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Barclays
Barclays
plc (/ˈbɑːrkliz, -leɪz/) is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in London. It has operations in over 40 countries and employs approximately 120,000 people.[3] Apart from investment banking, Barclays
Barclays
is organised into four core businesses: personal banking, corporate banking, wealth management, and investment management.[4] Barclays
Barclays
traces its origins to a goldsmith banking business established in the City of London
City of London
in 1690.[5] James Barclay became a partner in the business in 1736. In 1896 several banks in London
London
and the English provinces, including Backhouse's Bank
Bank
and Gurney's Bank, united as a joint-stock bank under the name Barclays
Barclays
and Co. Over the following decades Barclays
Barclays
expanded to become a nationwide bank. In 1967, Barclays
Barclays
deployed the world's first cash dispenser. Barclays
Barclays
has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including of London, Provincial and South Western Bank
Bank
in 1918, British Linen Bank
Bank
in 1919, Mercantile Credit in 1975, the Woolwich
Woolwich
in 2000 and the North American operations of Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
in 2008. Barclays
Barclays
has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Qatar Holdings, an investment vehicle of the State of Qatar, is the largest shareholder of the company.[6] According to a 2011 paper by Vitali et al., Barclays
Barclays
was the most powerful transnational corporation in terms of ownership and thus corporate control over global financial stability and market competition with AXA
AXA
and State Street Corporation
State Street Corporation
taking the 2nd and 3rd position, respectively.[7][8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 1690 to 1900 1.2 1900 to 1945 1.3 1946 to 1980 1.4 1980 to 2000 1.5 21st century

1.5.1 Abandoned merger with ABN AMRO 1.5.2 Financing 1.5.3 Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
acquisition 1.5.4 2009 to present

2 Operations

2.1 Principal divisions and subsidiaries 2.2 Branches and ATMs 2.3 Senior management

2.3.1 Executive Committee 2.3.2 Board of directors

3 Sponsorships 4 Controversies 5 Bibliography 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] 1690 to 1900[edit] Barclays
Barclays
traces its origins back to 1690 when John Freame, a Quaker, and Thomas Gould started trading as goldsmith bankers in Lombard Street, London. The name "Barclays" became associated with the business in 1736, when Freame's son-in-law James Barclay became a partner.[9] In 1728 the bank moved to 54 Lombard Street, identified by the 'Sign of the Black Spread Eagle', which in subsequent years would become a core part of the bank's visual identity.[10] The Barclay family were connected with slavery, both as proponents and opponents. David and Alexander Barclay were engaged in the slave trade in 1756.[11] David Barclay of Youngsbury
David Barclay of Youngsbury
(1729-1809), on the other hand, was a noted abolitionist, and Verene Shepherd, the Jamaican historian of diaspora studies, singles out the case of how he chose to free his slaves in that colony.[12] In 1776 the firm was styled "Barclay, Bevan and Bening" and so remained until 1785, when another partner, John Tritton, who had married a Barclay, was admitted, and the business then became "Barclay, Bevan, Bening and Tritton".[13] In 1896 several banks in London
London
and the English provinces, notably Backhouse's Bank
Bank
of Darlington[14] and Gurney's Bank
Bank
of Norwich
Norwich
(both of which also had their roots in Quaker
Quaker
families), united under the banner of Barclays and Co., a joint-stock bank.[15] 1900 to 1945[edit]

The Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
branch in Sutton, southern Greater London, which was originally a branch of London
London
and Provincial prior to acquisition by Barclays

Between 1905 and 1916 Barclays
Barclays
extended its branch network by making acquisitions of small English banks. Further expansion followed in 1918 when Barclays
Barclays
amalgamated with the London, Provincial and South Western Bank
Bank
and in 1919 when the British Linen Bank
Bank
was acquired by Barclays
Barclays
Bank, although the British Linen Bank
Bank
retained a separate board of directors and continued to issue its own bank notes (see Banknotes of the pound sterling).[16] In 1925 the Colonial Bank, National Bank
Bank
of South Africa and the Anglo-Egyptian Bank
Bank
were amalgamated and Barclays
Barclays
operated its overseas operations under the name Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
(Dominion, Colonial and Overseas) – Barclays
Barclays
DCO.[17] In 1938 Barclays
Barclays
acquired the first Indian exchange bank, the Central Exchange Bank
Bank
of India, which had opened in London
London
in 1936 with the sponsorship of Central Bank
Bank
of India.[18] 1946 to 1980[edit] In May 1958, Barclays
Barclays
was the first UK bank to appoint a female bank manager. Hilda Harding
Hilda Harding
managed Barclays' Hanover Square branch in London
London
until her retirement in 1970.[19]

A plaque in Enfield, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
commemorating the installation of the world's first cash machine by Barclays
Barclays
in 1967

