The Info List - Baroque

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The BAROQUE (US : /bəˈroʊk/ or UK : /bəˈrɒk/ ) is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theatre, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome
and Italy
, and spread to most of Europe.

The popularity and success of the Baroque
style was encouraged by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent , in response to the Protestant Reformation , that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, power, and control. Baroque
palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, "baroque" has a resonance and application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either a style or period.


* 1 Etymology * 2 Modern taste and usage

* 3 Development

* 3.1 Periods

* 4 Painting

* 5 Sculpture

* 5.1 Bernini\'s Cornaro chapel

* 6 Architecture

* 7 Theatre

* 7.1 England * 7.2 Germany * 7.3 Spain

* 8 Literature * 9 Philosophy

* 10 Music

* 10.1 Composers and examples

* 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links


_ The Triumph of the Immaculate_ by Paolo de Matteis

The French word _baroque_ is derived from the Portuguese word "barroco" or Spanish "barrueco", both of which refer to a "rough or imperfect pearl", though whether it entered those languages via Latin, Arabic, or some other source is uncertain. It is also yields the Italian "barocco" and modern Spanish "barroco", German "Barock", Dutch "Barok", and so on. The 1911 _Encyclopædia Britannica_ 11th edition thought the term was derived from the Spanish _barrueco_, a large, irregularly-shaped pearl, and that it had for a time been confined to the craft of the jeweller. Others derive it from the mnemonic term "Baroco", a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical _Scholastica_. The Latin root can be found in _bis-roca_.

In informal usage, the word _baroque_ can simply mean that something is "elaborate", with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries.

The word "Baroque", like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by later critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th and early 18th centuries. It is a French transliteration of the Portuguese phrase "pérola barroca", which means "irregular pearl ", and natural pearls that deviate from the usual, regular forms so they do not have an axis of rotation are known as "baroque pearls ".

The term "Baroque" was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, which sharply contrasted the clear and sober rationality of the Renaissance
. Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
's _ Hippolyte et Aricie _ in October 1733, which was printed in the _ Mercure de France _ in May 1734, the critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device.

Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style: Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Federico Barocci .


_ Brooch of an African_, Walters Art Museum

The Swiss-born art historian Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) started the rehabilitation of the word _Baroque_ in his _ Renaissance
und Barock_ (1888); Wölfflin identified the Baroque
as "movement imported into mass", an art antithetic to Renaissance
art. He did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque
that modern writers do, and he ignored the later phase, the academic Baroque
that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque
art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars , and has largely remained in critical favour. For example, the often extreme Sicilian Baroque architecture is today recognised largely due to the work of Sir Sacheverall Sitwell , whose _Southern Baroque
Art_ of 1924 was the first book to appreciate the style, followed by the more academic work of Anthony Blunt . In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio
has been the best barometer of modern taste.

In art history it has become common to recognise "Baroque" stylistic phases, characterised by energetic movement and display, in earlier art, so that Sir John Boardman describes the ancient sculpture _ Laocoön and His Sons _ as "one of the finest examples of the Hellenistic baroque", and a later phase of Imperial Roman sculpture is also often called "Baroque". William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as "baroque".

The term "Baroque" may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, craft, or design that are thought to have excessive ornamentation or complexity of line.


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The Baroque
originated around 1600, several decades after the Council of Trent (1545–63), by which the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
answered many questions of internal reform and formulated policy on the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed. Many art historians see this turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art as driving the innovations of Caravaggio
and of the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci , all of whom were working (and competing for commissions) in Rome
around 1600. _ Aeneas Flees Burning Troy,_ Federico Barocci , 1598

The appeal of Baroque
style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and theatrical. Baroque
art drew on certain broad and heroic tendencies in Annibale Carracci
Annibale Carracci
and his circle, and found inspiration in other artists like Correggio and Caravaggio
and Federico Barocci , nowadays sometimes termed 'proto-Baroque'. Germinal ideas of the Baroque
can also be found in the work of Michelangelo . Some general parallels in music make the expression " Baroque music " useful: there are contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint have ousted polyphony , and orchestral colour makes a stronger appearance. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some experts in philosophy, prose style and poetry, are harder to pinpoint.

