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Al-Malik Az-Zahir Sayf ad-Din Barquq
Barquq
(Arabic: الملك الظاهر سيف الدين برقوق‎) (ruled 1382–1389 and 1390 –1399) was the first Sultan
Sultan
of the Mamluk
Mamluk
Burji dynasty. The name Barquq
Barquq
means "plum" in Arabic, and was taken by Barquq
Barquq
on his arrival in Egypt.[1]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Rise to power 3 First reign (1382–1389) 4 Revolt 5 Second reign (1390–1399) 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

Early life[edit] Barquq
Barquq
was of Circassian origin,[2] and was acquired as a slave and became a mamluk in the household of Yalbugha al-Umari in approximately 1363-64 (or 764 on the Islamic calendar).[3] During the reign of Sultan
Sultan
al-Mansur Ali, when Barquq
Barquq
held considerable influence in the Mamluk
Mamluk
state, he brought his father Anas to Egypt in March 1381. Anas converted to Islam and became the first father of a first-generation mamluk to be mentioned by the Mamluk
Mamluk
era sources because of his Muslim faith; the fathers of first generation mamluks were typically non-Muslims. Anas was promoted to the rank of emir of one hundred (the highest Mamluk
Mamluk
military rank) and was known for his piety, kindness and charitable acts. He died ten months after his arrival to Egypt.[4] Rise to power[edit]

Mamluk
Mamluk
Barquq
Barquq
copper fals Damascus
Damascus
1382 1389

Since 1341, the Mamluk
Mamluk
empire had been ruled by the descendants of al-Nasir Muhammad. However, none of them were strong enough to exert effective control. Many of the rulers were minors at the time of their accession, and would act as puppets for one or another competing Mamluk
Mamluk
faction. This happened in 1377, when the sultan al-Ashraf Sha'ban, who had ruled in his own stead since 1366, was overthrown and killed. The rebelling Mamluks replaced him on the throne with his seven-year-old son. When that puppet sultan died, he was replaced by the younger brother. Barquq
Barquq
was a member of the faction behind the throne, serving in various powerful capacities in the court of the boy sultans. He consolidated his power until in November 1382 he was able to depose sultan al-Salih Hajji and claim the sultanate for himself. He took the reign name al-Zahir, perhaps in imitation of the sultan al-Zahir Baybars.[5] First reign (1382–1389)[edit] Barquq
Barquq
placed many of his own family in positions of power to the detriment of fellow Mamluks, attempting to solidify his position. He sponsored the construction of the Madrasa-Khanqa of Sultan
Sultan
Barquq
Barquq
in the center of Cairo. Completed in 1386, it was a pious foundation designed to serve as both a khanqah and a madrasa. It is one of the three dominant Islamic monuments clustered on the street Bayn al-Qasrayn in Fatimid Cairo. Although often called the Mausoleum of Barquq, only his daughter is buried there.[6] Barquq
Barquq
ended the public holiday in Egypt celebrating the Coptic New Year Nayrouz.[1] The central caravanserai of the famous Cairo
Cairo
souk Khan El-Khalili
Khan El-Khalili
was founded in the first year of his first reign, though it was founded by his emir, Djaharks el-Khalili. Revolt[edit] Early on, the Zahiri Revolt threatened to overthrow Barquq, though the conspiracy was discovered before any agitators could mobilize. The year 1389 saw the revolt of two Mamluk
Mamluk
governors from the northern end of the empire, Mintash, governor of Malatya, and Yalbogha al-Nasiri, governor of Aleppo
Aleppo
(not to be confused with Yalbogha al-`Umari). After securing Syria they marched toward Cairo. Barquq
Barquq
attempted to escape, but was captured and sent to al-Karak. Meanwhile, the two governors restored Hajji to the throne, who now took the reign name al-Mansur. Fighting developed among the Mamluk
Mamluk
factions in Cairo, and Barquq's supporters overcame the rebels. Barquq
Barquq
returned to Cairo
Cairo
in February 1390.[5] Second reign (1390–1399)[edit] During Barquq's second reign he succeeded in replacing almost all governors and senior officials with members of his own household. Barquq
Barquq
became an enemy of the Mongol warlord Timur
Timur
after Timur's invasion of Baghdad, and his intention to invade Syria. After 1393, he joined an alliance with the Ottoman Empire, but Timur
Timur
invaded and defeated the Mamluks at Damascus
Damascus
and sacked it along with Aleppo
Aleppo
in 1399. Timur
Timur
then invaded the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and defeated them at Ankara, sacked it and captured the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Bayezid.[7] Barquq died in June 1399 ( Shawwal 801H in the Islamic Calendar) and was buried in Cairo's Northern Cemetery. He was succeeded by his son Nasir-ad-Din Faraj. Legacy[edit] Sultan
Sultan
Barquq's reign was also marked by trade with other contemporaneous polities. Excavations in the late 1800s and early 1900s in modern-day northwestern Somalia
Somalia
unearthed, among other things, coins identified as having been derived from Barquq. All of the pieces had been struck in either Cairo
Cairo
or Damascus.[8] Most of these finds are associated with the medieval Sultanate of Adal.[9] They were sent to the British Museum
British Museum
in London
London
for preservation shortly after their discovery.[10] See also[edit]