In 1965, Barclays
Barclays
established a US affiliate, Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
of California in San Francisco.[20][21] Barclays
Barclays
launched the first credit card in the UK, Barclaycard, in 1966. On 27 June 1967, Barclays
Barclays
deployed the world's first cash machine, in Enfield.[22][23] The British actor Reg Varney
Reg Varney
was the first person to use the machine.[23] In 1969, a planned merger with Martins Bank
Bank
and Lloyds Bank
Bank
was blocked by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, but the acquisition of Martins Bank
Bank
on its own was later permitted. Also that year, the British Linen Bank
Bank
subsidiary was sold to the Bank
Bank
of Scotland in exchange for a 25% stake, a transaction that became effective from 1971. Barclays
Barclays
DCO changed its name to Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
International in 1971.[17] In August 1975, following the secondary banking crash, Barclays acquired Mercantile Credit Company.[24] 1980 to 2000[edit] In 1980, Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
International expanded its business to include commercial credit and took over American Credit Corporation, renaming it Barclays
Barclays
American Corporation.[25] The following year Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
and Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
International merged, and as part of the corporate reorganisation the former Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
plc became a group holding company, renamed Barclays plc, and UK retail banking was integrated under the former BBI, and renamed Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
PLC from Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
Limited.[17] In 1986 Barclays
Barclays
sold its South African business operating under the Barclays
Barclays
National Bank
Bank
name after protests against Barclays' involvement in South Africa and its apartheid government. Also that year Barclays
Barclays
bought de Zoete & Bevan and Wedd Durlacher (formerly Wedd Jefferson)[26] to form Barclays de Zoete Wedd (BZW), now known as the Barclays
Barclays
Investment Bank, and to take advantage of the Big Bang on the London
London
Stock Exchange.[27] Barclays
Barclays
introduced the Connect card in June 1987, the first debit card in the United Kingdom.[28][29] In 1988, Barclays
Barclays
sold Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
of California, which at that time was the 17th-largest bank in California measured by assets, to Wells Fargo for US$125 million in cash.[30] Edgar Pearce, the "Mardi Gra Bomber", began a terror campaign against the bank and the supermarket chain Sainsbury's
Sainsbury's
in 1994.[31] In 1996, Barclays
Barclays
bought Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
Nikko Investment Advisors (WFNIA) and merged it with BZW Investment Management to form Barclays
Barclays
Global Investors.[32] Two years later, in 1998, the BZW business was broken up and parts were sold to Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse
First Boston: Barclays
Barclays
retained the debt business which formed the foundation of what is now Barclays Capital.[33] In 1999, in an unusual move as part of the trend at the time for free ISPs, Barclays
Barclays
launched an internet service called Barclays.net: this entity was acquired by British Telecom
British Telecom
in 2001.[34] In August 2000, Barclays
Barclays
took over the recently de-mutualised Woolwich PLC, formerly the Woolwich
Woolwich
Building Society,[35] in a £5.4bn acquisition. Woolwich
Woolwich
PLC thus joined the Barclays
Barclays
group of companies, and the Woolwich
Woolwich
name was retained after the acquisition. The company's head office remained in Bexleyheath, south-east London, four miles from the original head office in Woolwich.[36] 21st century[edit]

A Barclays
Barclays
branch in Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom

In 2001 Barclays
Barclays
closed 171 branches in the UK, many of them in rural communities: Barclays
Barclays
called itself "THE BIG BANK" but this name was quickly given a low profile after a series of embarrassing PR stunts.[37] On 31 October 2001, Barclays
Barclays
and CIBC agreed to combine their Caribbean
Caribbean
operations to establish joint venture company known as First Caribbean
Caribbean
International Bank
Bank
(FCIB).[38] In 2003, Barclays
Barclays
bought the American credit card company Juniper Bank from CIBC, re-branding it as " Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
Delaware".[39] The same year saw the acquisition of Banco Zaragozano, the 11th largest Spanish bank.[40] Barclays
Barclays
took over sponsorship of the Premier League
Premier League
from Barclaycard in 2004.[41] In May 2005, Barclays
Barclays
moved its group headquarters from Lombard Street in the City of London
City of London
to One Churchill Place
One Churchill Place
in Canary Wharf. Also in 2005 Barclays
Barclays
sealed a £2.6bn takeover of Absa Group Limited, South Africa's largest retail bank, acquiring a 54% stake on 27 July 2005.[42] Then in 2006, Barclays
Barclays
purchased the HomEq Servicing Corporation
Corporation
for US$469 million in cash from Wachovia
Wachovia
Corp.[43] That year also saw the acquisition of the financial website CompareTheLoan[44] and Barclays
Barclays
announcing plans to rebrand Woolwich
Woolwich
branches as Barclays, migrating Woolwich
Woolwich
customers onto Barclays
Barclays
accounts and migrating back-office processes onto Barclays
Barclays
systems – the Woolwich
Woolwich
brand was to be used for Barclays
Barclays
mortgages.[45] Barclays
Barclays
also exited retail-banking operations in the Caribbean-region which extended as far back as 1837 through selling of its joint venture stake in First Caribbean
Caribbean
International Bank
Bank
(FCIB) to CIBC for between $989 million and $1.08 billion.[46][47] In January 2007, Barclays
Barclays
announced that it had purchased the naming rights to the Barclays
Barclays
Center, a proposed 18,000-seat arena in Brooklyn, New York, where the New Jersey Nets
New Jersey Nets
planned to relocate.[48] Abandoned merger with ABN AMRO[edit] In March 2007, Barclays
Barclays
announced plans to merge with ABN AMRO, the largest bank in the Netherlands.[49][50] However, on 5 October 2007 Barclays
Barclays
announced that it had abandoned its bid,[51] citing inadequate support by ABN shareholders. Fewer than 80% of shares had been tendered to Barclays' cash-and-shares offer.[52] This left the consortium led by Royal Bank
Bank
of Scotland free to proceed with its US$99.9 cents counter-bid for ABN AMRO.[53] To help finance its bid for ABN AMRO, Barclays
Barclays
sold a 3.1% stake to China Development Bank
Bank
and a 3% stake to Temasek Holdings, the investment arm of the Singaporean government.[54] Also in 2007, Barclays
Barclays
agreed to purchase Equifirst Corporation
Corporation
from Regions Financial Corporation
Regions Financial Corporation
for US$225 million.[55] That year also saw Barclays
Barclays
Personal Investment Management announcing the closure of their operation in Peterborough and its re-siting to Glasgow, laying off nearly 900 members of staff.[56] Financing[edit] On 30 August 2007, Barclays
Barclays
was forced to borrow £1.6 billion (US$3.2 billion) from the Bank
Bank
of England sterling standby facility. This is made available as a last-resort when banks are unable to settle their debts to other banks at the end of daily trading.[57] Despite rumours about liquidity at Barclays, the loan was necessary due to a technical problem with their computerised settlement network. A Barclays
Barclays
spokesman was quoted as saying "There are no liquidity issues in the U.K markets. Barclays
Barclays
itself is flush with liquidity."[58] On 9 November 2007, Barclays
Barclays
shares dropped 9% and were even temporarily suspended for a short period of time, due to rumours of a £4.8 billion (US$10 billion) exposure to bad debts in the US. However, a Barclays
Barclays
spokesman denied the rumours.[59] Barclays
Barclays
sought to raise capital privately, avoiding direct equity investment from the UK government, which was offered to boost its capital ratio.[60] Barclays
Barclays
believed that "maintaining its independence from government was in the best interests of its shareholders".[61] In July 2008, Barclays
Barclays
attempted to raise £4.5 billion through a non-traditional rights issue to shore up its weakened Tier 1 capital ratio, which involved a rights offer to existing shareholders and the sale of a stake to Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation. Only 19% of shareholders took up their rights leaving investors China Development Bank
Bank
and Qatar Investment Authority
Qatar Investment Authority
with increased holdings in the bank.[62] Barclays
Barclays
launched a further round of capital raising, approved by special resolution on 24 November 2008, as part of its overall plan to achieve higher capital targets set by the FSA to ensure it would remain independent.[63] Barclays
Barclays
raised £7 billion from investors from Abu Dhabi and Qatar.[64][65] Existing Barclays shareholders complained they were not offered full pre-emption rights in this round of capital raising, even threatening to revolt at the extraordinary meeting. Sheikh Mansour and Qatar Holding agreed to open up £500 million of their new holdings of reserve capital instruments for clawback. Existing investors now took this up.[66] In 2008, Barclays
Barclays
bought the credit card brand Goldfish for US$70 million gaining 1.7 million customers, and US$3.9 billion in receivables.[67] Barclays
Barclays
also bought a controlling stake in the Russian retail bank Expobank for US$745 million.[68] Later in the year Barclays
Barclays
commenced its Pakistan
Pakistan
operations with initial funding of US$100 million.[69] Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
acquisition[edit]

