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A barangay (/bɑːrɑːŋˈɡaɪ/ Brgy. or Bgy.; Filipino: baranggay, [baɾaŋˈɡaj]; also pronounced the same in Spanish), formerly referred to as barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines
Philippines
and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. In metropolitan areas, the term often refers to an inner city neighbourhood, a suburb or a suburban neighborhood.[1] The word barangay originated from balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
when they migrated to the Philippines.[2] Municipalities and cities in the Philippines
Philippines
are subdivided into barangays, with the exception of the municipalities of Adams in Ilocos Norte and Kalayaan, Palawan
Kalayaan, Palawan
which each contain only one barangay. The barangay itself is sometimes informally subdivided into smaller areas called purok (English: zone), barangay zones consisting of a cluster of houses, and sitios, which are territorial enclaves—usually rural—far from the barangay center. As of June 2015[update], there were 42,029 barangays throughout the Philippines.[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Organization 3 See also 4 Bibliography 5 Notes 6 External links

History[edit] Further information: Ancient barangay

Seal of the Barangay

When the first Spaniards arrived in the Philippines
Philippines
in the 16th century, they found well-organized independent villages called barangays. The name barangay originated from balangay, a Malay word meaning "sailboat".[2] The first barangays started as relatively small communities of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of contact with Spaniards, many barangays have developed into large communities. The encomienda of 1604 shows that many affluent and powerful coastal barangays in Sulu, Butuan, Panay,[4] Leyte and Cebu, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasig, Laguna, and Cagayan
Cagayan
River were flourishing trading centers. Some of these barangays had large populations. In Panay, some barangays had 20,000 inhabitants; in Leyte (Baybay), 15,000 inhabitants; in Cebu, 3,500 residents; in Vitis (Pampanga), 7,000 inhabitants; Pangasinan, 4,000 residents. There were smaller barangays with fewer number of people. But these were generally inland communities; or if they were coastal, they were not located in areas which were good for business pursuits.[5] These smaller barangays had around thirty to one hundred houses only, and the population varies from one hundred to five hundred persons. According to Legazpi, he founded communities with only twenty to thirty people. Traditionally,[6] the original “barangays” were coastal settlements of the migration of these Malayo-Polynesian
Malayo-Polynesian
people (who came to the archipelago) from other places in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
(see chiefdom). Most of the ancient barangays were coastal or riverine in nature. This is because most of the people were relying on fishing for their supply of protein and for their livelihood. They also traveled mostly by water up and down rivers, and along the coasts. Trails always followed river systems, which were also a major source of water for bathing, washing, and drinking. The coastal barangays were more accessible to trade with foreigners. These were ideal places for economic activity to develop. Business with traders from other countries also meant contact with other cultures and civilizations, such as those of Japan, Han Chinese, Indian people, and Arab people.[7] These coastal communities acquired more cosmopolitan cultures, with developed social structures (sovereign principalities), ruled by established royalties and nobilities. During the Spanish rule, through a resettlement policy called the Reducción, smaller scattered barangays were consolidated (and thus, "reduced") to form compact towns.[8][9] Each barangay was headed by the cabeza de barangay (barangay chief), who formed part of the Principalía
Principalía
- the elite ruling class of the municipalities of the Spanish Philippines. This position was inherited from the first datus, and came to be known as such during the Spanish regime. The Spanish Monarch ruled each barangay through the Cabeza, who also collected taxes (called tribute) from the residents for the Spanish Crown. When the Americans arrived, "slight changes in the structure of local government was effected".[10] Later, Rural
Rural
Councils with four councilors were created to assist, now renamed Barrio Lieutenant; it was later renamed Barrio Council, and then Barangay
Barangay
Council.[10] The Spanish term barrio (abbv. "Bo.") was used for much of the 20th century until 1974, when President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
ordered their renaming to barangays.[11] The name survived the 1986 EDSA Revolution, though older people would still use the term barrio. The Municipal Council was abolished upon transfer of powers to the barangay system. Marcos used to call the barangay part of Philippine participatory democracy, and most of his writings involving the New Society praised the role of baranganic democracy in nation-building.[12] After the 1986 EDSA Revolution
EDSA Revolution
and the drafting of the 1987 Constitution, the Municipal Council was restored, making the barangay the smallest unit of Philippine government. The first barangay elections held under the new constitution was held on March 28, 1989, under Republic Act number 6679.[13][14] The last barangay elections were held in October 2013.[15] Barangay elections scheduled in October 2017 were postponed following the signing of Republic Act number 10952.[16] The postponement has been criticized by election watchdogs and in both the Philippine Congress and Senate.[17] The Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting considers the postponement a move that would "only deny the people their rights to choose their leaders."[18] Organization[edit]

