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SANTANDER CYCLES (formerly BARCLAYS CYCLE HIRE) is a public bicycle hire scheme in London
London
, United Kingdom. The scheme's bicycles are popularly known as BORIS BIKES, after Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
, who was the Mayor of London
London
when the scheme was launched.

The operation of the scheme is contracted by Transport for London
Transport for London
to Serco
Serco
. Bikes and docking stations are provided by PBSC Urban Solutions . The scheme is sponsored, with Santander UK
Santander UK
being the main sponsor from April 2015. Barclays
Barclays
Bank was the first sponsor, from 2010 to March 2015.

Credit for developing and enacting the scheme has been a source of debate. Johnson has taken credit for the plan, although the initial concept was announced by his predecessor Ken Livingstone
Ken Livingstone
, during the latter's term in office. Livingstone said that the programme would herald a "cycling and walking transformation in London" and Johnson said that he "hoped the bikes would become as common as black cabs and red buses in the capital".

A study showed cyclists using the scheme are three times less likely to be injured per trip than cyclists in London
London
as a whole, possibly due to motorists giving cycle hire users more road space than they do other cyclists. Moreover, recent customer research showed that 49 per cent of Cycle Hire members say that the scheme has prompted them to start cycling in London.

The record for cycle hires in a single day is 73,000.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Operation * 3 Cycles * 4 Coverage area and expansion * 5 Docking stations * 6 Technology * 7 Finances * 8 Reception and criticisms * 9 Repair and replacement * 10 Prices * 11 See also * 12 Notes and references * 13 External links

HISTORY

Blue ( Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire), yellow ( 2014 Tour de France
2014 Tour de France
) and red (Santander Cycles) cycles in a docking station.

In August 2007 the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone
Ken Livingstone
, announced that he was planning to implement a cycle hire scheme modelled on the successful Vélib\' network in Paris
Paris
. Following discussions with the Mayor of Paris, Livingstone instructed transport officials to study the Paris
Paris
and similar schemes, and draw up proposals for London. Discussions were conducted between Transport for London
Transport for London
(TfL), the London
London
boroughs and transport commissioners from Lyon
Lyon
, Brussels
Brussels
, Vienna
Vienna
, Berlin
Berlin
, Munich
Munich
, Oslo
Oslo
and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
.

In February 2008, plans for the London
London
cycle hire scheme were officially unveiled by Livingstone. The CTC and Green Party hailed the proposals as revolutionary.

BCH commenced operations in July 2010 with 5,000 bicycles and 315 docking stations distributed across the City of London
London
area and parts of eight London
London
boroughs . The scheme was at first located mainly within the central zone, roughly bounded by the 'Zone 1' area of the Transport for London
Transport for London
zoning system, and the initial target was for it to comprise 400 docking stations when complete, at roughly 300-metre intervals. The initial planning and implementation costs were expected to total more than £140 million over the first six years of the project, exclusive of operating costs. The program commenced operations on 30 June 2010.

Santander Cycles
Santander Cycles
has received some criticism for its use of commercial advertising and use of communal docking stations, as well as erroneous charges, bicycle and docking station issues, and lack of coverage for the suburbs. Some users have also found the bikes too heavy and unwieldy, at 23 kilograms (51 lb). The success of the scheme has led to its expansion into other areas of London. The coverage zone spans approximately 17 square miles (44 km2). As of March 2012 there were some 8,000 cycles and 570 docking stations in the scheme, which had been used for over 19 million journeys.

Initially, BCH required initial payment of registration and membership fees to be paid in exchange for an electronic access key, but on 3 December 2010 this was changed to allow casual cycle hires by non-members who have a valid credit or debit card .

The project was expected to cost £140 million for planning and implementation over six years, potentially the only TfL system to fully fund its annual cost of operation, a goal originally estimated to take two to three years.

Between December 2010 and the end of May 2013, the scheme had registered 22 million rides without a death.

The first fatality of a user of the scheme occurred in July 2013. A 20-year-old woman, Philippine De Gerin-Ricard, was killed outside Aldgate East tube station
Aldgate East tube station
after being struck by a lorry, prompting a protest ride calling for improved separation between cycle routes and other traffic.

In March 2014, 101 of the 10,000 bikes in the scheme were coloured yellow to mark 100 days until the arrival of the 101st Tour de France in London
London
on Monday 7 July 2014.

OPERATION

Regular users of the scheme can register on the TfL website and buy access for 24 hours, 7 days, or one year. Users are then posted a key to operate the docking stations; keys cost £3, and up to four can be registered under a single account. The key allows a cycle to be released from the docking station.