The former headquarters of Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
in New York City, now owned by Barclays

The New York building at night

On 16 September 2008, Barclays
Barclays
announced its agreement to purchase, subject to regulatory approval, the investment-banking and trading divisions of Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
(including its New York skyscraper) which was a United States financial conglomerate that had filed for bankruptcy.[70] On 20 September 2008, a revised version of the deal, a US$1.35 billion (£700 million) plan for Barclays
Barclays
plc to acquire the core business of Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
(mainly Lehman's US$960 million Midtown Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan
office skyscraper, with responsibility for 9,000 former employees), was approved. After a seven-hour hearing, New York bankruptcy court Judge James Peck ruled: "I have to approve this transaction because it is the only available transaction. Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
became a victim, in effect the only true icon to fall in a tsunami that has befallen the credit markets. This is the most momentous bankruptcy hearing I've ever sat through. It can never be deemed precedent for future cases. It's hard for me to imagine a similar emergency."[71] Luc Despins, the creditors committee counsel, said: "The reason we're not objecting is really based on the lack of a viable alternative. We did not support the transaction because there had not been enough time to properly review it." In the amended agreement, Barclays
Barclays
would absorb US$47.4 billion in securities and assume US$45.5 billion in trading liabilities. Lehman's attorney Harvey R. Miller of Weil, Gotshal & Manges, said "the purchase price for the real estate components of the deal would be US$1.29 billion, including US$960 million for Lehman's New York headquarters and US$330 million for two New Jersey data centres. Lehman's original estimate valued its headquarters at US$1.02 billion but an appraisal from CB Richard Ellis this week valued it at US$900 million." Further, Barclays
Barclays
will not acquire Lehman's Eagle Energy unit, but will have entities known as Lehman Brothers Canada Inc, Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
Sudamerica, Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
Uruguay and its Private Investment Management business for high-net-worth individuals. Finally, Lehman will retain US$20 billion of securities assets in Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
Inc that are not being transferred to Barclays.[72] Barclays
Barclays
had a potential liability of US$2.5 billion to be paid as severance, if it chooses not to retain some Lehman employees beyond the guaranteed 90 days.[73][74] In September 2014, Barclays
Barclays
was ordered to pay $15 million in settlement charges that alleged the bank had failed to maintain an adequate internal compliance system after its acquisition of Lehman Brothers during the 2008 financial crisis.[75] 2009 to present[edit]

The former headquarters of Barclays Global Investors
Barclays Global Investors
in San Francisco, United States; Barclays
Barclays
sold Barclays Global Investors
Barclays Global Investors
to BlackRock
BlackRock
in 2009.

