roles antagonised many important figures in the imperial court, including his sister Verina. So, when Zeno tried to regain his empire, he found virtually no opposition, triumphantly entering Constantinople, and capturing and killing Basiliscus
Basiliscus
and his family. The struggle between Basiliscus
Basiliscus
and Zeno impeded the Eastern Roman Empire's ability to intervene in the fall of the Western Roman Empire, which happened in early September 476. When the chieftain of the Heruli, Odoacer, deposed Western Emperor Romulus Augustus, sending the imperial regalia to Constantinople, Zeno had just regained his throne, and he could only appoint Odoacer
Odoacer
dux of Italy, thereby ending the Western Roman Empire.

Contents

1 Origins and early career 2 Disastrous expedition against the Vandals 3 Rise to power 4 Rule

4.1 Corruption and the fire of Constantinople 4.2 Tensions with his collaborators 4.3 Religious controversies

5 Fall and death 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Primary sources 8.2 Secondary sources

9 External links

Origins and early career[edit]

Tremissis
Tremissis
issued in the name of Aelia Verina, wife and later widow of Emperor Leo I. As sister of Basiliscus, Verina
Verina
helped him in both his military and political career — even if unwillingly supporting his bid for the purple.

Likely of Balkan
Balkan
origin,[1] Basiliscus
Basiliscus
was the brother of Aelia Verina, wife of Leo I. It has been argued that Basiliscus
Basiliscus
was uncle to the chieftain of the Heruli, Odoacer. This link is based on the interpretation of a fragment by John of Antioch (209.1), which states that Odoacer
Odoacer
and Armatus, Basiliscus' nephew, were brothers.[2] However, not all scholars accept this interpretation, since sources do not say anything about the foreign origin of Basiliscus.[3] It is known that Basiliscus
Basiliscus
had a wife, Zenonis, and at least one son, Marcus. Basiliscus' military career started under Leo I. The Emperor conferred upon his brother-in-law the dignities of dux, or commander-in-chief, in Thrace.[4] In this country Basiliscus
Basiliscus
led a successful military campaign against the Bulgars
Bulgars
in 463. He succeeded Rusticius as magister militum per Thracias (464), and had several successes against the Goths
Goths
and Huns
Huns
(466 or 467).[5] Basiliscus's value rose in Leo's consideration. Verina's intercession in favour of her brother helped Basiliscus' military and political career, with the conferral of the consulship in 465 and possibly of the rank of patricius.[6] However, his rise was soon to meet a serious reversal.[1] Disastrous expedition against the Vandals[edit]

Cap Bon, in modern Tunisia
Tunisia
is the place where the Roman fleet led by Basiliscus
Basiliscus
landed to launch an attack upon the Vandal capital of Carthage.