On 3 December 2010 the scheme was extended to casual users who are not members of the scheme but hold major payment cards. The cost is the same to members and casual users, except that casual use for one year is not available. A credit or debit card can be used in a docking station to release a bicycle. Access for 24 hours or 7 days can be purchased.

Cycles may be rented at any time during the access period; use for no more than 30 minutes at a time is free of charge. Usage charges, additional to the access charge, are weighted to favour shorter use. Bicycles may be used any number of times within the access period, each use charged according to its duration.

CYCLES

Cycle on Lambeth Bridge
Lambeth Bridge
. Hire bike handlebar.

The features of the bicycles built by Cycles Devinci include:

* Puncture-resistant tyres to increase durability. * Drum brakes on both wheels, controlled by right-front, left-rear brake levers on handlebar. * Three-speed hub gear operated by a twist grip on right handlebar. * Bell on left handlebar. * Chain guard. * A Blaze Laserlight projecting a green image of a cycle 5m ahead of a bike. * Gear linkage guard. * Dynamo
Dynamo
-powered front and rear LED lights (for visibility to other traffic, not road illumination) which flash when the bicycle is being ridden and for at least two minutes after it has stopped. * Small luggage rack in front of handlebar, open at the sides, with elastic shock cord to secure possessions. * Kickstand. * Reflective numbers affixed on both sides of frame by rear wheel axle, uniquely identifying each bike.

The bicycles are utility bicycles with a unisex step-through frame . The cycles are not provided with locks (unlike the Vélib\' scheme in Paris).

The one-piece aluminium frame and handlebars conceal cables and fasteners in an effort to protect them from vandalism, damage and inclement weather. The heavy-duty tyres are designed to be puncture-resistant and are filled with nitrogen to maintain proper inflation pressure longer. A row of 5 LEDs on front of the luggage rack and twin LED rear lights are integrated into the robust frame, which weighs approximately 23 kg (51 lb).

The bikes were designed by industrial designer Michel Dallaire and built in the Saguenay, Quebec
Saguenay, Quebec
region by Cycles Devinci , with aluminum provided by Rio Tinto Alcan
Rio Tinto Alcan
, a Canadian
Canadian
company based in Montreal and part of an international mining group headquartered in the UK.

The cycles are low-geared to compensate for their weight and to provide a way of limiting their top speed. Using a Shimano Nexus
Shimano Nexus
3 hub gear with a 38 tooth chainring in front and a larger than standard 23 tooth rear sprocket the setting is 32 gear inches in 1st gear, 44 gear inches in 2nd gear, and 60 gear inches in 3rd gear. This gearing is about 22% lower than would be usual on a three-speed cycle of this sort.

The cycles and the docking stations are built in Canada
Canada
by PBSC Urban Solutions and are based on the Bixi (bike taxi) cycle rental system that operates in many cities including Montreal
Montreal
, Melbourne
Melbourne
and Toluca
Toluca
.

In December 2015 it was decided to fit all the cycles with front lasers. The laser projects a green cycle symbol approximately 15 feet in front of the bike to warn drivers and effectively reduce blind angles.

COVERAGE AREA AND EXPANSION

As of September 2015, the coverage area is roughly bounded by:

* North of the Thames: Hammersmith, Shepherd's Bush, the Westway , St John's Wood, Camden Town, Kings Cross, Angel, Dalston, Old Ford Road , Bow Interchange , Poplar and the Isle of Dogs * South of the Thames: Putney, Wandsworth, Battersea, Kennington, Walworth and Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge

The following boroughs are partly or fully covered: Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea, Westminster, Camden, Islington, the City, Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Southwark, Lambeth and Wandsworth.

In March 2012 the cycle hire scheme was extended significantly in east London, and there was a minor western expansion around Shepherds Bush. 2,300 additional bikes and 4,800 more docking points were added.

In December 2013, the scheme received a further significant expansion ('Phase 3') in west and south west London. This expansion added approximately 2,000 more bikes and 150 new docking points, with new stations in the boroughs of Wandsworth, Hammersmith & Fulham, Lambeth and Kensington the Bakerloo Line is not expected to be extended until 2030.

Many Greenwich residents are also keen to see an expansion there, perhaps via the Greenwich foot tunnel. A petition has been raised. With 15,000 new homes being built on the Greenwich peninsula there will be significant demands on public transport. A network of Santander Cycles
Santander Cycles
stations around Greenwich-Deptford-New Cross would significantly enhance the connectivity between DLR, Trains and Overground there. However funding for expansion into Greenwich remains a challenge.

The cycle scheme is not to be confused with Santander Cycles MK
Santander Cycles MK
which is run by nextbike and only caters to the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Area.