Though Baroque
was superseded in many centers by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts, the Baroque
style continued in use in architecture until the advent of Neoclassicism
in the later 18th century. See the Neapolitan palace of Caserta , a Baroque
palace (though in a chaste exterior) whose construction began in 1752. St. Nicholas Church in Lesser Town in Prague
was founded in 1703 under the lead of the Baroque
architect Christoph Dientzenhofer .

In paintings Baroque
gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera , a major Baroque
art-form. Baroque
poses depend on _contrapposto_ ("counterpoise"), the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. (See Bernini's _David_.)

The dryer, less dramatic and colouristic, chastened later stages of 18th century Baroque
architectural style are often seen as a separate LATE BAROQUE manifestation, for example in buildings by Claude Perrault . Academic characteristics in the neo- Palladian style, epitomised by William Kent , show a parallel development in Britain and the British colonies: within interiors, Kent's furniture designs are vividly influenced by the Baroque
furniture of Rome
and Genoa, hierarchical tectonic sculptural elements, meant never to be moved from their positions, completed the wall decoration. Baroque
is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail.

Heinrich Wölfflin defined the Baroque
as the age where the oval replaced the circle as the center of composition, where centralization replaced balance, and where colouristic and "painterly" effects began to become more prominent. Art historians, often Protestant
ones, have traditionally emphasized that the Baroque
style evolved during a time in which the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
had to react against the many revolutionary cultural movements that produced a new science and new forms of religion — the Reformation . It has been said that the monumental Baroque
is a style that could give the Papacy
, like secular absolute monarchies , a formal, imposing way of expression that could restore its prestige, at the point of becoming somehow symbolic of the Counter- Reformation .

Whatever the truth of this interpretation, the Baroque
was successfully developed in Rome, where Baroque architecture widely renewed the central areas with perhaps the most important urbanistic revision.


The Baroque
era is sometimes divided into three approximate phases for convenience:

* Early Baroque, c. 1590 – c. 1625 * High Baroque, c. 1625 – c. 1660 * Late Baroque, c. 1660 – c. 1725

The term "Late Baroque" is also sometimes used synonymously with the succeeding Rococo movement.


Main article: Baroque painting _ Caravaggio, The Crowning with Thorns_

A defining statement of what _Baroque_ signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
in Paris (now at the Louvre ), in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement.

style featured "exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism". Baroque
art did not really depict the life style of the people at that time; however, "closely tied to the Counter-Reformation, this style melodramatically reaffirmed the emotional depths of the Catholic faith and glorified both church and monarchy" of their power and influence.

There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio
to Cortona ; both approaching emotive dynamism with different styles. The most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez . _ Still-life_, by Josefa de Óbidos , c. 1679, Santarém, Portugal , Municipal Library

Another frequently cited work of Baroque
art is Bernini
's _Saint Theresa in Ecstasy _ for the Cornaro chapel in Saint Maria della Vittoria, which brings together architecture, sculpture, and theatre into one grand conceit.

The later Baroque
style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo .

A rather different art developed out of northern realist traditions in 17th century Dutch Golden Age painting
Dutch Golden Age painting
, which had very little religious art, and little history painting , instead playing a crucial part in developing secular genres such as still life , genre paintings of everyday scenes, and landscape painting . While the Baroque
nature of Rembrandt
's art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists. Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while also continuing to produce the traditional categories.

In a similar way the French classical style of painting exemplified by Poussin
is often classed as Baroque, and does share many qualities of the Italian painting of the same period, although the poise and restraint derived from following classical ideas typically give it a very different overall mood.


Main article: Baroque sculpture

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_ Stanislaus Kostka on His Deathbed_, by Pierre Le Gros the Younger

In Baroque
sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms—they spiraled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque
sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains . Aleijadinho in Brazil was also one of the great names of baroque sculpture, and his master work is the set of statues of the _Santuário de Bom Jesus de Matosinhos_ in Congonhas
. The soapstone sculptures of old testament prophets around the terrace are considered amongst his finest work.

The architecture, sculpture and fountains of Bernini
(1598–1680) give highly charged characteristics of Baroque
style. Bernini
was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque
period. He approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence: Bernini
sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. In the late 20th century Bernini
was most valued for his sculpture, both for his virtuosity in carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual. He was also a fine sculptor of bust portraits in high demand among the powerful.