Further information: Battle of Cape Bon (468) In 468, Leo chose Basiliscus
Basiliscus
as leader of the famous military expedition against Carthage. The invasion of the kingdom of the Vandals
Vandals
was one of the greatest military undertakings recorded in the annals of history, a combined amphibious operation with over ten thousand ships and one hundred thousand soldiers. The purpose of the operation was to punish the Vandal king Geiseric
Geiseric
for the sacking of Rome in 455, in which the former capital of the Western Roman Empire was overwhelmed, and the Empress Licinia Eudoxia
Licinia Eudoxia
(widow of Emperor Valentinian III) and her daughters were taken as hostages.[1][4] The plan was concerted between Eastern Emperor Leo, Western Emperor Anthemius, and General Marcellinus, who enjoyed independence in Illyricum. Basiliscus
Basiliscus
was ordered to sail directly to Carthage, while Marcellinus attacked and took Sardinia, and a third army, commanded by Heraclius
Heraclius
of Edessa, landed on the Libyan coast east of Carthage, making rapid progress. It appears that the combined forces met in Sicily, whence the three fleets moved at different periods.[4] Ancient and modern historians provided different estimations for the number of ships and troops under the command of Basiliscus, as well as for the expenses of the expedition. Both were enormous; Nicephorus Gregoras speaks of one hundred thousand ships, the more reliable Cedrenus says that the fleet that attacked Carthage
Carthage
consisted of eleven hundred and thirteen ships, having each one hundred men on board.[7] The most conservative estimation for expedition expenses is of 64,000 pounds of gold, a sum that exceeded a whole year's revenue.[8] Sardinia
Sardinia
and Libya were already conquered by Marcellinus and Heraclius, when Basiliscus
Basiliscus
cast anchor off the Promontorium Mercurii, now Cap Bon, opposite Sicily, about forty miles from Carthage. Geiseric
Geiseric
requested Basiliscus
Basiliscus
to allow him five days to draw up the conditions of a peace.[9] During the negotiations, Geiseric
Geiseric
gathered his ships and suddenly attacked the Roman fleet. The Vandals
Vandals
had filled many vessels with combustible materials. During the night, these fire ships were propelled against the unguarded and unsuspecting Roman fleet. The Roman commanders tried to rescue some ships from destruction, but these manoeuvres were blocked by the attack of other Vandal vessels.[4] Basiliscus
Basiliscus
fled in the heat of the battle.[10] One half of the Roman fleet was burned, sunk, or captured, and the other half followed the fugitive Basiliscus. The whole expedition had failed. Heraclius effected his retreat through the desert into Tripolitania, holding the position for two years until recalled; Marcellinus retired to Sicily, where he was reached by Basiliscus;[11] the general was, however, assassinated, perhaps at the instigation of Ricimer, by one of his own captains; and the king of the Vandals
Vandals
expressed his surprise and satisfaction, that the Romans themselves would remove from the world his most formidable antagonists.[4] After returning to Constantinople, Basiliscus
Basiliscus
hid in the church of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
to escape the wrath of the people and the revenge of the Emperor. By the mediation of Verina, Basiliscus
Basiliscus
obtained the Imperial pardon, and was punished merely with banishment to Heraclea Sintica, in Thrace.[12] Rise to power[edit] In 471 and 472, Basiliscus
Basiliscus
helped Leo I to get rid of the Germanic influence in his court, helping in the murder of the Alan Magister militum Aspar. The death of Aspar
Aspar
caused a revolt in Thrace, led by the Thracian Ostrogoth Theodoric Strabo, and Basiliscus
Basiliscus
was dispatched to suppress the revolt, something he successfully did with the aid of his nephew Armatus. In 474 he received the rank of caput senatus, "first among the senators".[5] At the death of Leo, Zeno, who was a "barbarian" of Isaurian stock, but at the same time son-in-law of Leo, ascended to Emperor, after a short reign of his own son Leo II (474). The "barbarian" origins of the Emperor caused antipathy towards Zeno among the people of Constantinople. Furthermore, the strong Germanic portion of the military, led by Theodoric Strabo, disliked the Isaurian officers that Leo I brought to reduce his dependency on the Ostrogoths. Finally, Zeno alienated his fellow Isaurian general Illus, who was bribed by Basiliscus. In the middle of the conspiracy was Verina, who fomented a popular revolt against the Emperor. The uprising, supported by Theodoric Strabo, Illus
Illus
and Armatus, was successful, and Verina convinced the Emperor to leave the city. Zeno fled to his native lands, bringing with him some of the Isaurians living in Constantinople, and the Imperial treasury. Basiliscus