Reuters
Reuters
later reported that the British government would inject £40 billion (US$69 billion) into three banks including Barclays, which might seek over £7 billion.[76] Barclays
Barclays
later confirmed that it rejected the Government's offer and would instead raise £6.5 billion of new capital (£2 billion by cancellation of dividend and £4.5 billion from private investors).[64][77] Barclays' share price fell 54% in June 2009 after the International Petroleum Investment Company (IPIC), which had invested up to £4.75 billion in November 2008, sold 1.3 billion Barclays shares.[78] Qatar Holding sold a 3.5% stake worth £10 billion in October 2009,[79] and a further sale of warrants worth around £750 million in November 2012, but remains one of the bank's largest shareholders.[80] In July 2012, Barclays
Barclays
revealed that the FSA was investigating[80] whether the bank adequately disclosed fees paid to Qatar Investment Authority. In August 2012, the Serious Fraud Office announced an investigation into the Middle East capital raising. The Financial Services Authority
Financial Services Authority
announced an expansion of the investigation into the Barclays-Qatar deal in January 2013, focusing on the disclosure surrounding the ownership of the securities in the bank.[81] In January 2009, the press reported that further capital may be required and that while the government might be willing to fund this, it may be unable to do so because the previous capital investment from the Qatari state was subject to a proviso that no third party might put in further money without the Qataris receiving compensation at the value the shares had commanded in October 2008.[82] In March 2009, it was reported that in 2008, Barclays
Barclays
received billions of dollars from its insurance arrangements with AIG, including US$8.5 billion from funds provided by the United States to bail out AIG.[83][84] On 12 June 2009, Barclays
Barclays
sold its Global Investors unit, which included its exchange traded fund business, iShares, to BlackRock
BlackRock
for US$13.5 billion.[85] Standard Life sold Standard Life Bank
Bank
plc to Barclays
Barclays
plc in October 2009. The sale was completed on 1 January 2010.[86] On 11 November 2009, Barclays
Barclays
and First Data, a global technology provider of information commerce, had entered into an agreement according to which Barclays
Barclays
would migrate a range of card portfolios to First Data's issuing and consumer finance platform.[87] On 13 February 2010, Barclays
Barclays
announced it would pay more than £2 billion in bonuses.[88] In March 2011 it was reported that Barclays
Barclays
had overtaken Santander UK
Santander UK
to claim top spot as the UK's most complained against bank, with the country's official banking regulator, the Financial Services Authority
Financial Services Authority
having recorded 276,315 new customer complaints against Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
during the second half of 2010.[89] Barclays
Barclays
nevertheless ranks only third in the UK among the mainstream clearing banks in terms of the number of its branches. Inline with costs cut, Barclays
Barclays
cut 1,400 jobs during the first half of 2011 and cut another 1,600 jobs for the rest of 2011.[90] In March 2012, the trading names of Barclays
Barclays
Capital, Barclays
Barclays
Wealth and Barclays
Barclays
Corporate were each changed to simply "Barclays", as part of an effort to simplify the operations of the company and to promote greater integration between its divisions.[91] In June 2012 Barclaycard
Barclaycard
acquired Analog Analytics, a digital coupon and daily deal business similar to Groupon.[92][93] In October 2012, Barclays
Barclays
announced it had agreed to buy the ING Direct UK business of the ING Group.[94] The transfer of the business to Barclays
Barclays
was approved at the High Court on 20 February 2013 and ING Direct was renamed Barclays
Barclays
Direct and will be integrated into the existing Barclays
Barclays
business within two years.[95] In February 2013, Barclays
Barclays
announced a net loss of £1.04 billion for 2012, its first annual loss in two decades, together with plans to cut 3,700 jobs, reduce annual costs by £1.7 billion, and scale back its retail banking activities in Europe
Europe
and Asia.[96] In May 2014, Barclays
Barclays
announced it would cut 19,000 jobs over 3 years with 12,000 jobs cut in 2014. Investment banking will cut 2,000 jobs in 2014 and up to 7,000 jobs totally in 2016 making the investment banking portion shrink from 50 percent in 2014 to 30 percent of Barclay's assets in 2016.[97] Barclays
Barclays
announced in June 2015 that it would sell its US wealth and investment management business to Stifel
Stifel
for an undisclosed fee.[98] Barclays
Barclays
sold its Retail Banking unit in Spain to Caixabank in 2014. At its peak, Barclays
Barclays
had 5,100 employees and 600 offices in Spain. In 2014 the bank had 2,800 employees and 270 offices. With the sale, Caixabank acquired around 550,000 new retail and private banking clients and 2,400 employees.[99][100][101]

The Barclays
Barclays
Head Office in London

In August 2015 it was announced that Barclays
Barclays
would become the first UK high street bank to start accepting bitcoin, with the bank revealing that it plans to allow users to make charitable donations using the virtual currency.[102] In March 2016, it was announced that Barclays
Barclays
has plans to sell its Africa business amid falling profits.[103] In April 2016, Barclays
Barclays
announced a deal that allowed its UK customers to use Apple Pay.[104] The bank announced in May 2017 that it would sell 1.5 billion pounds worth of shares of its Barclays Africa Group
Barclays Africa Group
subsidiary as part of its strategy to refocus its business from Africa to the UK and US.[105] In September 2017, Barclay's sold off the last part of its retail banking segment on continental Europe
Europe
after selling its French retail, wealth and investment management operations to AnaCap.[106] To ward off the effects of Brexit, Barclays
Barclays
borrowed £6bn from the Bank
Bank
of England between April and June 2017, as part of a post-referendum stimulus package launched in August 2016.[107] The former boss of Barclays, Bob Diamond, opined in an interview with The Independent in September 2017 that the City of London
City of London
would feel a stronger negative impact from Brexit
Brexit
than generally expected.[108] Diamond argued that both banking jobs and legal and support operations would eventually relocate to the Continent.[108] Operations[edit] Barclays' operations are organised within two business 'clusters': Corporate and Investment Banking and Wealth and Investment Management; and Retail and Business Banking.[3] The Corporate and Investment Banking and Wealth and Investment Management cluster comprises three business units: Corporate banking; Investment banking; and Wealth and investment management.[3] The Retail and Business Banking cluster comprises four business units: Africa Retail and Business Banking; Barclaycard
Barclaycard
(credit card and loan provision); Europe
Europe
Retail and Business Banking; and UK Retail and Business Banking.[3] Principal divisions and subsidiaries[edit]

A map showing the countries of the world in which Barclays
Barclays
currently has operations

Barclays' principal divisions and subsidiaries include:

Absa Group Limited
Absa Group Limited
(South Africa) Barclaycard
Barclaycard
– global credit card business Barclays
Barclays
Africa Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
LLC (Russia) Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
plc – UK retail bank Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
Delaware (formerly Barclaycard
Barclaycard
US, originally Juniper Bank, acquired 2003) Barclays
Barclays
Corporate Barclays
Barclays
Croatia Barclays
Barclays
Direct (formerly ING Direct UK) Barclays
Barclays
France Barclays
Barclays
India Barclays
Barclays
Indonesia[109][110] Barclays
Barclays
Investment Bank Barclays
Barclays
Private Clients International – subsidiary based in the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
with branches in the Channel Islands Barclays
Barclays
Morocco Barclays
Barclays
Mauritius Barclays
Barclays
National Bank: former vice chairman, Julian Ogilvie Thompson. Barclays
Barclays
Pakistan Barclays
Barclays
Partner Finance Barclays
Barclays
Portugal (162 branches)[111] Barclays
Barclays
Rise (fintech accelerator with locations in New York, London, Manchester, Vilnius, Cape Town, Tel Aviv and Mumbai)[112] Barclays
Barclays
Shared Services Chennai (India) Barclays
Barclays
Shared Services Noida (India) Barclays
Barclays
Technologies Centre China (closed) Barclays
Barclays
Technologies Centre India Barclays
Barclays
Technologies Centre Singapore (closed) Barclays
Barclays
Technologies Centre Lithuania Barclays Wealth
Barclays Wealth
– provides stockbroking and offshore and private banking Firstplus Financial Group plc