A good example of Bernini's Baroque
work is his _Ecstasy of Saint Teresa _ (1645–52), created for the Cornaro Chapel of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria
Santa Maria della Vittoria
, Rome. Bernini
designed the entire chapel, a subsidiary space along the side of the church, for the Cornaro family. _ Bernini
's Ecstasy of St. Teresa _

Saint Teresa, the focal point of the chapel, is a soft white marble statue surrounded by a polychromatic marble architectural framing. This structure conceals a window which lights the statue from above. Figure-groups of the Cornaro family sculpted in shallow relief inhabit opera boxes on the two side walls of the chapel. The setting places the viewer as a spectator in front of the statue with the Cornaro family leaning out of their box seats and craning forward to see the mystical ecstasy of the saint.

St. Theresa is highly idealised and in an imaginary setting. She was a popular saint of the Catholic Reformation . She wrote of her mystical experiences for an audience of the nuns of her Carmelite Order ; these writings had become popular reading among lay people interested in spirituality. In her writings, she described the love of God as piercing her heart like a burning arrow. Bernini
materialises this by placing St. Theresa on a butt while a Cupid figure holds a golden arrow made of metal and smiles down at her. The angelic figure is not preparing to plunge the arrow into her heart—rather, he has withdrawn it. St. Theresa's face reflects not the anticipation of ecstasy, but her current fulfillment.

This work is widely considered a masterpiece of the Baroque, although the mix of religious and erotic imagery (faithful to St Teresa's own written account) may raise modern eyebrows. However, Bernini
was a devout Catholic and was not attempting to satirize the experience of a chaste nun. Rather, he aimed to portray religious experience as an intensely physical one. Theresa described her bodily reaction to spiritual enlightenment in a language of ecstasy used by many mystics, and Bernini's depiction is earnest.

The Cornaro family promotes itself discreetly in this chapel; they are represented visually, but are placed on the sides of the chapel, witnessing the event from balconies. As in an opera house , the Cornaro have a privileged position in respect to the viewer, in their private reserve, closer to the saint; the viewer, however, has a better view from the front. They attach their name to the chapel, but St. Theresa is the focus. It is a private chapel in the sense that no one could say mass on the altar beneath the statue (in the 17th century and probably through the 19th) without permission from the family, but the only thing that divides the viewer from the image is the altar rail. The spectacle functions both as a demonstration of mysticism and as a piece of family pride.


Main article: Baroque architecture The main altar of St. John\'s Co-Cathedral , Malta

In Baroque
architecture, new emphasis was placed on bold massing , colonnades , domes , light-and-shade (_chiaroscuro _), 'painterly' colour effects, and the bold play of volume and void. In interiors, Baroque
movement around and through a void informed monumental staircases that had no parallel in previous architecture. The other Baroque
innovation in worldly interiors was the state apartment, a sequence of increasingly rich interiors that culminated in a presence chamber or throne room or a state bedroom. The sequence of monumental stairs followed by a state apartment was copied in smaller scale everywhere in aristocratic dwellings of any pretensions.

Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany (see, e.g., Ludwigsburg Palace and Zwinger, Dresden ), Austria
and Russia
(see, e.g., Peterhof ). In England the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in work by Sir Christopher Wren , Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor , from ca. 1660 to ca. 1725. Many examples of Baroque architecture and town planning are found in other European towns, and in Latin America. Town planning of this period featured radiating avenues intersecting in squares, which took cues from Baroque
garden plans . In Sicily, Baroque
developed new shapes and themes as in Noto, Ragusa and Acireale "Basilica di San Sebastiano".

Another example of Baroque architecture is the Cathedral of Morelia , in Michoacán , Mexico
. Built in the 17th century by Vincenzo Barrochio, it is one of the many Baroque
cathedrals in Mexico. Baroque churches built during the Spanish period are also seen in other former colonies of Spain.

Francis Ching described Baroque architecture as "a style of architecture originating in Italy
in the early 17th century and variously prevalent in Europe and the New World for a century and a half, characterised by free and sculptural use of the classical orders and ornament, dynamic opposition and interpenetration of spaces, and the dramatic combined effects of architecture, sculpture, painting, and the decorative arts."