DOCKING STATIONS

Docking station in Southwark
Southwark
Terminal screen

Docking stations consist of a terminal and docking points where users pick up and return cycles. The terminal at each docking station contains a screen allowing users to:

* Hire a cycle with a chip and PIN payment card if the user does not have a key; * Print a record of their journey; * Find other nearby docking stations, necessary if one is full when returning or empty when seeking a cycle; * Get extra time without charge to return the cycle to another docking station if one is full; and * See a local street map, scheme costs, the code of conduct, and information in other languages.

If there is a fault with a cycle that was rented, it can be docked at the nearest station and the red 'fault' button on the docking point pressed within ten seconds; another bike can then be taken at no extra cost.

During high load hours the bikes are moved from the busiest stations to the emptiest using trailers pulled by Alkè ATX280E electric vehicles with zero CO2 emissions, and Ford Transit vans with specially-designed tail ramps. There are a number of mobile phone apps to help users find the nearest station.

TECHNOLOGY

The platform behind the bike share system is created by 8D Technologies , who also supply the server technology for BIXI Montréal , Citi Bike in New York City, Capital Bikeshare
Capital Bikeshare
in Washington DC, Melbourne
Melbourne
Bike Share in Australia, and others.

FINANCES

In the first three months of the scheme, 95 percent of journeys did not exceed half an hour, earning TfL access fees but no usage fees. The scheme generated £323,545 in revenue for usage in the first 96 days. Only 72,700 of the first 1.4 million journeys earned any revenue, with 44 percent of income coming from users charged the £150 (US $252) "late return" fees. With an average £3,370 income per day from journeys, the scheme needed to grow substantially over the following five years to meet its cost. In this early period there was a steady growth in the number of bike journeys. It was expected that when casual use was introduced it would become the bigger revenue generator. Access fees were doubled in January 2013, which was expected to bring in an extra £4-6m annually. User satisfaction level dropped after the increase.

In May 2012 (before access charges doubled in 2013), TfL estimated that the scheme would cost taxpayers £225m by 2015/16, almost 5 times the maximum due from Barclays.

RECEPTION AND CRITICISMS

BCH debuted with great fanfare, with over 90,000 users registering one million cycle rides being taken in the first ten weeks of operation. The millionth journey rider was awarded free annual membership to the scheme for five years for him and three friends.

In particular, the BCH scheme was criticised for allowing riders to have unlimited use by docking the bike every thirty minutes at a station (the first 30 minutes' use are free) resulting in a dependence upon late fees and penalties to make up revenues. Other users complained of computer issues, erroneous charges, and problems with docking stations. The system requires the cyclist to find docking stations close to the points of departure and destination, lacking one of the key advantages of the bicycle in an urban setting. The system also does not enable transport to the suburbs; as TfL says, it is "best for short journeys". Some users also found the bikes too heavy and unwieldy, at 23 kilograms (51 lb).

In June 2011, TfL issued a 'critical improvement plan' to the BCH contractor, Serco, demanding immediate improvements in service, and in a comment to the press a TfL spokesman stated that "the service it (Serco) has provided for our Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire users has not reached the consistently high standards we expect," adding "We expect to see immediate improvements." Serco
Serco
has in turn admitted that "some aspects of the service still need to be improved."

Redistribution of bikes has also been hindered by the refusal by the councils of Westminster and of Kensington "> recognising not just the impact on transport in London
London
but also the innovative design, the public relations exercise and the challenging delivery timescales. Those awards included "Best Facility" from the London
London
Cycling Campaign and an Infrastructure award from the Institution of Civil Engineers .

REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT

An Alkè ATX280E electric utility vehicle, used to redistribute bicycles

According to Transport for London, in the first six months of operation two-thirds of the fleet of London's Cycle Hire scheme fleet required repair. Serco, the company contractor for bicycle operations, was repairing more than 30 bikes a day as of February 2011, and at any one time around 200 of the 5,400 strong fleet were off the road for maintenance. As of February 2011, three BCH machines had been damaged beyond repair while in service, and ten bicycles had been stolen. Six docking stations had been hit and damaged by motor vehicles and six had been vandalised.

Repairs take place at two depots in Kings Cross and Clapham.

PRICES

Users of the scheme must pay both an access fee and usage charges. Bicycles may be used any number of times within the access period, each use charged according to its duration.

Access fees doubled in January 2013 and the weekly access period was withdrawn in January 2015. As of January 2015 , the two access fee options were 24-hour access for £2, or annual access (for members only) for £90.