Basiliscus
was then acclaimed as Augustus
Augustus
on 9 January 475[13] at the Hebdomon
Hebdomon
palace, by the palace ministers and the Senate.[14] The mob of Constantinople
Constantinople
got its revenge against Zeno, killing almost all of the Isaurians left in the city.[11][12] In the beginning, everything seemed to go well for the new Emperor, who even tried to set up a new dynasty by conferring the title of Augusta upon his wife Aelia Zenonis and creating his son Marcus, Caesar, and later Augustus;[15] however, due to his mismanagement as emperor, Basiliscus
Basiliscus
quickly lost most of his supporters. Rule[edit] Corruption and the fire of Constantinople[edit] The most urgent problem facing the new Emperor was the scarcity of resources left in the imperial treasury. Basiliscus
Basiliscus
was forced to raise heavy taxes, and to revert to the practice of auctioning the offices, obviously causing a diffuse discontent in the population. He also extorted money from the church, with the help of the Prefect Epinicus, Verina's long-time favourite.[11] Early in his reign, Constantinople
Constantinople
suffered a massive fire, which destroyed houses, churches, and completely incinerated the huge library built by Emperor Julian.[16] The fire was seen as a bad omen for the rule of Basiliscus.[12] Tensions with his collaborators[edit] Basiliscus
Basiliscus
had relied on the support of some major figures of the court in his bid for power. However, he quickly lost most of them. First, Basiliscus
Basiliscus
alienated his own sister Verina's support, executing the Magister Officiorum Patricius. Patricius was the lover of Verina, and the empress had planned to raise him to the imperial rank and to marry him: the very revolt against Zeno was organised to make Patricius emperor. Basiliscus, however, had out-witted his sister, and, after the flight of Zeno, had the ministers and the Senate choose him, and not Patricius, as Emperor. Basiliscus
Basiliscus
ordered the death of Patricius, as the officer was a natural candidate to overthrow the new Emperor; as a consequence, Verina
Verina
later intrigued against Basiliscus, because of her lover's execution.[17] Also, Theodoric Strabo, whose hatred of the Isaurian Zeno had compelled him to support Basiliscus' revolt, left the new Emperor's side. Basiliscus
Basiliscus
had in fact raised his own nephew Armatus, who was rumoured to be also the lover of Basiliscus' wife, to the rank of magister militum, the same that Strabo held. Finally, the support of Illus
Illus
was most likely wavering, given the massacre of the Isaurians allowed by Basiliscus.[4][11] Religious controversies[edit] In that time, the Christian faith was shaken by the contrast between Miaphysites and Chalcedonians. These were two opposing christological positions; the Chalcedonians claimed that Christ
Christ
had both human and divine natures, while the Miaphysites claimed he had only one single united nature. The Council of Chalcedon, convoked by Emperor Marcian in 451, had ruled out Miaphysitism, with the support of the pope in the West and many bishops in the East. However, the Miaphysite position was still strong: the two Miaphysite Patriarchs Timothy Aelurus of Alexandria and Peter the Fuller of Antioch
Antioch
were deposed.[18] From the beginning of his rule, Basiliscus
Basiliscus
showed his support for the Miaphysites. Zacharias Scholasticus
Zacharias Scholasticus
reports how a group of Egyptian Miaphysite monks, having heard of Emperor Leo's death, had moved from Alexandria to Constantinople
Constantinople
to petition Zeno in favour of Timothy, but at their arrival in the capital, they found the newly elected Basiliscus
Basiliscus
instead. The Magister Officiorum Theoctistus, the former physician of Basiliscus, was the brother of one of the monks, so the delegation obtained an audience with Basiliscus, and, with the support of Theoctistus and of the Empress, they convinced Basiliscus
Basiliscus
to recall from exile the banished Miaphysite Patriarchs.[19] Basiliscus
Basiliscus
re-instated Timothy Aelurus and Peter the Fuller to their sees,[20] and by persuasion of the former issued (9 April 475) a circular letter (Enkyklikon) to the bishops calling them to accept as valid only the first three ecumenical synods, and reject the Council of Chalcedon.[18] All bishops were to sign the edict. While most of the Eastern bishops accepted the letter, Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople
Constantinople
refused, with the support of the population of the city, clearly showing his disdain towards Basiliscus
Basiliscus
by draping the icons in Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
in black.[21] Fall and death[edit]