* Architecture


Trevi Fountain in Rome

Wilanów Palace in Warsaw

Interior of the Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria
Santa Maria della Vittoria
church, Rome, including the Cornaro portraits, but omitting the lower parts of the chapel. *

Peterhof Palace in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg


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18th-century painting of the Royal Theatre of Turin

In theatre, the elaborate conceits, multiplicity of plot turns and a variety of situations characteristic of Mannerism , in Shakespeare\'s tragedies for instance, were superseded by opera , which drew together all the arts into a unified whole.

Theatre evolved in the Baroque
era and became a multimedia experience, starting with the actual architectural space. In fact, much of the technology used in current Broadway or commercial plays was invented and developed during this era. The stage could change from a romantic garden to the interior of a palace in a matter of seconds. The entire space became a framed selected area that only allows the users to see a specific action, hiding all the machinery and technology – mostly ropes and pulleys.

This technology affected the content of the narrated or performed pieces, practicing at its best the Deus ex Machina solution. Gods were finally able to come down – literally – from the heavens and rescue the hero in the most extreme and dangerous, even absurd situations.

The term Theatrum Mundi – the world is a stage – was also created. The social and political realm in the real world is manipulated in exactly the same way the actor and the machines are presenting and limiting what is being presented on stage, hiding selectively all the machinery that makes the actions happen.

The films _Vatel _ and _Farinelli _ give a good idea of the style of productions of the Baroque
period. The American musician William Christie and Les Arts Florissants have performed extensive research on all the French Baroque
Opera, performing pieces from Charpentier and Lully , among others that are extremely faithful to the original 17th-century creations.


The influence of the Renaissance
was also very late in England, and Baroque
theatre is only partly a useful concept here, for example in discussing Restoration comedy . There was an 18-year break when the London theatres were closed during the English Civil War and English Commonwealth until the Restoration of Charles II in 1660.


German theatre in the 17th century lacked major contributions. The best known playwright was Andreas Gryphius
Andreas Gryphius
, who used the Jesuit
model of the Dutch Joost van den Vondel and Pierre Corneille . There was also Johannes Velten who combined the traditions of the English comedians and the commedia del\'arte with the classic theatre of Corneille and Molière . His touring company was perhaps the most significant and important of the 17th century.


Lope de Vega

The Baroque
had a Catholic and conservative character in Spain, following an Italian literary models during the Renaissance. The Hispanic Baroque
theatre aimed for a public content with an ideal reality that manifested fundamental three sentiments: Catholic religion, monarchist and national pride and honour originating from the chivalric, knightly world.

Two periods are known in the Baroque
Spanish theatre, with the division occurring in 1630. The first period is represented chiefly by Lope de Vega , but also by Tirso de Molina , Gaspar Aguilar , Guillén de Castro , Antonio Mira de Amescua , Luis Vélez de Guevara , Juan Ruiz de Alarcón , Diego Jiménez de Enciso , Luis Belmonte Bermúdez , Felipe Godínez , Luis Quiñones de Benavente or Juan Pérez de Montalbán . The second period is represented by Pedro Calderón de la Barca and fellow dramatists Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza , Álvaro Cubillo de Aragón , Jerónimo de Cáncer , Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla , Juan de Matos Fragoso , Antonio Coello y Ochoa , Agustín Moreto , and Francisco Bances Candamo . These classifications are loose because each author had his own way and could occasionally adhere himself to the formula established by Lope. It may even be that the "manner" of Lope was more liberal and structured than Calderón's.

Lope de Vega introduced through his _Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo_ (1609) the _new comedy_. He established a new dramatic formula that broke the three Aristotle
unities of the Italian school of poetry (action, time and place) and a fourth unity of Aristotle which is about style, mixing of tragic and comic elements showing different types of verses and stanzas upon what is represented. Although Lope has a great knowledge of the plastic arts, he did not use it during the major part of his career nor in theatre or scenography. The Lope's comedy granted a second role to the visual aspects of the theatrical representation.

Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega, and Calderón were the most important play writers in Golden Era Spain. Their works, known for their subtle intelligence and profound comprehension of a person's humanity, could be considered a bridge between Lope's primitive comedy and the more elaborate comedy of Calderón. Tirso de Molina is best known for two works, _The Convicted Suspicions_ and _ The Trickster of Seville _, one of the first versions of the Don Juan
Don Juan

Upon his arrival to Madrid, Cosimo Lotti brought to the Spanish court the most advanced theatrical techniques of Europe. His techniques and mechanic knowledge were applied in palace exhibitions called "Fiestas" and in lavish exhibitions of rivers or artificial fountains called "Naumaquias". He was in charge of styling the Gardens of Buen Retiro
Buen Retiro
, of Zarzuela and of Aranjuez and the construction of the theatrical building of Coliseo del Buen Retiro. Lope's formulas begins with a verse that it unbefitting of the palace theatre foundation and the birth of new concepts that begun the careers of some play writers like Calderón de la Barca. Marking the principal innovations of the New Lopesian Comedy, Calderón's style marked many differences, with a great deal of constructive care and attention to his internal structure. Calderón's work is in formal perfection and a very lyric and symbolic language. Liberty, vitality and openness of Lope gave a step to Calderón's intellectual reflection and formal precision. In his comedy it reflected his ideological and doctrine intentions in above the passion and the action, the work of Autos sacramentales achieved high ranks. The genre of Comedia is political, multi-artistic and in a sense hybrid. The poetic text interweaved with Medias and resources originating from architecture, music and painting freeing the deception that is in the Lopesian comedy was made up from the lack of scenery and engaging the dialogue of action.


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Further information: 17th century in literature and Early Modern literature

The most important English authors of the 17th century were playwright William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
and epic poet John Milton .

In France it was a brilliant period known as Grand Siècle . Molière , Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine wrote famous plays while Jean de La Fontaine and Charles Perrault – fables.

was the greatest era in the history of Spanish literature which is called Siglo de Oro with playwrights Pedro Calderon de la Barca and Lope de Vega , poet Juana Inés de la Cruz as well as Miguel de Cervantes who is regarded as the first novelist.


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Further information: 17th century philosophy and Scientific revolution

René Descartes , John Locke , Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , Baruch Spinoza , Thomas Hobbes , Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton are the most appreciated thinkers of the 17th century. This period was characterised by mixing new ideas with religious tradition. Neostoicism of Justus Lipsius , scholasticism of Francisco Suárez
Francisco Suárez
and casuistry of Jesuits
were predominant.


Main article: Baroque music George Frideric Handel , 1733 Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
, 1748 Antonio Vivaldi , 1723

The term _Baroque_ is also used to designate the style of music composed during a period that overlaps with that of Baroque
art, but usually encompasses a slightly later period.

It is a still-debated question as to what extent Baroque music shares aesthetic principles with the visual and literary arts of the Baroque period. A fairly clear, shared element is a love of ornamentation , and it is perhaps significant that the role of ornament was greatly diminished in both music and architecture as the Baroque
gave way to the Classical period.

The application of the term "Baroque" to music is a relatively recent development, although it has recently been pointed out that the first use of the word "baroque" in criticism of any of the arts related to music, in an anonymous, satirical review of the première in October 1733 of Rameau's _ Hippolyte et Aricie ,_ printed in the _Mercure de France_ in May 1734. The critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque," complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device.

However this was an isolated reference, and consistent use of the term as a period designator was only begun in 1919, by Curt Sachs , and it was not until 1940 that it was first used in English (in an article published by Manfred Bukofzer ).

Many musical forms were born in that era, like the concerto and sinfonia . Forms such as the sonata , cantata and oratorio flourished. Also, opera was born out of the experimentation of the Florentine Camerata , the creators of monody , who attempted to recreate the theatrical arts of the Ancient Greeks. An important technique used in baroque music was the use of ground bass , a repeated bass line. _Dido's Lament_ by Henry Purcell is a famous example of this technique.


* Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1554/1557–1612) _ Sonata
pian\' e forte _ (1597), _ In Ecclesiis _ (from _Symphoniae sacrae_ book 2, 1615) * Giovanni Girolamo Kapsperger (c. 1580 – 1651) _Libro primo di villanelle, 20 _ (1610), * Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), _L\'Orfeo, favola in musica _ (1610) * Heinrich Schütz
Heinrich Schütz
(1585–1672), _ Musikalische Exequien _ (1629, 1647, 1650) * Francesco Cavalli (1602–1676), _L\'Egisto _ (1643), _Ercole amante _ (1662), _ Scipione affricano _ (1664) * Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632–1687), _Armide _ (1686) * Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643–1704), _Te Deum _ (1688–1698) * Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber (1644–1704), _ Mystery Sonatas _ (1681) * John Blow (1649–1708), _Venus and Adonis _ (1680–1687) * Johann Pachelbel (1653–1706), _Canon in D _ (1680) * Arcangelo Corelli (1653–1713), 12 concerti grossi, Op. 6 (1714) * Marin Marais (1656–1728), _Sonnerie de Ste-Geneviève du Mont-de-Paris _ (1723) * Henry Purcell (1659–1695), _ Dido and Aeneas _ (1688) * Alessandro Scarlatti (1660–1725), _L\'honestà negli amori _ (1680), _ Il Pompeo _ (1683), _ Mitridate Eupatore _ (1707) * François Couperin (1668–1733), _ Les barricades mystérieuses _ (1717) * Tomaso Albinoni (1671–1751), _Didone abbandonata _ (1724) * Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741), _The Four Seasons _ (1723) * Jan Dismas Zelenka (1679–1745), _ Il Serpente di Bronzo _ (1730), _ Missa Sanctissimae Trinitatis _ (1736) * Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767), _ Der Tag des Gerichts _ (1762) * Johann David Heinichen (1683–1729) * Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
(1683–1764), _Dardanus _ (1739) * George Frideric Handel (1685–1759), _Water Music _ (1717), _Messiah _ (1741) * Domenico Scarlatti (1685–1757), Sonatas for harpsichord * Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
(1685–1750), Toccata and Fugue in D minor (1703–1707), _ Brandenburg Concertos _ (1721), _ St Matthew Passion
St Matthew Passion
_ (1727) * Nicola Porpora (1686–1768), _Semiramide riconosciuta _ (1729) * Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710–1736), _ Stabat Mater _ (1736)


* List of Baroque architecture * Baroque in Brazil * Czech Baroque architecture * Dutch Baroque architecture * English Baroque * French Baroque architecture * Italian Baroque * Sicilian Baroque * New Spanish Baroque * Neoclassicism
(music) * Andean Baroque * Polish Baroque * Baroque architecture in Portugal * Naryshkin Baroque * Petrine Baroque * Siberian Baroque * Spanish Baroque
* Ukrainian Baroque


* ^ Fargis, Paul (1998). _The New York Public Library Desk Reference_ (third ed.). New York: Macmillan General Reference. p. 262. ISBN 0-02-862169-7 . * ^ Hughes, J. Quentin (1953). The Influence of Italian Mannerism Upon Maltese Architecture. _Melitensiawath_. Retrieved 8 July 2016. p. 104-110. * ^ Helen Gardner, Fred S. Kleiner, and Christin J. Mamiya, _Gardner's Art Through the Ages_ (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2005), p. 516. * ^ Helen Hills (ed), _Rethinking the Baroque_ (Farnham (Surrey) and Burlington (Vermont): Ashgate Publishing, 2011):. * ^ _OED_ Online. Accessed 6 June 2008. * ^ "Baroque". _Encyclopædia Britannica 1911_. Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ Panofsky, Erwin (1995). "Three Essays on Style". The MIT Press: 19. contribution= ignored (help ) * ^ "Baroque". _Vocabolario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana di Ottorino Pianigiani_. Retrieved 26 July 2012. * ^ Diogo Mayo (15 September 1967). "Scale Regia". Scalaregia.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ Claude V. Palisca, "Baroque". _The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians_, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001). * ^ Boardman, John ed., _The Oxford History of Classical Art_, 1993, OUP, ISBN 0-19-814386-9 * ^ Watson W. (1974), _Style in the Arts of China_, p. 34, 1974, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-021863-7 * ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed. 2011 * ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: Western painting". Britannica.com. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ Shearer West (ed.) The Bulfinch Guide to Art History: A Comprehensive Survey and Dictionary of Western Art and Architecture. Bullfinch 1996. ISBN 0-8212-2137-X * ^ Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
_The Life of Marie de\' Medici_ Archived 14 September 2003 at the Wayback Machine .. * ^ Hunt, Martin, Rosenwein, and Smith (2010). The Making of the West (third ed.). Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's. pp. 469 * ^ González de Zarate, J. M. (1985). Las claves emblemáticas en la lectura del retrato barroco. Goya: Revista de Arte, (187-188), 53-62. * ^ "Cornaro Chapel" at Bogelwood.com. * ^ "Spanish Architecture in the Baroque
Period.". _Boundless Art History_. Boundless. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. * ^ Francis DK Ching, _A Visual Dictionary of Architecture_, p. 133 * ^ González Mas, Ezequiel (1980). Historia de la literatura española: (Siglo XVII). Barroco, Volumen 3. La Editorial, UPR, pp. 1–2 * ^ González Mas, Ezequiel (1980). Historia de la literatura española: (Siglo XVII). Barroco, Volumen 3. La Editorial, UPR, p. 8. * ^ González Mas, Ezequiel (1980). _Historia de la literatura española: (Siglo XVII). Barroco_, Volumen 3. La Editorial, UPR, p. 13 * ^ González Mas, Ezequiel (1980). _Historia de la literatura española: (Siglo XVII). Barroco_, Volumen 3. La Editorial, UPR, p. 91 * ^ Lope de Vega, 2010, Comedias: El Remedio en la Desdicha. El Mejor Alcalde El Rey, pp. 446–447 * ^ Amadei-Pulice, 1990, María Alicia (1990). Calderón y el barroco: exaltación y engaño de los sentidos. John Benjamins Publishing Company, p. 6 * ^ Wilson, Edward M.; Moir, Duncan (1992). _Historia de la literatura española: Siglo De Oro: Teatro_ (1492–1700). Editorial Ariel, pp. 155–158 * ^ Amadei-Pulice, 1990, María Alicia (1990). Calderón y el barroco: exaltación y engaño de los sentidos. John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 26–27 * ^ Molina Jiménez, María Belén (2008). El teatro musical de Calderón de la Barca: Análisis textual. EDITUM, p. 56 * ^ Amadei-Pulice, 1990, María Alicia (1990). Calderón y el barroco: exaltación y engaño de los sentidos. John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 6–9 * ^ _A_ _B_ Palisca 2001 . * ^ Sachs, Curt (1919). _Barockmusik_ . Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters (in German). 26. Leipzig: Edition Peters. pp. 7–15. * ^ We asked an expert to explain why Dido\'s Lament breaks our heart every single time Purcell - Classic FM