Branches and ATMs[edit]

A Barclays
Barclays
branch on Park Lane in London, United Kingdom

Barclays
Barclays
office in Vilnius, Lithuania

Barclays
Barclays
has over 4,750 branches in about 55 countries and of which about 1,600 are in the United Kingdom.[113] In UK, Barclays
Barclays
also offers some personal banking services through branches of the Post Office. Most Barclays
Barclays
branches have 24/7 ATMs. Barclays
Barclays
customers and the customers of many other banks can use Barclays
Barclays
ATMs for free in the UK, although in some other countries fees are charged. Barclays
Barclays
is a member of the Global ATM Alliance, an alliance of international banks which allows each banks' customers to use their ATM or debit card at all other member banks with no ATM access fees when travelling internationally.[114] Senior management[edit] The Group Chairman is John McFarlane, who joined the Board on 1 January 2015 and became chairman at the annual general meeting on 23 April 2015.[115] McFarlane became executive chairman on 8 July after the dismissal of Group Chief Executive Antony Jenkins.[116] On 28 October 2015 Barclays
Barclays
announced that Jes Staley, managing partner at BlueMountain Capital and member of the board of directors of UBS, has been appointed as Group Chief Executive Officer of Barclays
Barclays
effective 1 December 2015.[117] Executive Committee[edit] The current members of Barclays' Executive Committee are:

Jes Staley (Group Chief Executive) Paul Compton (Group Chief Operating Officer); Bob Hoyt (Group General Counsel); Tristram Roberts (Group Human Resources Director); Tushar Morzaria (Group Finance Director); Laura Padovani (Interim Group Chief Compliance Officer); C.S. Venkatakrishnan (Chief Risk Officer); Ashok Vaswani (CEO, Barclays
Barclays
UK). Tim Throsby (President, Barclays
Barclays
International)

Board of directors[edit] The current members of Barclays' board of directors are:[118]

John McFarlane
John McFarlane
(Group Chairman); Jes Staley (Group Chief Executive) Mike Ashley (non-executive director); Tim Breedon (non-executive director); Crawford Gilles (non-executive director); Sir Gerry Grimstone (Deputy chairman and Senior independent director); Reuben Jeffery III (non-executive director); Tushar Morzaria (Group Finance Director); Dambisa Moyo
Dambisa Moyo
(non-executive director); Frits van Paasschen (non-executive director); Diane de Saint Victor (non-executive director); Diane Schueneman (non-executive director); Stephan Thieke (non-executive director).

Sponsorships[edit]

A Barclays Cycle Hire
Barclays Cycle Hire
docking station in central London

Barclays
Barclays
sponsored the Premier League
Premier League
from 2001 to 2016 (from 2001 to 2004 under the Barclaycard
Barclaycard
brand) and, from 2006, the Churchill Cup. All three governing bodies of the permanent participants agreed to end the tournament after its 2011 edition. Barclays
Barclays
also sponsored The Football League from 1987 until 1993, succeeding Today newspaper and being replaced by Endsleigh Insurance. It also sponsored the 2008 Dubai Tennis Championships.[119] Barclays
Barclays
was the sponsor of the Barclays Cycle Hire
Barclays Cycle Hire
scheme in London from 2010 to 2015, as part of a £25 million deal with Transport for London.[120][121] Controversies[edit]

Financial support for the government in Zimbabwe

Barclays
Barclays
helped to fund President Robert Mugabe's government in Zimbabwe.[122] The most controversial of a set of loans provided by Barclays
Barclays
is the £30m it gives to help sustain land reforms that saw Mugabe seize white-owned farmland and drive more than 100,000 black workers from their homes. Opponents have called the bank's involvement a 'disgrace' and an 'insult' to the millions who have suffered human rights abuses.[123] Barclays
Barclays
spokesmen say the bank has had customers in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
for decades and abandoning them now would make matters worse, "We are committed to continuing to provide a service to those customers in what is clearly a difficult operating environment".[124] Barclays
Barclays
also provides two of Mugabe's associates with bank accounts, ignoring European Union sanctions on Zimbabwe.[125] The men are Elliot Manyika and minister of public service Nicholas Goche. Barclays
Barclays
has defended its position by insisting that the EU rules do not apply to its 67%-owned Zimbabwean subsidiary because it was incorporated outside the EU.[126]

Accusations of money laundering

In March 2009, Barclays
Barclays
was accused of violating international anti-money laundering laws. According to the NGO Global Witness, the Paris branch of Barclays
Barclays
held the account of Equatorial Guinean President Teodoro Obiang's son, Teodorin Obiang, even after evidence that Obiang had siphoned oil revenues from government funds emerged in 2004. According to Global Witness, Obiang purchased a Ferrari
Ferrari
and maintains a mansion in Malibu with the funds from this account.[127] A 2010 report by the Wall Street Journal described how Credit Suisse, Barclays, Lloyds Banking Group, and other banks were involved in helping the Alavi Foundation, Bank
Bank
Melli, the Iranian government, and/or others circumvent US laws banning financial transactions with certain states. They did this by 'stripping' information out of wire transfers, thereby concealing the source of funds. Barclays
Barclays
settled with the government for US$298 million.[128]

Tax avoidance

Further information: tax avoidance In March 2009, Barclays
Barclays
obtained an injunction against The Guardian
The Guardian
to remove from its website confidential leaked documents describing how SCM, Barclays' structured capital markets division, planned to use more than £11 billion of loans to create hundreds of millions of pounds of tax benefits, via "an elaborate circuit of Cayman Islands companies, US partnerships and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
subsidiaries".[129] In an editorial on the issue, The Guardian
The Guardian
pointed out that, due to the mismatch of resources, tax-collectors (HMRC) now have to rely on websites such as WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
to obtain such documents,[130] and indeed the documents in question have now appeared on WikiLeaks.[131][132] Separately, another Barclays
Barclays
whistleblower revealed several days later that the SCM transactions had produced between £900 million and £1 billion in tax avoidance in one year, adding that "The deals start with tax and then commercial purpose is added to them."[133] In February 2012 Barclays
Barclays
was forced to pay £500 million in tax which it had tried to avoid. Barclays
Barclays
was accused by HMRC
HMRC
of designing two schemes that were intended to avoid substantial amounts of tax. Tax rules forced the bank to tell the UK authorities about its plans.[134] David Gauke, Exchequer Secretary to the Treasury, said that "We do not take today's action lightly, but the potential tax loss from this scheme and the history of previous abuse in this area mean that this is a circumstance where the decision to change the law with full retrospective effect is justified."[134]