Tremissis
Tremissis
issued by Emperor Zeno. Zeno, whose original name was Tarasicodissa, was of Isaurian origin, and thus considered a "barbarian" and not loved by the people of Constantinople. Basiliscus successfully exploited his unpopularity to get the purple for himself, only to become unpopular in his turn, mainly for his religious belief.

Soon after his elevation, Basiliscus
Basiliscus
had despatched Illus
Illus
and his brother Trocundus against Zeno, who, now in his native fortresses, had resumed the life of an Isaurian chieftain. Basiliscus, however, failed to fulfill the promises he made to the two generals; furthermore, they received letters from some of the leading ministers at the court, urging them to secure the return of Zeno, for the city now preferred a restored Isaurian to a Miaphysite whose unpopularity increased with the fiscal rapacity of his ministers.[12] During his operations in Isauria, Illus
Illus
took Zeno's brother, Longinus, prisoner and kept him in an Isaurian fortress. Because he thought he would have great influence over a restored Zeno, he changed sides and marched with Zeno towards Constantinople
Constantinople
in the summer of 476. When Basiliscus
Basiliscus
received news of this danger, he hastened to recall his ecclesiastical edicts and to conciliate the Patriarch and the people, but it was too late.[12] Armatus, as magister militum, was sent with all available forces in Asia Minor, to oppose the advancing army of the Isaurians, but secret messages from Zeno, who promised to give him the title of magister militum for life and to confer the rank of Caesar on his son, induced him to betray his master.[22] Armatus
Armatus
avoided the road by which Zeno was advancing and marched into Isauria
Isauria
by another way. This betrayal decided the fate of Basiliscus.[12] In August 476, Zeno besieged Constantinople.[23] The Senate opened the gates of the city to the Isaurian, allowing the deposed emperor to resume the throne. Basiliscus
Basiliscus
fled to sanctuary in a church, but he was betrayed by Acacius and surrendered himself and his family after extracting a solemn promise from Zeno not to shed their blood. Basiliscus, his wife Aelia Zenonis and his son Marcus were sent to a fortress in Cappadocia,[24] where Zeno had them enclosed in a dry cistern, to die from exposure.[1][25] Basiliscus
Basiliscus
had ruled for twenty months. He is described by sources as a successful general, but slow of understanding and easy to deceive.[5] See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

Flavia (gens) List of Byzantine emperors

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Elton. ^ Krautschick. ^ Macgeorge. ^ a b c d e f Smith. ^ a b c Martindale. ^ Martindale. It is also possible that he attained the rank of patricius in 471/472, for helping Leo to get rid of the Germanic influence in his court, but there is a reference to Basiliscus
Basiliscus
as patricius earlier, in 468. ^ Georgius Cedrenus, through Smith. ^ Boardman. ^ Procopius
Procopius
suggests that Geiseric
Geiseric
supported his request for a truce with a bribe. ^ Basiliscus' lieutenant, Joannes, when overpowered by the Vandals, refused the pardon that was promised him by Genso, the son of Gaiseric, and leaped overboard in heavy armor and drowned himself in the sea. His last words were that he could not bear to surrender to those "impious dogs" of the Vandals
Vandals
— the Vandals, in fact, were Arians (Procopius). ^ a b c d Friell. ^ a b c d e f Bury. ^ There exists a horoscope made on the day of Basiliscus' coronation —12 January 475, at 9 am—, probably by a supporter of Zeno. The horoscope, preserved with the horoscopes of other two usurpers of Zeno through Arab sources, correctly predicts the end of Basiliscus' rule in two years. See Barton, Tamsyn (December 2002). Power and knowledge: Astrology, physiognomics, and medicine under the Roman Empire. University of Michigan Press. pp.  60. ISBN 0-472-08852-1.  ^ Tradition allowed the Senate to recognise an usurper, thus Basiliscus
Basiliscus
was the new lawful ruler. However it was the first military-based succession in the last one hundred years (Friell). ^ Basiliscus
Basiliscus
also issued coins celebrating the joint rule with his son Marcus;[1] Also, gold and bronze coins were minted in honour of Aelia Zenonis, Augusta[2] The coins bear the legend AVGGG, with the three 'G' referring to the three Augusti. See Yonge Akerman, John (2002) [1834]. A Descriptive Catalogue of Rare and Unedited Roman Coins. Adamant Media Corporation. pp.  383. ISBN 1-4021-9224-X.  ^ This library, which was housed within a basilica next to the underground cisterna built by Justinian I, contained 120,000 volumes, including the famous parchment, 35 m (115 ft) long, upon which were inscribed Homer's Iliad and Odyssey in golden letters. ^ Bury. According to Candidus, after the death of Patricius, Verina intrigued in favour of Zeno, but her plan was discovered by Basiliscus, and only the intercession of Armatus
Armatus
spared her life. ^ a b "Pope St. Simplicius", Catholic Encyclopedia. ^ Zacharias Scholasticus. ^ Samuel. ^ Evagrius Scholasticus. ^ According to Procopius, Armatus
Armatus
surrendered his army to Zeno, on the condition that Zeno would appoint Armatus' son Basiliscus
Basiliscus
as Caesar, and recognise him as successor to the throne upon his death. After Zeno had regained the Empire, he carried out his pledge to Armatus
Armatus
by appointing his son, named Basiliscus, Caesar, but not long afterwards he both stripped him of the office and put Armatus
Armatus
to death. ^ The leader of the Pannonian Goths, Theodoric the Amal (later known as Theodoric the Great) had allied to Zeno. Theodoric would have attacked Basiliscus
Basiliscus
and his Thracian Goth foederati led by Theodoric Strabo, receiving, in exchange, the title of magister militum held by Strabo and the payments previously given to the Thracian Goths. It has been suggested that Constantinople
Constantinople
was defenseless during Zeno's siege because the Magister Militum Strabo had moved north to counter this menace. See Heather, Peter (May 1998). Goths. Blackwell Publishing. pp.  158–159. ISBN 0-631-20932-8.  ^ Elton refers that the name of the stronghold was Limnae, while Smith has Cucusus, and Evagrius Scholasticus
Evagrius Scholasticus
reports Acusus. ^ Procopius.

