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A BARONET (/ˈbærənɪt/ or /ˈbærəˌnɛt/ ; abbreviated BART or BT ) or the rare female equivalent, a BARONETESS (/ˈbærənɪtɪs/ , /ˈbærənɪtɛs/ , or /ˌbærəˈnɛtɛs/ ; abbreviation BTSS), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England
James I of England
in 1611 as a means of raising funds.

A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage , with the exception of the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Black Knight
Knight
, White Knight
Knight
and Green Knight
Knight
(of which only the Green Knight
Knight
is extant). A baronet is addressed as "Sir" (just as is a knight ) or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence , except for the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Thistle (and the dormant Order of St Patrick
Order of St Patrick
).

Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven; currently the Official Roll of the Baronetage is overseen by the Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom)
Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom)
. In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families (some Peers are also Baronets), which is roughly 0.01% of UK families. In some continental countries the "nobility" consisted of about 5% of the population, and in most countries titles are no longer recognised or regulated by the state.

CONTENTS

* 1 History of the term

* 2 Conventions

* 2.1 Addressing a baronet and the wife of a baronet

* 3 Baronetess: History and forms of address * 4 Territorial designations

* 5 Heraldic badges

* 5.1 Red Hand of Ulster * 5.2 Arms of Nova Scotia

* 6 Number of baronetcies

* 6.1 Baronetage decline since 1965 * 6.2 Baronetcies with special remainders

* 7 Premier Baronet
Baronet

* 7.1 England * 7.2 Scotland * 7.3 Ireland

* 8 Baronetcies conferred upon British expatriates and non-British nationals

* 8.1 America * 8.2 South Australia * 8.3 Victoria * 8.4 New South Wales * 8.5 The Bahamas * 8.6 Barbados * 8.7 Canada * 8.8 India * 8.9 Iraq * 8.10 Netherlands * 8.11 New Zealand * 8.12 South Africa * 8.13 Sweden

* 9 In fiction * 10 See also * 11 References and sources * 12 External links

HISTORY OF THE TERM

The term baronet has medieval origins. Sir
Sir
Thomas de La More , describing the Battle of Boroughbridge , mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III
Edward III
is known to have created eight baronets in 1328; further creations were made in 1340, 1446 and 1551. At least one, Sir
Sir
William de La Pole in 1340, was created for payment of money. Whether or not these early creations were hereditary, all have died out.

Present-day Baronets date from 1611 when James I granted Letters Patent to 200 gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year; in return for the honour, each was required to pay for the upkeep of thirty soldiers for three years amounting to £1,095, in those days a very large sum. In 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland
Baronetage of Ireland
; Charles I in 1625 created the Baronetages of Scotland and Nova Scotia . The new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six colonial settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now familiarly known as Scottish baronetcies, survive to this day.

As a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, all future creations were styled baronets of Great Britain . Following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. As of 2000, including baronetcies where succession was dormant or unproven, there was a total of 1,314 baronetcies divided into five classes of creation included on The Official Roll – 146 of England, 63 of Ireland, 119 of Scotland, 133 of Great Britain and 853 of the United Kingdom.

Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets. Firstly, no person or persons should have place between baronets and the younger sons of peers. Secondly, the right of knighthood was established for the eldest sons of baronets (this was later revoked by George IV in 1827), and thirdly, baronets were allowed to augment their armorial bearings with the Arms of Ulster
Ulster
on an inescutcheon : "in a field Argent, a Hand Geules (or a bloudy hand)". These privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, and for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour. The former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
created subsequently.

The title of baronet was initially conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of individual summons to Parliament , and was used in this sense in a statute of Richard II . A similar title of lower rank was banneret .

Since 1965 only one new baronetcy has been created, for Sir
Sir
Denis Thatcher on 7 December 1990, husband of a former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
(later Baroness Thatcher); their eldest son, Sir Mark Thatcher , succeeded as 2nd Baronet
Baronet
upon his father's death in 2003.

CONVENTIONS

Like knights, baronets are accorded the style " Sir
Sir
" before their first name. Baronetesses in their own right use "Dame ", also before their first name, while wives of baronets use " Lady
Lady
" followed by the husband's (marital) surname only, this by longstanding courtesy. Wives of baronets are not baronetesses; only women holding baronetcies in their own right are so styled.

Unlike knighthoods – which apply to the recipient only – a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed. The eldest son of a baronet who is born in wedlock succeeds to a baronetcy upon his father's death, but will not be officially recognised until his name is recognised by being placed on the Official Roll. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line.

A full list of extant baronets appears in Burke\'s Peerage and Baronetage , which also published a record of extinct baronetcies.