Rate-fixing scandal

Main article: Libor
Libor
scandal In June 2012, as a result of an international investigation, Barclays Bank
Bank
was fined a total of £290 million (US$450 million) for manipulating the daily settings of London
London
Interbank Offered Rate (Libor) and the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (Euribor). The United States Department of Justice and Barclays
Barclays
officially agreed that "the manipulation of the submissions affected the fixed rates on some occasions".[135] The bank was found to have made 'inappropriate submissions' of rates which formed part of the Libor
Libor
and Euribor setting processes, sometimes to make a profit, and other times to make the bank look more secure during the financial crisis.[136] This happened between 2005 and 2009, as often as daily.[137] The BBC
BBC
said revelations concerning the fraud were "greeted with almost universal astonishment in the banking industry."[138] The UK's Financial Services Authority
Financial Services Authority
(FSA), which levied a fine of £59.5 million ($92.7 million), gave Barclays
Barclays
the biggest fine it had ever imposed in its history.[137] The FSA's director of enforcement described Barclays' behaviour as "completely unacceptable", adding " Libor
Libor
is an incredibly important benchmark reference rate, and it is relied on for many, many hundreds of thousands of contracts all over the world."[136] The bank's chief executive Bob Diamond decided to give up his bonus as a result of the fine.[139] Liberal Democrat politician Lord Oakeshott
Lord Oakeshott
criticised Diamond, saying: "If he had any shame he would go. If the Barclays board has any backbone, they'll sack him."[136] The US Department of Justice has also been involved, with "other financial institutions and individuals" under investigation.[136] On 2 July 2012, Marcus Agius resigned from the chairman position following the interest rate rigging scandal.[140] On 3 July 2012, Bob Diamond resigned with immediate effect, leaving Marcus Agius to fill his post until a replacement is found.[141] Within the space of a few hours, this was followed by the resignation of the Bank's chief operating officer, Jerry del Missier.[142] Barclays
Barclays
subsequently announced that Antony Jenkins, its existing chief executive of Global Retail & Business Banking would become group chief executive on 30 August 2012.[143] On 17 February 2014 the Serious Fraud Office charged three former bank employees Peter Charles Johnson, Jonathan James Mathew and Stylianos Contogoulas with manipulating Libor
Libor
rates between June 2005 and August 2007.[144]

Qatari capital raising regulatory investigations

Barclays' June and November 2008 capital raisings are the subject of investigations.[145] The Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom) commenced its investigation in August 2012. In October 2012, the United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
and the US Securities and Exchange Commission informed Barclays
Barclays
they had commenced an investigation into whether the group's relationships with third parties who assist Barclays
Barclays
to win or retain business are compliant with the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.[146] The Financial Services Authority
Financial Services Authority
announced an expansion of the investigation into the Barclays-Qatar deal in January 2013, focusing on the disclosure surrounding the ownership of the securities in the bank.[147] Barclays
Barclays
had sought to raise capital privately, avoiding direct equity investment from the Government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and, therefore, a bailout. The result was Abu Dhabi's £3.5 billion investment in the bank, a deal in which H.H. Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan made a profit of £3.5 billion.[148] Much of the focus to date has been on the injections by Qatar in June and November 2008, notably the so far unproven allegation that Barclays
Barclays
lent Qatar the money to invest in the bank. Other questions include what happened to the £110 million in fees paid by Barclays
Barclays
ostensibly to Sheikh Mansour, and the £66 million provided by Barclays
Barclays
to the Qataris for unexplained "advisory fees".[149] In June 2017, following a five-year investigation by the UK's Serious Fraud Office covering Barclays' activities during the financial crisis of 2007–2008, former CEO John Varley and three former colleagues, Roger Jenkins, Thomas Kalaris and Richard Boath, were charged with conspiracy to commit fraud and the provision of unlawful financial assistance in connection with capital raising.[150][151] In February 2018, the Serious Fraud Office charged Barclays
Barclays
with "unlawful financial assistance" related to billions of pounds raised from the Qatar deal.[152]

US electricity market manipulation

In July 2013 US energy regulator the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered Barclays
Barclays
to pay £299 million fine penalty for attempting to manipulate electricity market in the US. The fine by FERC
FERC
relates to allegations in December 2008.[153]

Gold price manipulation

In May 2014 the Financial Conduct Authority
Financial Conduct Authority
fined the bank £26 million over systems and controls failures, and conflict of interest in relation to the bank and its customers in connection to the gold fixing during the period 2004–2013, and for manipulation of the gold price on 28 June 2012.[154]

US lawsuit alleging dark pool fraud

In June 2014 the US state of New York filed a lawsuit against the bank alleging it defrauded and deceived investors with inaccurate marketing material about its unregulated trading system known as a dark pool. Specifically, the firm was accused of hiding the fact that Tradebot participated in the dark pool when they were in fact one of the largest players. The state, in its complaint, said it was being assisted by former Barclays
Barclays
executives and it was seeking unspecified damages. The bank's shares dropped 5% on news of the lawsuit, prompting an announcement to the London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
by the bank saying it was taking the allegations seriously, and was co-operating with the New York attorney general.[155] A month later the bank filed a motion for the suit to be dismissed, saying there had been no fraud, no victims and no harm to anyone. The New York Attorney General's office issued a statement saying the attorney general was confident the motion would fail.[156] On 31 January 2016, Barclays
Barclays
settled with both the New York Attorney General's office and the SEC, agreeing to pay $70 million split evenly between the SEC and New York state, admitting it violated securities laws and agreeing to install an independent monitor for the dark pool.[157]

