SANTANDER CYCLES (formerly BARCLAYS CYCLE HIRE) is a public bicycle
hire scheme in
The operation of the scheme is contracted by
Transport for London
Credit for developing and enacting the scheme has been a source of
debate. Johnson has taken credit for the plan, although the initial
concept was announced by his predecessor
A study showed cyclists using the scheme are three times less likely
to be injured per trip than cyclists in
The record for cycle hires in a single day is 73,000.
* 1 History * 2 Operation * 3 Cycles * 4 Coverage area and expansion * 5 Docking stations * 6 Technology * 7 Finances * 8 Reception and criticisms * 9 Repair and replacement * 10 Prices * 11 See also * 12 Notes and references * 13 External links
In August 2007 the Mayor of London,
In February 2008, plans for the
BCH commenced operations in July 2010 with 5,000 bicycles and 315
docking stations distributed across the City of
Initially, BCH required initial payment of registration and membership fees to be paid in exchange for an electronic access key, but on 3 December 2010 this was changed to allow casual cycle hires by non-members who have a valid credit or debit card .
The project was expected to cost £140 million for planning and implementation over six years, potentially the only TfL system to fully fund its annual cost of operation, a goal originally estimated to take two to three years.
Between December 2010 and the end of May 2013, the scheme had registered 22 million rides without a death.
The first fatality of a user of the scheme occurred in July 2013. A
20-year-old woman, Philippine De Gerin-Ricard, was killed outside
Aldgate East tube station
In March 2014, 101 of the 10,000 bikes in the scheme were coloured
yellow to mark 100 days until the arrival of the 101st Tour de France
Regular users of the scheme can register on the TfL website and buy access for 24 hours, 7 days, or one year. Users are then posted a key to operate the docking stations; keys cost £3, and up to four can be registered under a single account. The key allows a cycle to be released from the docking station.
On 3 December 2010 the scheme was extended to casual users who are not members of the scheme but hold major payment cards. The cost is the same to members and casual users, except that casual use for one year is not available. A credit or debit card can be used in a docking station to release a bicycle. Access for 24 hours or 7 days can be purchased.
Cycles may be rented at any time during the access period; use for no more than 30 minutes at a time is free of charge. Usage charges, additional to the access charge, are weighted to favour shorter use. Bicycles may be used any number of times within the access period, each use charged according to its duration.
The features of the bicycles built by Cycles Devinci include:
* Puncture-resistant tyres to increase durability.
* Drum brakes on both wheels, controlled by right-front, left-rear
brake levers on handlebar.
* Three-speed hub gear operated by a twist grip on right handlebar.
* Bell on left handlebar.
* Chain guard.
* A Blaze Laserlight projecting a green image of a cycle 5m ahead of
* Gear linkage guard.
The bicycles are utility bicycles with a unisex step-through frame . The cycles are not provided with locks (unlike the Vélib\' scheme in Paris).
The one-piece aluminium frame and handlebars conceal cables and fasteners in an effort to protect them from vandalism, damage and inclement weather. The heavy-duty tyres are designed to be puncture-resistant and are filled with nitrogen to maintain proper inflation pressure longer. A row of 5 LEDs on front of the luggage rack and twin LED rear lights are integrated into the robust frame, which weighs approximately 23 kg (51 lb).
The bikes were designed by industrial designer Michel Dallaire and
built in the
The cycles are low-geared to compensate for their weight and to
provide a way of limiting their top speed. Using a
The cycles and the docking stations are built in
In December 2015 it was decided to fit all the cycles with front lasers. The laser projects a green cycle symbol approximately 15 feet in front of the bike to warn drivers and effectively reduce blind angles.
COVERAGE AREA AND EXPANSION
As of September 2015, the coverage area is roughly bounded by:
* North of the Thames: Hammersmith, Shepherd's Bush, the Westway ,
St John's Wood, Camden Town, Kings Cross, Angel, Dalston, Old Ford
Bow Interchange , Poplar and the Isle of Dogs
* South of the Thames: Putney, Wandsworth, Battersea, Kennington,
The following boroughs are partly or fully covered: Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea, Westminster, Camden, Islington, the City, Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Southwark, Lambeth and Wandsworth.
In March 2012 the cycle hire scheme was extended significantly in east London, and there was a minor western expansion around Shepherds Bush. 2,300 additional bikes and 4,800 more docking points were added.
In December 2013, the scheme received a further significant expansion ('Phase 3') in west and south west London. This expansion added approximately 2,000 more bikes and 150 new docking points, with new stations in the boroughs of Wandsworth, Hammersmith & Fulham, Lambeth and Kensington the Bakerloo Line is not expected to be extended until 2030.
Many Greenwich residents are also keen to see an expansion there,
perhaps via the Greenwich foot tunnel. A petition has been raised.
With 15,000 new homes being built on the Greenwich peninsula there
will be significant demands on public transport. A network of
Docking station in
Docking stations consist of a terminal and docking points where users pick up and return cycles. The terminal at each docking station contains a screen allowing users to:
* Hire a cycle with a chip and PIN payment card if the user does not have a key; * Print a record of their journey; * Find other nearby docking stations, necessary if one is full when returning or empty when seeking a cycle; * Get extra time without charge to return the cycle to another docking station if one is full; and * See a local street map, scheme costs, the code of conduct, and information in other languages.