Maybo Barangay
Barangay
Hall in Boac, Marinduque

Sulop
Sulop
Barangay
Barangay
Hall

Mariki Barangay
Barangay
Hall in Zamboanga City

The modern barangay is headed by elected officials, the topmost being the Punong Barangay
Punong Barangay
or the Barangay
Barangay
Chairperson (addressed as Kapitan; also known as the Barangay
Barangay
Captain). The Kapitan is aided by the Sangguniang Barangay
Sangguniang Barangay
( Barangay
Barangay
Council) whose members, called Barangay Kagawad ("Councilors"), are also elected. The council is considered to be a Local Government Unit
Local Government Unit
(LGU), similar to the Provincial and the Municipal Government. The officials that make up the council are the Punong Barangay, seven Barangay Councilors, and the chairman of Youth Council or Sangguniang Kabataan (SK). Thus, there are eight (8) members of the Legislative Council in a barangay.[19] The council if in session for a new solution or a resolution of a bill votes, and if the counsels and the SK are at tie decision, the Captain uses his/her vote. This only happens when the SK which is sometimes stopped and continued. In absence of an SK, the council votes for a nominated Barrio Council President, this president is not like the League of the Barangay
Barangay
Councilors which composes of barangay Captains of a municipality. The Barangay
Barangay
Justice System or Katarungang Pambarangay is composed of members commonly known as Lupon Tagapamayapa (Justice of the peace). Their function is to conciliate and mediate disputes at the Barangay level so as to avoid legal action and relieve the courts of docket congestion.[20] Barangay elections
Barangay elections
are non-partisan and are typically hotly contested. Barangay
Barangay
Captain are elected by first-past-the-post plurality (no runoff voting). Councilors are elected by plurality-at-large voting with the entire barangay as a single at-large district. Each voter can vote up to seven candidates for councilor, with the winners being the seven candidates with the most number of votes. Typically, a ticket usually consists of one candidate for Barangay
Barangay
Captain and seven candidates for the Councilors. Elections for the post of Punong Barangay
Barangay
and barangay kagawads are usually held every three years starting from 2007. The barangay is often governed from its seat of local government, the barangay hall. A tanod, or barangay police officer, is an unarmed watchman who fulfills policing functions within the barangay. The number of barangay tanods differ from one barangay to another; they help maintain law and order in the neighborhoods throughout the Philippines. Funding for the barangay comes from their share of the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) with a portion of the allotment set aside for the Sangguniang Kabataan. The exact amount of money is determined by a formula combining the barangay's population and land area.

Local government hierarchy. The dashed lines emanating from the president means that the President only exercises general supervision on local government.

Total Local Government Units in the Philippines

Type (English) Filipino equivalent Head of Administration Filipino equivalent Number[3]

Province Probinsya/Lalawigan Governor Gobernador 81

City Siyudad/Lungsod Mayor Alkalde/Punong Lungsod 144

Municipality Munisipalidad/Bayan Mayor Alkalde/Punong Bayan 1,490

Village Barangay Barangay
Barangay
Chairman/ Barangay
Barangay
Captain Punong-Barangay/Kapitan ng Barangay 42,029

See also[edit]

Association of Barangay
Barangay
Captains Balangay Barangay
Barangay
Health Volunteers List of barangays of Metro Manila List of barangays of Bohol Purok Sitio

Bibliography[edit]

Constantino, Renato. (1975) The Philippines: A Past Revisited (volume 1). ISBN 971-8958-00-2 Mamuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565–1615), Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1975.