* Andersen, Liselotte. 1969. " Baroque
and Rococo Art", New York: H. N. Abrams. * Buci-Glucksmann, Christine . 1994. _ Baroque
Reason: The Aesthetics of Modernity_. Sage. * Gardner, Helen, Fred S. Kleiner, and Christin J. Mamiya. 2005. _Gardner\'s Art Through the Ages _, 12th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-15-505090-7 (hardcover) * Palisca, Claude V. (1991) . _ Baroque
Music_. Prentice Hall History of Music (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-058496-7 . OCLC
318382784 . * Palisca, Claude V. (2001), Missing or empty title= (help ) * Wakefield, Steve. 2004. _Carpentier's Baroque
Fiction: Returning Medusa's Gaze_. Colección Támesis. Serie A, Monografías 208. Rochester, NY: Tamesis. ISBN 1-85566-107-1 .


* Bazin, Germain , 1964. _ Baroque
and Rococo_. Praeger World of Art Series. New York: Praeger. (Originally published in French, as _Classique, baroque et rococo_. Paris: Larousse. English edition reprinted as _ Baroque
and Rococo Art_, New York: Praeger, 1974) * Hills, Helen (ed.). 2011. _Rethinking the Baroque_. Farnham, Surrey; Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-6685-1 . * Hortolà, Policarp, 2013, _The Aesthetics of Haemotaphonomy_. Sant Vicent del Raspeig : ECU. ISBN 978-84-9948-991-9 . * Kitson, Michael . 1966. _The Age of Baroque_. Landmarks of the World's Art. London: Hamlyn; New York: McGraw-Hill. * Lambert, Gregg , 2004. _Return of the Baroque
in Modern Culture_. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-6648-8 . * Martin, John Rupert . 1977. _Baroque_. Icon Editions. New York: Harper and Rowe. ISBN 0-06-435332-X (cloth); ISBN 0-06-430077-3 (pbk.) * Wölfflin, Heinrich . 1964. _ Renaissance
and Baroque_ (Reprinted 1984; originally published in German, 1888) The classic study. ISBN 0-8014-9046-4 * Vuillemin, Jean-Claude , 2013. _Episteme baroque: le mot et la chose_. Hermann. ISBN 978-2-7056-8448-8 .


_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to BAROQUE ART _.

* _ "Baroque". Encyclopædia Britannica _. 3 (11th ed.). 1911. * The baroque and rococo culture *