A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of peerage families are commoners and not peers of the realm (nb. in the UK, all people save the Sovereign and peers are considered commoners). According to the Home Office there is a tangible benefit to the honour of baronet: according to law, a baronet is entitled to have "a pall supported by two men, a principal mourner and four others" assisting at his funeral. Originally baronets also had other rights, including the right to have the eldest son knighted on his 21st birthday. However, at the beginning of George IV 's reign, these rights were eroded by Orders-in-Council on the grounds that Sovereigns should not necessarily be bound by acts made by their predecessors. Baronets although never having been automatically entitled to heraldic supporters , were allowed them in heredity in the first half of the 19th century where the title holder was also a Knight
Knight
Grand Cross of a Crown order.

Baronets of Scotland or Nova Scotia were allowed to augment their armorial bearings with the Arms of Nova Scotia and the privilege of wearing a neck badge signifying "of Nova Scotia", suspended by an orange-tawny ribbon. This consists of an escutcheon Argent with a Saltire Azure, an inescutcheon of the Royal Arms of Scotland, with an Imperial Crown above the escutcheon, and encircled with the motto Fax Mentis Honestae Gloria. This badge may be shown suspended by the ribbon below the escutcheon.

Baronets of England and Ireland applied to King
King
Charles I for permission to wear a badge. Although a badge was worn in the 17th century, it was not until 1929 that King
King
George V
George V
granted permission for all baronets (other than those of Scotland) to wear badges.

ADDRESSING A BARONET AND THE WIFE OF A BARONET

A baronet is referred to and addressed as, for example, " Sir
Sir
" (using his forename). The correct style on an envelope for a baronet who has no other titles is " Sir
Sir
, Bt." or " Sir
Sir
, Bart." The letter would commence: "Dear Sir
Sir
".

The wife of a baronet is addressed and referred to as " Lady
Lady
"; at the head of a letter as "Dear Lady
Lady
". Her given name is used only when necessary to distinguish between two holders of the same title. For example, if a baronet has died and the title has passed to his son, the widow (the new baronet's mother) will remain " Lady
Lady
" if he is unmarried, but if he is married his wife becomes " Lady
Lady
" while his mother will be known by the style ", Lady
Lady
". Alternatively, the mother may prefer to be known as "The Dowager
Dowager
Lady
Lady
". A previous wife will also become ", Lady
Lady
Bloggs" to distinguish her from the current wife of the incumbent baronet. She would not be " Lady
Lady
", a style reserved for the daughters of peers .

The children of a baronet are not entitled to the use of any courtesy titles .

BARONETESS: HISTORY AND FORMS OF ADDRESS

For a baronetess one should write "Dame , Btss" on the envelope. At the head of the letter, one would write "Dear Dame ," and to refer to her, one would say "Dame " or "Dame " (never "Dame ").

In history there have been only four baronetesses:

* Dame Daisy Dunbar, 8th Btss of Hempriggs (1906–97), cr. 1706; * Dame Mary Bolles, 1st Btss (née Witham) (1579–1662); the only woman apparently to be created a baronetess (of Nova Scotia); * Dame Eleanor Dalyell, 10th Btss (1895–1972) (cr. 1685), whose title and estate of The Binns
The Binns
passed to her son, the former Labour politician Tam Dalyell
Tam Dalyell
MP (who chooses not to use the title); * Dame Anne Maxwell Macdonald, 11th Btss (1906–2011) was recognised by the Lyon Court in 2005 as 11th holder of the baronetcy (formerly Stirling-Maxwell) under the 1707 remainder and succeeded her father in 1956.

In 1976 Lord Lyon King
King
of Arms stated that, without examining the patent of every Scottish baronetcy, he was not in a position to confirm that only these four title creations could pass through female lines.

As of 2016 , there are no living baronetesses.

TERRITORIAL DESIGNATIONS

All baronetcies are created with a territorial sub-designation , however only more recent creations duplicating the original creation require territorial designations . So, for example, there are baronetcies Moore of Colchester, Moore of Hancox, Moore of Kyleburn, and Moore of Moore Lodge.