Extra ride charges are weighted to promote the constant circulation of bicycles. The first 30 minutes of each journey are free; for longer hire durations the price increases by £2 every extra 30 minutes. If a user docks a bike, five minutes must elapse before they can take out another one. This means a user can have as many journeys as they like and only pay £2 so long as each journey is under 30 minutes.

Bicycles must be returned within 24 hours. Failure to return a bicycle or damaging one could incur a charge of up to £300.

SEE ALSO

* oBike * Mobike
Mobike

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ "TFL Announcement for BCH Operator". * ^ "1,000 new bikes and 120 new stations coming to Bike Share Toronto program". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved 2016-06-17. * ^ https://www.tfl.gov.uk/info-for/media/press-releases/2015/february/mayor-announces-santander-as-new-cycle-hire-sponsor * ^ "Barclays\' £25m sponsorship of London
London
cycle hire scheme". BBC News. 28 May 2010. * ^ "Boris, Barclays
Barclays
and the Big Blue Branding". CorpComms Magazine. Retrieved 26 October 2010. * ^ James Pickford (11 December 2013). " Barclays
Barclays
to end sponsorship of London\'s \'Boris bike\' cycle scheme". Retrieved 11 December 2013.

* ^ Thelwell, Emma (30 July 2010). "London\'s \'Boris Bike\' hire scheme launched". The World in 2010. Channel 4. Retrieved 2 September 2010. * ^ Taylor, Matthew (9 February 2008). "City\'s two-wheel transformation". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 August 2010. * ^ A B "Livingstone plan for street-corner cycle hire stands". London: independent.co.uk. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2013. * ^ Jon Clements. "Phone fury man kicks \'Boris bike\'- John Clements". Mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2011. * ^ "Safety of London
London
Bike Scheme". rdrf.org.uk. Retrieved 19 August 2012. * ^ http://www.itv.com/news/london/2013-04-04/boris-bikes-extended-to-south-west-london/ * ^ https://tfl.gov.uk/info-for/media/press-releases/2015/july/london-celebrates-five-successful-years-of-the-mayor-s-flagship-cycle-hire-sche * ^ " London
London
eyes Paris-style cycle hire". news.com.au. 10 August 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2013. * ^ " Paris
Paris
free bike hire scheme could work in London, says Mayor". cyclingweekly.co.uk. 9 August 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2013. * ^ "Livingstone announces major cycling scheme". reuters.com. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2013. * ^ "Mayor\'s flagship cycling scheme - Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire - opens for business". Transport for London
Transport for London
. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2011. * ^ A B C D " London
London
cycle hire scheme expands eastwards". BBC news. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012. * ^ " Transport for London
Transport for London
Mayor\'s flagship Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire is now open to anyone, anytime". Transport for London
Transport for London
. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2011. * ^ Whitehead, Frederika (13 October 2010). " London
London
bike hire scheme on road to be only public transport system in profit". Guardian. UK. Retrieved 23 February 2011. : Once BCH revenues can fully pay for annual costs of operation, revenues may then be allocated towards repayment of the estimated £140 million in planning and implementation costs of the project. * ^ Spiegelhalter, David. "Fatality risk on Boris bikes?". Understanding Uncertainty. Retrieved 30 August 2013. * ^ "First \'Boris bike\' cyclist killed in lorry crash". BBC. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013. * ^ "Campaigners call for better cycle lanes after French student killed on Boris Bike near Aldgate". The Docklands & East London Advertiser. Retrieved 30 August 2013. * ^ Bikes get a yellow jersey at The Evening Standard. Retrieved 1 May 2014 * ^ \'Hire bikes Go Yellow Mayor press release. Retrieved 1 May 2014 * ^ "Getting a cycle Cycling Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2011. * ^ Hugh Gladstone (3 December 2010). "How to use the London
London
cycle hire scheme on casual basis". Cyclingweekly.co.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2011. * ^ TfL Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire: Costs * ^ "The cycles Cycling Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2011. * ^ "Riding the Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire". Croydon Cyclist. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2014. * ^ A B C Harris, Stephen (30 July 2010). "Boris bike gets The Engineer test". The Engineer . Retrieved 23 February 2011. * ^ Ross Lydall (2010-05-21). "Taking a ride on Boris\'s hot wheels hire bikes". London
London
Evening Standard. Retrieved 2010-06-29. * ^ A B C Brady, Brian (2011), Two-thirds of London\'s Boris Bikes need repairs, The Independent, 20 February 2011 * ^ " Rio Tinto Alcan
Rio Tinto Alcan
and BIXI: a partnership on a roll" (Press release). Rio Tinto Alcan
Rio Tinto Alcan
. 2008-10-28. Retrieved 2009-09-14. * ^ "Know your Boris Bike". * ^ "Bixi: PBSC Urban Solutions
PBSC Urban Solutions
brings bike-sharing to the world (Part 3)". Montreal
Montreal
Gazette. 2015-10-23. Retrieved 2016-06-17. * ^ " Melbourne
Melbourne
Bike Share FAQ". www.melbournebikeshare.com.au. Retrieved 2016-06-17. * ^ " PBSC Urban Solutions
PBSC Urban Solutions
launched Huizi Toluca, the city\'s brand new bike-sharing program". www.sibrtonline.org. Retrieved 2016-06-17. * ^ Murgia, Madhumita (22 Dec 2015). "All 11,500 \'Boris bikes\' to be fitted with lasers to improve cyclist safety". * ^ CityMetric http://www.citymetric.com/transport/why-south-east-london-doesnt-have-boris-bikes-805 * ^ " Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire expansion". * ^ Beard, Matthew. "Boris bike scheme makes tracks south and west as it grows 50%". Evening Standard. Retrieved 14 December 2013. * ^ "Call for Boris Bikes to be extended to Upper Street". * ^ "Plea for \'Boris Bikes\'". * ^ Zoom out on map to see overall docking station distribution https://tfl.gov.uk/maps/cycle-hire * ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/travel/downloads/tube_map.html * ^ "Residents from Wandsworth complain about Docking Station being installed on their street". * ^ "Santander Replaces Barclays
Barclays
As Cycle Hire Sponsor". londonist.com. 27 February 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015. * ^ "LET\'S BRING BORIS BIKES TO GREENWICH". greenwichconservatives.com. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.