Exchange-rate rigging (Last Look system)

Barclays
Barclays
PLC agreed to pay $150 million to resolve an investigation by New York’s banking regulator into a trading practice that allowed the bank to exploit a milliseconds-long lag between an order and its execution that sometimes hurt its clients, the latest fallout from the bank’s foreign-exchange business.[158] In certain instances, Barclays
Barclays
used this last-look system to automatically reject client orders that would be unprofitable for the bank because of subsequent price swings during milliseconds-long latency (“hold”) periods. Furthermore, when clients questioned Barclays
Barclays
about these rejected trades, Barclays
Barclays
failed to disclose the reason that the trades were being rejected, instead citing technical issues or providing vague responses.[159]

Unsuitable mutual fund transactions

According to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Barclays' inadequate supervisory procedures failed to stop many customers from swapping one mutual fund for another when the benefits of switching might be undermined by the transaction costs, resulting in $8.63 million of losses for their customers between January 2010 and June 2015. Additionally, from March to August 2014, Barclays
Barclays
processed 1,723 fund transactions that were inconsistent with its customers' goals, risk tolerance or other investments which caused an additional $818,000 of customer harm. As a result, Barclays
Barclays
was required to pay $10 million in restitution, including interest, to affected customers and was fined $3.75 million, but did not admit or deny wrongdoing.[160] Bibliography[edit]

Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
(1951). The Eagle Looks Back. a Silver Jubilee Anthology of Twenty-Five Years' Contributions to "The Spread Eagle", the Staff Magazine of Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
Limited. London: Spread Eagle. OCLC 556739074.  Tuke, A. W.; Gillman, R. J. H. (1972). Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
Limited, 1926–1969: Some Recollections. London: Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9500442-8-6. 

See also[edit]

Business and economics portal Companies portal London
London
portal

Chip Authentication Program
Chip Authentication Program
(PINsentry) European Financial Services Roundtable List of banks in the United Kingdom eabh (The European Association for Banking and Financial History e.V.)

Notes[edit]

