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A barber (from the Latin
Latin
barba, "beard") is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men’s and boys' hair. A barber's place of work is known as a "barber shop" or a "barber's". Barber
Barber
shops are also places of social interaction and public discourse. In some instances, barbershops are also public forums. They are the locations of open debates, voicing public concerns, and engaging citizens in discussions about contemporary issues. They were also influential in helping shape male identity.[citation needed] In previous times, barbers (known as barber surgeons) also performed surgery and dentistry. With the development of safety razors and the decreasing prevalence of beards, in English-speaking cultures, most barbers now specialize in cutting men's scalp hair as opposed to facial hair.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 History

2.1 19th century and later 2.2 Equipment

3 Animals 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Terminology[edit]

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A street barber in Shiraz

In modern times, the term "barber" is used both as a professional title and to refer to hairdressers who specialize in men's hair. Historically, all hairdressers were considered barbers. In the 20th century, the profession of cosmetology branched off from barbering, and today hairdressers may be licensed as either barbers or cosmetologists. Barbers differ with respect to where they work, which services they are licensed to provide, and what name they use to refer to themselves. Part of this terminology difference depends on the regulations in a given location. Different states in the US vary on their labor and licensing laws. For example, in Maryland, a cosmetologist cannot use a straight razor, strictly reserved for barbers. In contrast, in New Jersey both are regulated by the State Board of Cosmetology and there is no longer a legal difference in barbers and cosmetologists, as they are issued the same license and can practice both the art of straight razor shaving, coloring, other chemical work and haircutting if they choose. In Australia, the official term for a barber is hairdresser; barber is only a popular title for men's hairdressers, although not as popular now as it was in the middle of the 20th century. Most would work in a hairdressing salon. History[edit]

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Barbershop in Bucharest
Bucharest
around 1842. Woodcut. As shown in this image, the barbershop also provides an opportunity for social contacts.

Barbershop in Bucharest
Bucharest
around 2016. Men find the lost comradery between their peers, inside such "new traditional" barbershops, a revival of the old ones.

The barber's trade has a long history: razors have been found among relics of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(around 3500 BC) in Egypt. In ancient Egyptian culture, barbers were highly respected individuals. Priests and men of medicine are the earliest recorded examples of barbers.[1] Men in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
would have their beards, hair, and fingernails trimmed and styled by the κουρεύς (cureus), in an agora (market place) which also served as a social gathering for debates and gossip. Barbering was introduced to Rome by the Greek colonies in Sicily
Sicily
in 296 BC, and barber shops quickly became very popular centres for daily news and gossip. A morning visit to the tonsor became a part of the daily routine, as important as the visit to the public baths, and a young man's first shave (tonsura) was considered an essential part of his coming of age ceremony. A few Roman tonsores became wealthy and influential, running shops that were favourite public locations of high society; however, most were simple tradesmen, who owned small storefronts or worked in the streets for low prices.

The barbershop in Fluvanna, Texas, has been restored as part of a pioneer village in Snyder in Scurry County in West Texas.

Interior of a barber's shop, circa 1920

Starting from the Middle Ages, barbers often served as surgeons and dentists. In addition to haircutting, hairdressing, and shaving, barbers performed surgery, bloodletting and leeching, fire cupping, enemas, and the extraction of teeth; earning them the name "barber surgeons". The barber pole, featuring red and white spiraling stripes, symbolized different aspects of the craft. Barber-surgeons began to form powerful guilds such as the Worshipful Company of Barbers
Worshipful Company of Barbers
in London. Barbers received higher pay than surgeons until surgeons were entered into British warships during naval wars. Some of the duties of the barber included neck manipulation, cleansing of ears and scalp, draining of boils, fistula and lancing of cysts with wicks. 19th century and later[edit]

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" A barber getting ready to shave the face of a seated customer.", c. 1801.

Barbershops were influential at the turn of the 19th century in the United States as African American
African American
businesses that helped to develop African American
African American
culture and economy. According to Trudier Harris, "In addition to its status as a gathering place, the black barbershop also functioned as a complicated and often contradictory microcosm of the larger world. It is an environment that can bolster egos and be supportive as well as a place where phony men can be destroyed, or at least highly shamed, from participation in verbal contests and other contests of skill. It is a retreat, a haven, an escape from nagging wives and the cares of the world. It is a place where men can be men. It is a place, in contrast to Gordone's bar, to be somebody." [2]

Barber
Barber
at Peshawar, British India, 1907

In 1893, A. B. Moler of Chicago, established a school for barbers. This was the first institution of its kind in the world, and its success was apparent from its very start. It stood for higher education in the ranks, and the parent school was rapidly followed by branches in nearly every principal city of the United States. In the beginning of barber schools, only the practical work of shaving, hair-cutting, facial treatments, etc., was taught as neither the public nor the profession were ready to accept scientific treatments of hair, skin and scalp. Not until about 1920 was much effort made to professionalize the work.[1]

In the early 1900s an alternative word for barber, "chirotonsor", came into use in the USA. The barber Sam Mature, whose interview with Studs Terkel
Studs Terkel
was published in Terkel's 1974 book Working, says "A man used to get a haircut every couple weeks. Now he waits a month or two, some of 'em even longer than that. A lot of people would get manicured and fixed up every week. Most of these people retired, moved away, or passed away. It's all on account of long hair. You take old-timers, they wanted to look neat, to be presentable. Now people don't seem to care too much." Despite the economic recession in 2008, the barber shop industry has seen continued positive growth.[3]