List of rulers of Egypt

Notes[edit]

^ a b David Samuel Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus: three chief cities of the Egyptian sultans, 1907 ^ [1], p. 290, at Google Books ^ Holt, p. 127 ^ Sharon, Moshe (2013). Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae, Volume Five: H-I. Brill. p. 163.  ^ a b Holt, p. 128 ^ Williams, pp. 170-172 ^ The Mamluks, Ivan Hrbek, The Cambridge history of Africa: From c. 1600 to c. 1790, Vol. III, Ed. Roland Oliver, (Cambridge University Press, 2001), 54. ^ University of Ghana, Institute of African Studies (1966). Research review, Volumes 3-4. The Institute. p. 67. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ Bernard Samuel Myers, ed., Encyclopedia of World Art, Volume 13, (McGraw-Hill: 1959), p.xcii. ^ Royal Geographical Society (Great Britain), The Geographical Journal, Volume 87, (Royal Geographical Society: 1936), p.301.

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Barquq.

Al-Maqrizi, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, 1997.

Idem in English: Bohn, Henry G., The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings, Chronicles of the Crusades, AMS Press, 1969.

Holt, P. M. (1986). The Age of the Crusades: the Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Longman. ISBN 0-582-49302-1.  Williams, Caroline (2002). Islamic Monuments in Cairo: the Practical Guide. American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. ISBN 977-424-695-0. 

Regnal titles

Preceded by Hajji II Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt 1382–1389 Succeeded by Hajji II

Preceded by Hajji II Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt 1390–1399 Succeeded by Faraj

v t e

Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultans of Cairo

Salihi Mamluks

Izz ad-Din Aybak
Aybak
(1250–1257) Nur ad-Din Ali (1257–1259) Sayf ad-Din Qutuz
Qutuz
(1259–1260)

Bahri dynasty

Rukn ad-Din Baybars (1260–1277) Nasir ad-Din Barakah (1277–1279) Badr ad-Din Salamish (1279) Sayf ad-Din Qalawun (1279–1290) Salah ad-Din Khalil (1290–1293) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad (1293–1294) Zayn ad-Din Kitbugha (1294–1296) Husam ad-Din Lajin
Lajin
(1296–1299) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad (1299–1309) Rukn ad-Din Baybars al-Jashnakir (1309–1310) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad (1310–1341) Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr (1341) Ala'a ad-Din Kujuk (1341–1342) Shihab ad-Din Ahmad (1342) Imad ad-Din Abu'l Fida Isma'il (1342–1345) Sayf ad-Din Sha'ban (1345–1346) Sayf ad-Din Hajji (1346–1347) Badr ad-Din Hasan (1347–1351) Salah ad-Din Salih (1351–1354) Badr ad-Din Hasan (1354–1361) Salah ad-Din Muhammad (1361–1363) Zayn ad-Din Sha'ban (1363–1377) Ala'a ad-Din Ali (1377–1381) Salah ad-Din Hajji (1381–1382)

Burji dynasty

Sayf ad-Din Barquq
Barquq
(1382–1389) Sayf ad-Din Hajji (1389–1390) Sayf ad-Din Barquq
Barquq
(1390–1399) Nasir ad-Din Faraj (1399–1405) Izz ad-Din Abd al-Aziz (1405) Nasir ad-Din Faraj (1405–1412) Al-Musta'in Billah (1412) Shaykh al-Mahmudi (1412–1421) Ahmad (1421) Sayf ad-Din Tatar (1421) An-Nasir ad-Din Muhammad (1421–1422) Sayf ad-Din Barsbay
Barsbay
(1422–1438) Jamal ad-Din Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf (1438) Sayf ad-Din Jaqmaq (1438–1453) Fakhr ad-Din Uthman (1453) Sayf ad-Din Inal
Sayf ad-Din Inal
(1453–1461) Shihab ad-Din Ahmad (1461) Sayf ad-Din Khushqadam (1461–1467) Sayf ad-Din Yalbay (1467) Timurbugha (1467–1468) Sayf ad-Din Qa'itbay (1468–1496) Muhammad (1496–1498) Abu Sa'id Qansuh (1498–1500) Abu al-Nasir Janbalat (1500–1501) Sayf ad-Din Tumanbay (1501) Qansuh al-Ghawri (1501–1516) Tumanbay II (1516–1517)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 66344180 LCCN: nr93037333 ISNI: 0000 0003 7325 0564 GN

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