HERALDIC BADGES

RED HAND OF ULSTER

The Red Hand of Ulster (sinister (left) hand version), as used by baronets (other than those of Nova Scotia ) as a heraldic badge

Baronets of England, Ireland, Great Britain or the United Kingdom (i.e. all except baronets of Nova Scotia ) can display the Red Hand of Ulster
Ulster
(sinister (left) hand version) as a heraldic badge, being the arms of the ancient kings of Ulster
Ulster
. This badge (or augmentation of honour) is blazoned as follows: Argent a Hand sinister couped at the wrist extended in pale Gules. King
King
James I of England
James I of England
established the hereditary Order of Baronets in England on 22 May 1611, in the words of Collins\' Peerage (1741): "for the plantation and protection of the whole Kingdom of Ireland, but more especially for the defence and security of the Province of Ulster, and therefore for their distinction those of this order and their descendants may bear the badge (Red Hand of Ulster) in their coats of arms either in canton or an escutcheon at their election". Since 1929 such baronets may also display the Red Hand of Ulster on its own as a badge , suspended by a ribbon below the shield of arms.

ARMS OF NOVA SCOTIA

Arms of Nova Scotia: Argent, a Saltire Azure an inescutcheon of the Royal Arms of Scotland , as used by baronets of Nova Scotia as a heraldic badge

Baronets of Nova Scotia, unlike other baronets, do not use the Baronet\'s Badge (of Ulster) , but have their own badge showing the Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Nova Scotia : Argent, a Saltire Azure with an inescutcheon of the Royal Arms of Scotland . From before 1929 to the present it has been customary practice for such baronets to display this badge on its own suspended by the order\'s ribbon below the shield of arms.

NUMBER OF BARONETCIES

The first publication listing all baronetcies ever created was C. J. Parry's Index of Baronetcy Creations (1967). This listed them in alphabetical order, other than the last five creations (Dodds of West Chillington , Redmayne of Rushcliffe , Pearson of Gressingham , Finlay of Epping and Thatcher of Scotney ). It showed the total number created from 1611 to 1964 to have been 3,482. They include five of Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
, several of which were recreated by Charles II . Twenty-five were created between 1688 and 1784 by James II in exile after his dethronement, by his son James Stuart ("The Old Pretender") and his grandson Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonny Prince
Prince
Charlie") . These "Jacobite baronetcies" were never accepted by the English Crown, have all disappeared and should properly be excluded from the 3,482, making the effective number of creations 3,457. A close examination of Parry's publication shows he missed one or two, so there may well have been some more.

The total number of baronetcies today is approximately 1,270, although only some 1,020 are on The Official Roll of the Baronetage . It is unknown whether some baronetcies remain extant and it may be that nobody can prove himself to be the actual heir. Over 200 baronetcies are now held by peers and others, such as the Knox line, have been made tenuous due to internal family dispute.

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Agnew baronets (1629) with the badge of a Baronet of Nova Scotia ( Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Nova Scotia ) in chief

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Agnew baronets (1895) with the badge of a Baronet
Baronet
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
( Red Hand of Ulster ) in canton

A baronet's medal ribbon

BARONETAGE DECLINE SINCE 1965

There were 1,490 baronetcies extant on 1 January 1965. Since then there has been a loss of about 260 baronetcies through extinction or dormancy resulting in a gross decline of 17.5% or almost one-sixth over 50 years.

There have however been some exceptions to this trend – a new creation (Thatcher baronetcy, of Scotney (1990) ) and five baronetcies dormant in 1965 and since revived – Innes baronetcy, of Coxton (1686) , Nicolson baronetcy of that Ilk and of Lasswade (1629) , Hope baronetcy, of Kirkliston (1698) , St John (later St John-Mildmay) baronetcy, of Farley (1772) and Maxwell-Macdonald baronetcy of Pollok (1682)

Thus the net loss is 254 or 17.1%. Extant baronetcies number about 1,236 (as of 2015).

BARONETCIES WITH SPECIAL REMAINDERS

Baronetcies usually descend through heirs male of the body of the grantee , and can rarely be inherited by females or collateral kins , unless created with special remainder , for example:

* with remainder to heirs male forever (Broun baronetcy, of Colstoun (1686) , Hay baronetcy of Alderston (1703) , etc.) * with remainder to the sons of the grantee's daughters, and the heirs male of their bodies (Hicking (later North) baronetcy, of Southwell (1920) , etc.) * with remainder to the grantee's daughter's son (Amcotts baronetcy, of Kettlethorp (1796) , etc.) * with remainder to the grantee's son-in-law (Middleton (later Noel) baronetcy, of The Navy (1781) , Rich baronetcy, of London (1676) , etc.) * with remainder to the grantee's brother(s) (Chapman baronetcy, of Killua Castle (1782) , Pigot baronetcy, of Patshull (1764) , White baronetcy of Tuxford and Wallingwells (1802) etc.) * with remainder, in default of male issue of the grantee, to the grantee's brothers and to the grantee's father’s second cousin, and the heirs male of their bodies (Robinson baronetcy, of Rokeby Park (1730) ) * with remainder to tailzie succeeding the grantee in the estate (Dalyell baronetcy of The Binns
The Binns
(1685) ) * with remainder specifically excluded the grantee's eldest son (Stonhouse baronetcy, of Radley (1628) )

PREMIER BARONET

ENGLAND

The Premier Baronet
Baronet
(of England) is the unofficial title afforded to the current holder of the oldest extant baronetcy in the realm. The Premier Baronet
Baronet
is regarded as the senior member of the Baronetage, and ranks above other baronets (unless they hold a peerage title ) in the Kingdom Order of Precedence . Sir
Sir
Nicholas Bacon, 14th Baronet
Baronet
, is the current Premier Baronet, whose family's senior title was created by King
King
James I in 1611.