A modern barber shop in Seattle, Washington

Training to be a barber is achieved through various means around the world. In the USA, barber training is carried out at " Barber
Barber
Schools". Cost—Many states require a barber license in order to practice barbering professionally. The cost of barber school varies from state to state, and also from metro area to metro area. Schools in larger metropolitan areas tend to cost more than those located in more rural towns. Brand names can also affect the cost of barber school. Most barber schools cost between $6,500 and $10,000 to complete. Because each state has different minimums for training hours, the length and cost of the program can vary accordingly. Some schools tuition includes supplies and textbooks, whereas others do not. Barber
Barber
license exam fees typically range from $50 to $150.[4] Length—Most states require the same amount of training hours for barbers as they do for cosmetologists. The number of hours required ranges from 800 to 2,000 training hours, depending on the state's licensing requirements. Most programs can be completed in 15 months or fewer.[5] Curriculum—The barber school curriculum consists of hair cutting, coloring and styling for men's hair and women's short hair. Chemical processes such as bleaching, dyeing, lightening and relaxing hair may also be taught. All cosmetology disciplines learn safety and sanitation best practices. Barber
Barber
students can expect to learn some elements of anatomy, physiology, bacteriology and some small elements of pharmacology. It also teaches facial hair techniques, including traditional and modern shaves. Generally barber programs touch on scalp massage and treatments. Advanced barber training may include custom shave designs. It is more common in barbering schools than other cosmetology disciplines to get some business and ethics education, since entrepreneurship is especially common in the barbering trade with many professionals choosing to open their own barbershops. All the skills learned in barber school will be tested at the board exams, which typically feature a written and practical exam.[6] Equipment[edit]

Barber
Barber
chair Hair
Hair
clipper Barber
Barber
cloth or wrap (Victoria, Australia) Barber
Barber
powder (talcum powder or baby powder) Hairbrush Comb Barber
Barber
neck paper/tape Barber
Barber
mirror or back mirror Hair
Hair
brilliantine Hair
Hair
cream Hair
Hair
dryer, hair blower or blow drier Hair
Hair
gel Hair
Hair
pomade Hair
Hair
scissors Hair
Hair
spray Hair
Hair
tonic Hair
Hair
wax Shave brush Shaving
Shaving
oil Shaving
Shaving
razor Mustache wax Shaving soap
Shaving soap
or Shaving
Shaving
cream

Animals[edit] The term "barbering" when applied to laboratory mice is a behaviour where mice will use their teeth to pluck out hairs from the face of cage mates when they groom each other. It is practised by both male and female mice. The "barber" plucks the vibrissae of the recipient. The behavior is probably related to social dominance.[7] See also[edit]

Barbasol Barber
Barber
chair Barber
Barber
paradox Barber
Barber
surgeon Barber's pole Barbershop music Beauty salon Birds Barbershop Cosmetology DOVO Solingen Facial hair Hairstyle Straight razor Thiers Issard Worshipful Company of Barbers

References[edit]

^ a b Moler, A.B.. "The barbers' manual." Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine. The National Education Council of the Associated Master Barbers of America, 1 January 1928. Web. 19 March 2012. <https://archive.org/stream/barbersmanual00mole#page/n29/mode/2up>. ^ Harris, Trudier (Autumn 1979). "The Barbershop in Black Literature". Black American Literature Forum. St. Louis University. 13: 112–118. doi:10.2307/3041528. JSTOR 3041528.  ^ Salon Market Research on Barber
Barber
Shops Archived February 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Cost of Barber
Barber
School – Barber
Barber
Schools". barber-schools.org.  ^ " Barber
Barber
License Requirements – Barber
Barber
Schools". barber-schools.org.  ^ " Barber
Barber
Training Curriculum – Barber
Barber
Schools". barber-schools.org.  ^ Sarna, JR; Dyck, RH; Whishaw, IQ (February 2000). "The Dalila effect: C57BL6 mice barber whiskers by plucking". Behavioural Brain Research. 108 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1016/S0166-4328(99)00137-0. PMID 10680755. Retrieved 2011-01-16. 

Further reading[edit]

Andrews, William. (Cottingham, Yorkshire: J.R. Tutin, 1904) At the sign of the barber's pole: studies in hirsute history. 118 pages. J. R. Tutin. and here for Project Gutenberg. Andrews, William, The Sign of the Barber's Pole: Studies in Hirsute History (Illustrated Edition) (Dodo Press) William Andrews (Dodo Press, 2009) 90 pages. Lethe Press Paperback 108 pages ISBN 978-1-59021-081-9 Rothman, Irving N., ed. The Barber
Barber
in Modern Jewish Culture. A Genre of People, Places, and Things, with Illustrations. Foreword: Maximillian E. Novak. Lewiston, NY: The Edward Mellen Press, 2008. 714 pp. Rothman, Irving N."The Reliable Barber
Barber
Supply Co.: An Annotated Chronological Bibliography of the Barber—Second Delivery." Bulletin of Bibliography 55.2 (1998): 101-21 [186 items.] ISSN 0190-745X Rothman, Irving N. "The Reliable Barber
Barber
Supply Co.: An Annotated Bibliography of the Barber
Barber
in World Culture." Bulletin of Bibliography. 51.4 (December 1994): 325-39. [147 items] ISSN 0190-745X Gross, Dominik, Marriage Strategies, Social prestige and Property of Barber-Surgeons in 19th-century Württemberg: An Evaluation of Marriage- and Probate Inventories, Historical Social Research 23/4, 1998, pp. 94–108

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Barbers

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Barbers.

Media related to Barber
Barber
shops at Wikimedia Commons  "Barber". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). 1911. 

Barba: entry in William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Barber-Schools.org: Barber
Barber
Industry, Education, Career and Licensing Information

Barber
Barber
Statistics

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Afro-textured hair (Kinky hair) Bearded lady Barber (pole) Eponymous hairstyle Frizz Good hair (phrase) Hairdresser Hair
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