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– A Quick History, archive.barclays.com, retrieved 16 August 2017  ^ "Barclays". 4-Traders. Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ "Wem gehört die Welt?" [Who owns the world?] (PDF). Die Zeit
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Newsroom: Business History. Barclays. Retrieved 30 January 2007.  See also: Barclays: The Business of Banking, 1690–1996 by Margaret Ackrill and Leslie Hannah; Cambridge UP, 2001 ISBN 0-521-79035-2 ^ "Company History". Barclays.lk – About us: Our History 1690–1972. Barclays. Retrieved 11 May 2008.  ^ Williams, Eric (1964). Slavery and Capitalism. London: Deutsch. p. 116.  ^ Shepherd, Verene (24 February 2008). "Freedom in the era of slavery: The case of the Barclay brothers in Jamaica". The Gleaner. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ (Gamble 1923,46). ^ Ackrill, Margaret; Hannah, Leslie (2001). Barclays: The Business of Banking, 1690-1996. Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-521-79035-2.  ^ "The Gurney family and banking in Norwich". Heritage City. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ " Bank
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plc". Funding Universe. Retrieved 28 March 2009.  ^ "Abstract – SAS-Space". Sas-space.sas.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2012.  ^ "About BZW ( Barclays
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News. 14 April 1999. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
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may well soon buy Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
Nikko". The New York Times. 19 June 1995. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "Revealed: what Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse
really thinks about BZW". 14 November 1997. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
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webpage". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 17 May 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
buys rival Woolwich". BBC
BBC
News. 11 August 2000. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Barclays
Barclays
buys rival Woolwich
Woolwich
BBC
BBC
News, 11 August 2000 ^ "Everything is big at Barclays: the chairman's pay has quadrupled just as 171 branches are closing". The Independent. UK. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ CIBC, Barclays
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planning Caribbean
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joint venture ^ Timmons, Heather (19 August 2004). " Barclays
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pays $293 million for US credit card issuer". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Timmons, Heather (9 May 2003). " Barclays
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agrees to buy Spanish bank in cash deal". The New York Times. SPAIN. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
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secures FA Premier League
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sponsorship". Sportbusiness.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
looks to buy Absa stake". BBC
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News. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Siegel, Aaron (23 June 2006). " Barclays
Barclays
buys Wachovia
Wachovia
unit for $469 million". InvestmentNews. Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ "Cheap Homeowner Loans , Compare Loans , UK Secured Loans". Comparetheloan. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
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plans rebrand of Woolwich". Mad.co.uk. 28 June 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ "Nets' new arena reportedly to be called Barclays
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Centre". NY1. 17 January 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ " Barclays
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ABN AMRO
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Bank
Bank
Makes Inquiry on Takeover of ABN Amro". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2012.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
abandons ABN Amro offer". BBC
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News. 5 October 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Mollenkamp, Carrick (3 February 2011). "Barclays's CEO Shifts to Plan B". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 April 2011. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Does RBS's acquisition of ABN AMRO
ABN AMRO
really do what it says on the tin?". City A.M.
City A.M.
Archived from the original on 25 January 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
looks East to fund ABN AMRO
ABN AMRO
purchase". MarketWatch. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
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to buy sub-prime lender". The New York Times. 20 January 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
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To Cut 19,000 Jobs Over Three Years". BBC
BBC
News. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.  ^ Seager, Ashley; Elliott, Larry & Kollewe, Julia (31 August 2007). " Barclays
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admits borrowing hundreds of millions". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Menon, Jon (31 August 2007). "UK & Ireland". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ " Barclays
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denies bad debt rumour". BBC
BBC
News. 9 November 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Lee, Peter. " Barclays
Barclays
keeps apologizing for saving the bank". Euromoney.  ^ "An Independent Review of Barclays' Business Practices" (PDF). The Wall Street Journal. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2014. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
share sale raises £4.5bn". BBC
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News. 18 July 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "Abigail Hofman: The loser list". Euromoney. 30 October 2008.  ^ a b " Barclays
Barclays
Seeks $11.8 Billion From Abu Dhabi and Qatar". The New York Times. 1 November 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ "Abigail Hofman: More zeroes than heroes – Barclays". Euromoney. 1 December 2008.  ^ Jeffery, Erica (12 May 2014). "Barclays' Qatari capital-raising timeline". Euromoney.  ^ Costello, Miles; Kennedy, Siobhan (8 February 2008). " Barclays
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buys Goldfish as US Group calls time on credit cards". The Times. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Costello, Miles (3 March 2008). " Barclays
Barclays
seals Expobank deal in Russia". The Times. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008.  ^ " Barclays
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Bank
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UK commences operation in Pakistan". Pakistan
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to buy Lehman Brothers assets". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Judge approves $1.3bn Lehman deal". BBC
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confirms £6.5bn fundraising". Banking Times. 13 October 2008. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008.  ^ " Euromoney
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40th anniversary special: Focus on Ipic". Euromoney. June 2009.  ^ Hofman, Abigail (3 December 2009). "Abigail with attitude: Barclays' tea leaves". Euromoney.  ^ a b Jeffery, Erica (12 May 2014). "Barclays' Qatari capital-raising timeline". Euromoney.  ^ " Barclays
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in Qatar loan probe". Financial Times. 31 January 2013. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ John Varley perplexed as Barclays' share price dives The Times, 23 January 2009 ^ Thompson, Mary; Liesman, Steve (5 August 2010). "Big European Banks Benefit from AIG Bailout". CNBC.  ^ Javers, Eamon (15 March 2009). "AIG ships billions in bailout abroad". Politico.  ^ "US giant BlackRock
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buys arm of Barclays
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bank". The Guardian. UK. Press Association. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2010.  ^ Barclays
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buys Standard Life Bank
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tops FSA rankings for bank complaints. The Independent
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31 March 2011 ^ " Barclays
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drops the name 'Capital' from its investment bank division as the bank aligns under one name". This is Money. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2012.  ^ Bigelow, Bruce. " Barclaycard
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Acquires Social Couponing Startup Analog Analytics". xconomy.com. Retrieved 6 April 2015.  ^ Kamanec, Kara. " Barclays
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Bank
Bank
gags Guardian over leaked memos detailing offshore tax scam". WikiLeaks. 16 March 2009. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2012.  ^ "Marie-Jose Klaver " Guardian moet documenten van site verwijderen". NRC Handelsblad. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.  ^ Felicity Lawrence and David Leigh (19 March 2009). "New whistleblower claims over £1bn Barclays
Barclays
tax deals". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 February 2012.  ^ a b " Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
told by Treasury to pay £500 million avoided tax". BBC
BBC
News. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.  ^ "Statement of Facts" (PDF). United States Department of Justice. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012.  ^ a b c d " Barclays
Barclays
fined for attempts to manipulate Libor
Libor
rates". BBC News. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.  ^ a b " Barclays
Barclays
to pay largest civil fine in CFTC history". CBS News. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.  ^ Pollock, Ian (28 June 2012). " Libor
Libor
scandal: Who might have lost?". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 28 June 2012.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
to pay over 450 million dollars to settle charges regarding LIBOR". Xinhua News Agency. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
chairman resigns over interest rate rigging scandal". NDTV profit. Reuters. 2 July 2012. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
boss Bob Diamond resigns amid Libor
Libor
scandal". BBC. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.  ^ "Bob Diamond quits as Barclays
Barclays
CEO". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 25 April 2014.  ^ "Executive Profile Antony P. Jenkins". Bloomberg Business. 23 June 2015.  ^ "Three former Barclays
Barclays
staff charged for alleged Libor
Libor
rates manipulation". London
London
Mercury. 17 February 2014.  ^ "Barclays' Qatari capital-raising timeline". Euromoney. 21 May 2013.  ^ "30 Competition and regulatory matters – Annual Report 2012". Barclays.com.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
in Qatar loan probe". Financial Times. 31 January 2013.  ^ "Revealed: The truth about Barclays
Barclays
and the Abu Dhabi investment". Euromoney.com. 30 April 2013.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
needs to come clean about its Gulf investments". Euromoney.com. 30 April 2013.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
charged with fraud in Qatar case". Bbc.co.uk. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ Treanor, Jill (1 January 1970). "Senior Barclays
Barclays
bankers charged with fraud over credit crunch fundraising". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
Bank
Bank
charged over Qatar loans". BBC
BBC
News. 2018-02-12. Retrieved 2018-02-12.  ^ US energy regulator orders Barclays
Barclays
to pay £299m fine The Guardian 17 July 2013 ^ "FCA fines Barclays
Barclays
26mn pounds over gold price manipulation". The London
London
News.Net. Retrieved 23 May 2014.  ^ "Dark pool fraud lawsuit filed against Barclays
Barclays
in US". New York Telegraph. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
seeks dismissal of New York dark pool suit". The London News.Net. Retrieved 25 July 2014.  ^ "Barclays, Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse
strike record deals with SEC, NY over dark pools". Reuters. Retrieved 1 February 2015.  ^ Matthews, Christopher M. (18 November 2015). " Barclays
Barclays
to Pay $150 Million Over 'Last Look' Trading System". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ "NYDFS Announces Barclays
Barclays
to Pay Additional $150 Million Penalty, Terminate Employee for Automated, Electronic Foreign Exchange Trading Misconduct" (Press release). New York Department of Financial Services. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ " Barclays
Barclays
in $13.75 mln U.S. settlement over mutual funds". Reuters. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 

References[edit]

Gamble, Audrey Nona (1924). A History of the Bevan Family. London: Headley Brothers. OCLC 18546896.  Raychaudhuri, Tappan, Irfan Habib, & Dharma Kumar, eds. (1983) The Cambridge Economic History of India: Volume 2, c.1751-c.1970. (CUP Archive). ISBN 9780521228022 "Top 1000 World Banks 2010". The Banker. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  "Amer Sajed appointed Chief Executive of Barclaycard". 

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Official website Barclays
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146326270 LCCN: n50065254 ISNI: 0000 0001 1533 8731 GND: 43587-9 SUDOC: 030217652 BNF: cb121680165 (data) NLA: 35823632

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