SCOTLAND

The Premier Baronets of Nova Scotia (Scotland) were the Gordon baronets of Gordonstoun and Letterfourie until the title's extinction in 1908. Subsequently, the Premier Scottish Baronets are the Innes baronets of that Ilk (cr. 28 May 1625), the present Premier Baronet being Guy Innes-Ker, 10th Duke
Duke
of Roxburghe .

IRELAND

The Premier Baronetcy of Ireland was created for Sir
Sir
Dominic Sarsfield in 1619, and was held by his successors until the attainder of the 4th Viscount
Viscount
Sarsfield in 1691. Since then the descendants of Sir
Sir
Francis Annesley Bt. , the Annesley baronets , have been the Premier Baronets of Ireland; presently Francis William Dighton Annesley, 16th Viscount
Viscount
Valentia .

BARONETCIES CONFERRED UPON BRITISH EXPATRIATES AND NON-BRITISH NATIONALS

AMERICA

* Sir
Sir
William Johnson, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of New York in North America (1755), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Egerton Leigh, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of the Province of South Carolina, America (1773), DORMANT * Sir
Sir
Robert Eden, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of the Province of Maryland, America (1776), EXTANT

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

* Sir
Sir
Samuel Way, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Montefiore, in South Australia (1899), extinct 1916

VICTORIA

* Sir
Sir
William Clarke, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Rupertswood, in the Colony of Victoria (1882), EXTANT

NEW SOUTH WALES

* Sir
Sir
Daniel Cooper, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Woollahra, in New South Wales (1863), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Charles Nicholson, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Luddenham, in New South Wales (1859), extinct 1986

THE BAHAMAS

* Sir
Sir
Harry Oakes, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Nassau, in the Bahama Islands (1939), EXTANT

BARBADOS

* Sir
Sir
John Alleyne, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Four Hills, in Barbados (1769), EXTANT

CANADA

Main article: Canadian peers and baronets

For a complete list see also list of Canadian baronetcies

* Sir
Sir
Thomas Temple, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Nova Scotia, in the Colony of Nova Scotia (1662), extinct 1674 * Sir
Sir
George Arthur, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Upper Canada, in the United Province of Canada (1841), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
John Beverley Robinson, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Toronto, in the United Province of Canada (1854), DORMANT * Sir
Sir
Allan Napier MacNab, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Dundurn Castle, in the United Province of Canada (1858), extinct 1862 * Sir
Sir
Samuel Cunard, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Bush Hill, Nova Scotia, in the United Province of Canada (1859), extinct 1989 * Sir
Sir
John Rose, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Montreal, in the Dominion of Canada (1872), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Armdale, Nova Scotia, in the Dominion of Canada (1888), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Edward Seaborne Clouston, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Montreal, in the Dominion of Canada (1908), extinct 1912 * Sir
Sir
Joseph Wesley Flavelle, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Toronto, in the Dominion of Canada (1917), extinct 1985 * Sir
Sir
James Hamet Dunn, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Bathurst, New Brunswick, in the Dominion of Canada (1921), extinct 1976

INDIA

* Sir
Sir
Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Bombay (1857), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Petit Hall, on the Island of Bombay (1890), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Jehangir Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Bombay (1908), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Currimbhoy Ebrahim, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Pabaney Villa, of Bombay (1910), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Chinubhai Madhowlal Ranchhodlal, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Shahpur, in Ahmedabad (1913), EXTANT

IRAQ

* Sir
Sir
Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Kensington Gore (1890), extinct 1939 * Sir
Sir
Jacob Sassoon, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Bombay (1909), extinct 1961