* ^ "Will Cycle Hire Ever Come To Greenwich?". londonist.com. 29 November 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016. * ^ "Docking stations Cycling Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2011. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010. * ^ "Cycle hire re-let (memo)". TFL. http://content.tfl.gov.uk/board-20160719-item11-part1-cycle-hire-relet.pdf, published July 19, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016 * ^ A B C D E F Quilty-Harper, Conrad & Payne, Sebastian (7 January 2011). " London
London
bicycle hire scheme in uphill struggle to make money". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. * ^ A B Bikeradar: Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire scheme charges double in 2013, 7 November 2012 * ^ Mayorwatch: Motorists and cyclists to pay TfL an additional £12m every year, 3 May 2013 * ^ Mayorwatch: Boris Bikes satisfaction levels fall after price hike, 17 April 2013 * ^ Mayorwatch: TfL reveals how much Barclays
Barclays
has paid for Cycle Hire scheme, 19 December 2012 * ^ Mayorwatch: TfL: We don’t know when Boris’s Cycle Hire scheme will be self-funding, 15 August 2012 * ^ "In praise of ... Boris\'s bikes". The Guardian
The Guardian
. London. 11 October 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2011. * ^ Appleton, Mark (27 October 2010). "Millionth Boris bike journey rider identified". road.cc. Retrieved 23 February 2011. * ^ TimeOut London, The London
London
Cycle Hire Scheme (2011) * ^ Cridland, James, A message to Barclays
Barclays
Cycle Hire 9 February 2011 * ^ London
London
Cycle Hire: good, but not great, Tomroyal.com, 30 August 2010 * ^ Radnedge, Aidan: Transport for London
Transport for London
reported in June 2011 that thousands of BCH users had been sent erroneous billings. * ^ Macmichael, Simon, Hidden charges - Boris bike user hit with £900 charge for "free" journeys...but he\'s still a fan, Road.cc, Farrelly Atkinson Ltd., 13 September 2010 * ^ May, James, Cycling Proficiency with James May, The Daily Telegraph, 21 October 2010 * ^ "How it works". Transport for London
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. Retrieved 23 February 2011. * ^ " Barclays
Barclays
Bicycle Redistribution - a Freedom of Information request to Transport for London". WhatDoTheyKnow. 2012-04-16. Retrieved 2017-08-28. * ^ http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2010/07/456388.html * ^ http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2010/08/457086.html * ^ http://lcc.org.uk/articles/london-cycling-award-winners-show-off-best-practice-in-the-capital * ^ http://www.ice.org.uk/News-Public-Affairs/ICE-News/ICE-London-Awards--Civil-engineers-reveal-top-Lond * ^ A B C D Sutton, Mark, (2011), London
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bike hire faring better than Paris
Paris
scheme for write offs, Bike Biz Magazine, 22 February 2011 * ^ http://www.ianvisits.co.uk/blog/2014/01/20/a-look-around-the-barclays-cycle-hire-repair-depot/ * ^ " Barclays
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Cycle Hire/Costs". Transport for London