Notes[edit]

^ "Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries. June 25, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.  ^ a b Zaide, Sonia M. (1999), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing, pp. 62, 420, ISBN 971-642-071-4 , citing Plasencia, Fray Juan de (1589), Customs of the Tagalogs, Nagcarlan, Laguna  ^ Junker, Laura Lee (2000), Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms, Ateneo de Manila
Manila
University Press, pp. 74, 130, ISBN 978-971-550-347-1  ISBN 971-550-347-0, ISBN 978-971-550-347-1. ^ a b "Philippine Standard Geographic Codes as of June 2015" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. June 24, 2015. Retrieved July 4, 2015.  ^ During the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines the Spanish Augustinian Friar, Gaspar de San Agustín, O.S.A., describes Iloilo
Iloilo
and Panay as one of the most populated islands in the archipelago and the most fertile of all the islands of the Philippines. He also talks about Iloilo, particularly the ancient settlement of Halaur, as site of a progressive trading post and a court of illustrious nobilities. The friar says: Es la isla de Panay muy parecida a la de Sicilia, así por su forma triangular come por su fertilidad y abundancia de bastimentos... Es la isla más poblada, después de Manila
Manila
y Mindanao, y una de las mayores, por bojear más de cien leguas. En fertilidad y abundancia es en todas la primera... El otro corre al oeste con el nombre de Alaguer [Halaur], desembocando en el mar a dos leguas de distancia de Dumangas...Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla...Mamuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565-1615), Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1975, pp. 374-376. ^ Cf. F. Landa Jocano, Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage (1998), pp. 157-158, 164 ^ Cf. Maragtas (book) ^ Hisona, Harold (2010-07-14). "The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan". Philippinealmanac.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-06.  ^ Constantino, Renato; Constantino, Letizia R. (1975). "Chapter V - The Colonial Landscape". The Philippines: A Past Revisited (Vol. I) (Sixteenth Printing (January 1998) ed.). Manila, Philippines: Renato Constantino. pp. 60–61. ISBN 971-895-800-2. Retrieved 18 January 2015.  ^ Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). "New States and Reorientations 1368-1764". State and Society in the Philippines. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 53, 55. ISBN 0742510247. Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ a b Zamora, Mario D. (1966). "Political Change and Tradition: The Case of Village
Village
Asia". In Karigoudar Ishwaran (Editor). International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology: Politics and Social Change. Leiden, the Netherlands: E.J. Brill. pp. 247–253. Retrieved 12 November 2012. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ "Presidential Decree No. 557; Declaring All Barrios in the Philippines
Philippines
as Barangays, and for Other Purposes". The LawPhil Project. Malacañang, Manila, Philippines. 21 September 1974. Retrieved 1 March 2016.  ^ Marcos, Ferdinand. 1973. "Notes on the New Society of the Philippines." ^ "Looking back: The first barangay polls in PH". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-03-04.  ^ Team, COMELEC Web Development. "Official COMELEC Website :: Commission on Elections". COMELEC. Retrieved 2018-03-04.  ^ News, Ron Gagalac, ABS-CBN. "Barangay, SK polls to push through on May 14". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2018-03-04.  ^ "Republic Act No. 10952 GOVPH". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 2018-03-04.  ^ News, RG Cruz, ABS-CBN. "Duterte told: Get druggies, but don't halt barangay polls". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2018-03-04.  ^ "PPCRV opposes another postponement of barangay SK polls UNTV News". www.untvweb.com. Retrieved 2018-03-04.  ^ "The Barangay". Local Government Code of the Philippines. Chan Robles Law Library.  ^ " Barangay
Barangay
Justice System (BJS), Philippines". ACCESS Facility. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 

External links[edit]

Katarungang Pambarangay Handbook

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  Administrative divisions of the Philippines

Capital

Manila
Manila
(National Capital Region)

Island groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

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Administrative

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

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Current

Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner

Autonomous

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Autonomous

Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village

Administrative Summer

Ward

Historical

Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing

Non-English or loanwords

Current

Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun

Finland Sweden

Län Località Megye Muban Oblast

Autonomous

Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine

Historical

Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome

Egypt Greece

Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou

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Arabic
Arabic
terms for country subdivisions

First-level

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Second / third-level

Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak)

City / township-level

Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision")

English translations given are those most commonly used.

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French terms for country subdivisions

arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures

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Greek terms for country subdivisions

Modern

apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§

Historical

archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma

§ signifies a defunct institution

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Portuguese terms for country subdivisions

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Local subdivisions

Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição

Settlements

Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar

Historical subdivisions in italics.

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Slavic terms for country subdivisions

Current

dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija

Historical

darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa

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Spanish terms for country subdivisions

National, Federal

Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región

Regional, Metropolitan

Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia

Ecuador Spain

Urban, Rural

Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento

Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes

Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad

Ciudad autónoma

Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village
Village
(Pueblito/Pueblo)

Historical subdivisions in italics.

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Turkish terms for country subdivisions

Modern

il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter)

Historical

ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces)

1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative divisions by country

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