References[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Evagrius Scholasticus, Historia Ecclesiae iii. 4–8 Georgius Cedrenus (1647). Goar and Fabrot ed., ed. Compendium Historiarum ab Orbe Condita ad Isaacum Comnenum (1057) (in Latin). Paris. pp. 349–350. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Procopius, Bellum Vandalicum i.6–8 Zacharias Scholasticus, Syriac Chronicle, v.1 [3].

Secondary sources[edit]

Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  Boardman, John (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. pp.  49. ISBN 0-521-32591-9.  Bury, John Bagnall (1958) [1923]. "XII.1 The Usurpation of Basiliscus (A.D. 475‑476)". History of the Later Roman Empire. Dover Books. pp.  389–395. Retrieved 23 August 2006.  Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450–680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3.  Elton, Hugh (10 June 1998). "Flavius Basiliscus
Basiliscus
(AD 475–476)". De Imperatoribus Romanis. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2006.  Friell, Gerard; Stephen Williams (December 1998). The Rome That Did Not Fall. Routledge. pp. 184–186. ISBN 0-415-15403-0.  Krautschick, Stephen (1986). "Zwei Aspekte des Jahres 476". Historia (35): 344–371.  Macgeorge, Penny (2003). Late Roman Warlords. Oxford University Press. pp. 284–285. ISBN 0-19-925244-0.  Martindale, J.R. (1980). The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 212–214. ISBN 0-521-20159-4.  "Pope St. Simplicius". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1917. Archived from the original on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2006.  Samuel, Vilakuvel Cherian (2001) [1977]. The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined. Xlibris Corporation (Reprinted ed.). Madras: Christian Literature Society. pp. 134–139. ISBN 1-4010-1644-8.  Smith, William (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Boston: C. Little and J. Brown. pp.  466. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2006. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Basiliscus
Basiliscus
(emperor).

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Circular letter of Basiliscus
Basiliscus
to the bishops, promoting the Monophysite doctrine

Basiliscus Leonid Dynasty Born: unknown Died: 476/477

Regnal titles

Preceded by Zeno Eastern Roman Emperor 475–476 with Marcus (since 475) Succeeded by Zeno

Political offices

Preceded by Flavius Rusticius, Flavius Anicius Olybrius Consul of the Roman Empire 465 with Flavius Hermenericus Succeeded by Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus
Augustus
III, Tatianus

Preceded by Imp. Caesar Flavius Zeno Augustus
Augustus
II, Post consulatum Leonis Augusti (East) Consul of the Roman Empire 476 with Flavius Armatus Vacant Post consulatum Basilisci Augusti II et Armati Title next held by Illus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59475

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