If there is a fault with a cycle that was rented, it can be docked at the nearest station and the red 'fault' button on the docking point pressed within ten seconds; another bike can then be taken at no extra cost.
During high load hours the bikes are moved from the busiest stations to the emptiest using trailers pulled by Alkè ATX280E electric vehicles with zero CO2 emissions, and Ford Transit vans with specially-designed tail ramps. There are a number of mobile phone apps to help users find the nearest station.
The platform behind the bike share system is created by 8D
Technologies , who also supply the server technology for BIXI
Citi Bike in New York City,
In the first three months of the scheme, 95 percent of journeys did not exceed half an hour, earning TfL access fees but no usage fees. The scheme generated £323,545 in revenue for usage in the first 96 days. Only 72,700 of the first 1.4 million journeys earned any revenue, with 44 percent of income coming from users charged the £150 (US $252) "late return" fees. With an average £3,370 income per day from journeys, the scheme needed to grow substantially over the following five years to meet its cost. In this early period there was a steady growth in the number of bike journeys. It was expected that when casual use was introduced it would become the bigger revenue generator. Access fees were doubled in January 2013, which was expected to bring in an extra £4-6m annually. User satisfaction level dropped after the increase.
In May 2012 (before access charges doubled in 2013), TfL estimated that the scheme would cost taxpayers £225m by 2015/16, almost 5 times the maximum due from Barclays.
RECEPTION AND CRITICISMS
BCH debuted with great fanfare, with over 90,000 users registering one million cycle rides being taken in the first ten weeks of operation. The millionth journey rider was awarded free annual membership to the scheme for five years for him and three friends.
In particular, the BCH scheme was criticised for allowing riders to have unlimited use by docking the bike every thirty minutes at a station (the first 30 minutes' use are free) resulting in a dependence upon late fees and penalties to make up revenues. Other users complained of computer issues, erroneous charges, and problems with docking stations. The system requires the cyclist to find docking stations close to the points of departure and destination, lacking one of the key advantages of the bicycle in an urban setting. The system also does not enable transport to the suburbs; as TfL says, it is "best for short journeys". Some users also found the bikes too heavy and unwieldy, at 23 kilograms (51 lb).
In June 2011, TfL issued a 'critical improvement plan' to the BCH
contractor, Serco, demanding immediate improvements in service, and in
a comment to the press a TfL spokesman stated that "the service it
(Serco) has provided for our
Redistribution of bikes has also been hindered by the refusal by the
councils of Westminster and of Kensington "> recognising not just the
impact on transport in
REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT
An Alkè ATX280E electric utility vehicle, used to redistribute bicycles
According to Transport for London, in the first six months of operation two-thirds of the fleet of London's Cycle Hire scheme fleet required repair. Serco, the company contractor for bicycle operations, was repairing more than 30 bikes a day as of February 2011, and at any one time around 200 of the 5,400 strong fleet were off the road for maintenance. As of February 2011, three BCH machines had been damaged beyond repair while in service, and ten bicycles had been stolen. Six docking stations had been hit and damaged by motor vehicles and six had been vandalised.
Repairs take place at two depots in Kings Cross and Clapham.
Users of the scheme must pay both an access fee and usage charges. Bicycles may be used any number of times within the access period, each use charged according to its duration.
Access fees doubled in January 2013 and the weekly access period was withdrawn in January 2015. As of January 2015 , the two access fee options were 24-hour access for £2, or annual access (for members only) for £90.
Extra ride charges are weighted to promote the constant circulation of bicycles. The first 30 minutes of each journey are free; for longer hire durations the price increases by £2 every extra 30 minutes. If a user docks a bike, five minutes must elapse before they can take out another one. This means a user can have as many journeys as they like and only pay £2 so long as each journey is under 30 minutes.
Bicycles must be returned within 24 hours. Failure to return a bicycle or damaging one could incur a charge of up to £300.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ "TFL Announcement for BCH Operator".
* ^ "1,000 new bikes and 120 new stations coming to Bike Share
Toronto program". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
* ^ "Barclays\' £25m sponsorship of
* ^ Thelwell, Emma (30 July 2010). "London\'s \'Boris Bike\' hire
scheme launched". The World in 2010. Channel 4. Retrieved 2 September
* ^ Taylor, Matthew (9 February 2008). "City\'s two-wheel
transformation". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
* ^ A B "Livingstone plan for street-corner cycle hire stands".
London: independent.co.uk. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
* ^ Jon Clements. "Phone fury man kicks \'Boris bike\'- John
Clements". Mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
* ^ "Safety of
* ^ "Will Cycle Hire Ever Come To Greenwich?". londonist.com. 29
November 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
* ^ "Docking stations Cycling Transport for London".
Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 December
2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
* ^ "Cycle hire re-let (memo)". TFL.
published July 19, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016
* ^ A B C D E F Quilty-Harper, Conrad & Payne, Sebastian (7 January