NETHERLANDS

* Sir
Sir
William de Boreel, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Amsterdam (1645) - the 8th baronet also became Jonkheer in the Dutch nobility , EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Joseph van Colster , 1st Baronet, of Amsterdam (1645), extinct 1665 * Sir
Sir
Walter de Raedt , 1st Baronet, of The Hague (1660), extinct * Sir
Sir
Cornelis Tromp, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, Lieutenant-Admiral of Holland (1675) - also created Ridder in the Dutch nobility , extinct 1691 * Sir
Sir
Richard Tulp , 1st Baronet, of Amsterdam (1675), extinct 1690 * Sir
Sir
Gelebrand Sas van Bosch , 1st Baronet, of Rotterdam (1680), extinct 1720 * Sir
Sir
Cornelis Speelman, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Brabant (1686) - Sir Cornelis Jacob Speelman, 3rd Baronet
Baronet
also became Jonkheer in the Dutch nobility , extinct 2005 * Sir
Sir
John Peter van den Brande, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Cleverskerke (1699), extinct 1750

NEW ZEALAND

* Sir
Sir
Charles Clifford, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Flaxbourne, in New Zealand (1887), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Joseph Ward, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Wellington, in New Zealand (1911), EXTANT

SOUTH AFRICA

* Sir
Sir
Andries Stockenström, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Cape of Good Hope (1840), extinct 1957 * Sir
Sir
Julius Wernher, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Luton Hoo Park, in the Parish of Luton and County of Bedford (1905), extinct 1973 * Sir
Sir
Joseph Robinson, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Hawthornden, in the Cape Province, and Dudley House, in Westminster (1908), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
David Graaff, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Cape Town, in the Cape of Good Hope Province, of the Union of South Africa (1911), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
George Farrar, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Chicheley Hall, in Buckinghamshire (1911), extinct 1915 * Sir
Sir
Leander Starr Jameson, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Down Street, in London (1911), extinct 1917 * Sir
Sir
George Albu, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Johannesburg (1912), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Lionel Phillips, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Tylney Hall (1912), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Sothern Holland, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Westwell Manor, in the County of Oxford (1917), extinct 1997 * Sir
Sir
Abe Bailey, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of South Africa (1919), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Bernard Oppenheimer, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Stoke Poges, in the County of Buckingham (1921), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Otto Beit, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Tewin Water (1924), extinct 1994 * Sir
Sir
Lewis Richardson, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Yellow Woods, in the Cape of Good Hope Province, in South Africa (1924), EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Stephen Hinchliff, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Hinchliff Mill, in Yorkshire, (1911)

SWEDEN

* Sir
Sir
John Frederick van Friesendorf, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Hirdech (1661) - also created Riksfriherre in the German nobility , his sons created Friherrar in the nobility of Sweden , EXTANT * Sir
Sir
Erik Ohlson, 1st Baronet
Baronet
, of Scarborough, in the North Riding of the County of York (1920), EXTANT

IN FICTION

Main article: List of fictional baronets

SEE ALSO

* Standing Council of the Baronetage * List of extant baronetcies
List of extant baronetcies
* List of baronetcies (currently incomplete) * British Honours System * Canadian peers and baronets

REFERENCES AND SOURCES

References

* ^ A B "Baronet". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014. * ^ "Baronetess". Dictionary.com Unabridged. n.d. Retrieved 15 August 2016. * ^ "baronetess". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ "Baronetess". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014. * ^ Stubbs, Vol. II, Part IV, p 303 * ^ "A Short History", Standing Council of the Baronetage website * ^ Debrett\'s Correct Form. Addressing the family of a Baronet. * ^ Leigh Rayment\'s baronetage: Draper to Dymoke * ^ Cokayne\'s Complete Baronetage * ^ (See page B 599 of the Baronetage section of the latest edition of Debrett.) * ^ Collins, 1741, p.287 * ^ Collins, Arthur, The English Baronetage: Containing a Genealogical and Historical Account of all the English Baronets now Existing, Volume 4, London, 1741, p.287 * ^ Collins, 1741, vol.4, p.287 * ^ A B Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.1235 * ^ A B Sir
Sir
Martin Lindsay of Dowhill, Bt (1979). The Baronetage, 2nd edition. * ^ "Baronetage decline since 1965". Retrieved 21 September 2015. * ^ Cokayne, vol ii, pp277-280 * ^ Cokayne, vol ii, p 280 * ^ Cokayne, vol i, pp223-224 * ^ Cokayne, vol ii, p 224 * ^ Burke\'s Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies (1844) * ^ "Baronial family von Friesendorff" (in Swedish). The House of Knights . Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.

Sources

* Sir
Sir
Martin Lindsay of Dowhill, Bt (1979). The Baronetage, 2nd edition. (published by the author). * William Stubbs (1883). Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and Edward II, Vol. 2, Part IV - Vita Et Mors Edwardi II Conscripta A Thoma de La More. Longman & Co. * Debrett\'s website * Burke\'s website

EXTERNAL LINKS

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