HOME
The Info List - Bar Confederation


--- Advertisement ---



Russian victory:

First Partition of Poland

Belligerents

 Russian Empire Bar Confederation  Kingdom of France

Commanders and leaders

Alexander Suvorov Ivan Karpovich Elmpt Karol Radziwiłł Casimir Pulaski Michał Jan Pac Count Beniowski Charles François Dumouriez

Strength

Lanckorona: 4,000 troops Lanckorona: 1,300 troops; 18 cannons Total: 100,000[1]

Casualties and losses

unknown heavy

v t e

War of the Bar Confederation

Bar Słonim Białystok Łomazy Dobra Kcynia Lanckorona Widawa Stołowicze

v t e

Polish–Russian Wars

Muscovite/Lithuanian Livonian 1605–18 (Dymitriads) Smolensk 1654–67 War of the Polish Succession War of the Bar Confederation 1792 Kościuszko Uprising Napoleon's Invasion of Russia November Uprising January Uprising Polish–Soviet 1939

The Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
(Polish: Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia
Podolia
in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus
Stanisław II Augustus
with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy magnates. The founders of the Bar Confederation included the magnates Adam Krasiński, Bishop of Kamenets, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł, Casimir Pulaski, Moritz Benyowszki and Michał Krasiński. Its creation led to a civil war and contributed to the First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[2] Some historians consider the Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
the first Polish uprising.[3]

Contents

1 Background

1.1 International situation 1.2 In the Commonwealth

2 Civil war
Civil war
and foreign intervention 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Background[edit]

Casimir Pulaski
Casimir Pulaski
at Częstochowa. Painting by Józef Chełmoński, 1875. Oil on canvas. National Museum, Warsaw, Poland.

International situation[edit] Around the middle of the 18th century the balance of power in Europe shifted, with Russian victories against the Ottomans in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
strengthening Russia
Russia
and endangering Habsburg
Habsburg
interests in that region (particularly in Moldavia
Moldavia
and Wallachia). At that point Habsburg
Habsburg
Austria
Austria
started to consider waging a war against Russia.[4][5] France, friendly towards both Russia
Russia
and Austria, suggested a series of territorial adjustments, in which Austria
Austria
would be compensated by parts of Prussian Silesia, and Prussia
Prussia
in turn would receive Polish Ermland (Warmia) and parts of the Polish fief, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia—already under Baltic German hegemony. King Frederick II of Prussia
Prussia
had no intention of giving up Silesia
Silesia
gained recently in the Silesian Wars; he was, however, also interested in finding a peaceful solution — his alliance with Russia
Russia
would draw him into a potential war with Austria, and the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
had left Prussia's treasury and army weakened. He was also interested in protecting the weakening Ottoman Empire, which could be advantageously utilized in the event of a Prussian war either with Russia
Russia
or Austria. Frederick's brother, Prince Henry, spent the winter of 1770–71 as a representative of the Prussian court at Saint Petersburg. As Austria had annexed 13 towns in the Hungarian Szepes region in 1769 (violating the Treaty of Lubowla), Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II of Russia
and her advisor General Ivan Chernyshyov
Ivan Chernyshyov
suggested to Henry that Prussia
Prussia
claim some Polish land, such as Ermland. After Henry informed him of the proposal, Frederick suggested a partition of the Polish borderlands by Austria, Prussia, and Russia, with the largest share going to Austria. Thus Frederick attempted to encourage Russia
Russia
to direct its expansion towards weak and non-functional Poland
Poland
instead of the Ottomans.[4]

Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
1768-72

Although for a few decades (since the times of the Silent Sejm) Russia had seen weak Poland
Poland
as its own protectorate,[6] Poland
Poland
had also been devastated by a civil war in which the forces of the Bar Confederation attempted to disrupt Russian control over Poland.[4] The recent Koliyivschyna
Koliyivschyna
peasant and Cossack uprising in Ukraine
Ukraine
also weakened Polish position. Further, the Russian-supported Polish king, Stanisław II Augustus, was seen as both weak and too independent-minded; eventually the Russian court decided that the usefulness of Poland
Poland
as a protectorate had diminished.[7] The three powers officially justified their actions as a compensation for dealing with troublesome neighbor and restoring order to Polish anarchy (the Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
provided a convenient excuse); in fact all three were interested in territorial gains.[8] After Russia
Russia
occupied the Danubian Principalities, Henry convinced Frederick and Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
that the balance of power would be maintained by a tripartite division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
instead of Russia
Russia
taking land from the Ottomans. Under pressure from Prussia, which for a long time wanted to annex the northern Polish province of Royal Prussia, the three powers agreed on the First Partition of Poland. This was in light of the possible Austrian-Ottoman alliance[9] with only token objections from Austria,[7] which would have instead preferred to receive more Ottoman territories in the Balkans, a region which for a long time had been coveted by the Habsburgs. The Russians
Russians
also withdrew from Moldavia
Moldavia
away from the Austrian border. In the Commonwealth[edit]

Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł

In the late 17th century and early 18th century the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
had declined from the status of a major European power to that of a Russian protectorate (or vassal or satellite state), with the Russian tsar effectively choosing Polish–Lithuanian monarchs during the "free" elections and deciding the direction of much of Poland's internal politics, for example during the Repnin Sejm
Repnin Sejm
(1767-1768), named after the Russian ambassador who unofficially presided over the proceedings.[6][10] In 1767-1768, Russian forces forced the Polish parliament (Sejm) to pass resolutions they demanded. Many of the conservative nobility felt anger at that foreign interference, at the perceived weakness of the presiding government under king Stanisław II Augustus
Stanisław II Augustus
(reigned 1764-1795), and at the provisions, particularly the ones that empowered non-Catholics, and at other reforms which they saw as threatening the Golden Freedoms
Golden Freedoms
of the Polish nobility.[11][12] In response to that, and particularly after Russian troops arrested and exiled several vocal opponents (namely bishop of Kiev Józef Andrzej Załuski, bishop of Cracow Kajetan Sołtyk, and Field Crown Hetman Wacław Rzewuski
Wacław Rzewuski
with his son Seweryn), Polish magnates Adam Krasiński, Bishop of Kamieniec, Casimir Pulaski
Casimir Pulaski
and Michał Krasiński and their allies decided to form a confederatio - a legal military association opposing the government[13][11] in accordance with Polish constitutional traditions. The articles of the confederation were signed on 29 February 1768 at the fortress of Bar in Podolia.[12] Some of the instigators of the confederation included Adam Stanisław Krasiński, Michał Hieronim Krasiński, Kajetan Sołtyk, Wacław Rzewuski, Michał Jan Pac, Jerzy August Mniszech, Joachim Potocki and Teodor Wessel.[12] Priest Marek Jandołowicz was a notable religious leader, and Michał Wielhorski the Confederation's political ideologue.[12] Civil war
Civil war
and foreign intervention[edit]

Marshal of the Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
Michał Krasiński receives an Ottoman dignitary.

The confederation, encouraged and aided by France, declared a war on Russia.[12] Its irregular forces, formed from volunteers, magnate militias and deserters from the royal army, soon clashed with the Russian troops and units loyal to the Polish crown.[12] Confederation forces under Michał Jan Pac
Michał Jan Pac
and Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł roamed the land in every direction, won several engagements with the Russians, and at last, utterly ignoring the King, sent envoys on their own account to the principal European powers. King Stanisław Augustus was at first inclined to mediate between the Confederates and Russia, the latter represented by the Russian envoy to Warsaw, Prince Nikolai Repnin; but finding this impossible, he sent a force against them under Grand Hetman
Hetman
Franciszek Ksawery Branicki and two generals against the confederates. This marked the Ukrainian campaign, which lasted from April till June 1768, and was ended with the capture of Bar on 20 June.[12] Confederation forces retreated to Moldavia.[12] There was also a pro-Confederation force in Lesser Poland, that operated from June till August, that ended with the royal forces securing Kraków
Kraków
on 22 August, followed by a period of conflict in Belarus (August–October), that ended with the surrender of Nesvizh
Nesvizh
on 26 October.[12] However, the simultaneous outbreak of the Koliyivschyna
Koliyivschyna
in Ukraine
Ukraine
(May 1768–June 1769) kept the Confederation alive. The Confederates appealed for help from abroad and contributed to bringing about war between Russia
Russia
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774
Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774
that began in September). The retreat of some Russian forces needed on the Ottoman front bolstered the confederates, who reappeared in force in Lesser Poland
Poland
and Great Poland
Poland
by 1769.[12] In 1770 the Council of Bar Confederation transferred from its original seat in Silesia
Silesia
to Hungary, whence it conducted diplomatic negotiations with France, Austria
Austria
and Turkey with a view to forming a league against Russia. The council proclaimed the king dethroned on 22 October 1770. The court of Versailles sent Charles François Dumouriez
Charles François Dumouriez
to act as an aid to the Confederates, and he helped them to organize their forces. The Confederates also began to operate in Lithuania, although after early successes that direction too met with failures, with defeats at Białystok
Białystok
on 16 July and Orzechowo on 13 September 1769.[12] Early 1770 saw the defeats of confederates in Greater Poland, after the battle of Dobra (20 January) and Błonie (12 February), which forced them into a mostly defensive, passive stance.[12]

The standard of the Bar confederates

Remanents of the Bar Fortress (now in Ukraine), designed by Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan

Play media

Play media

Play media

In the meantime, taking advantage of the confusion in Poland, already by 1769—71, both Austria
Austria
and Prussia
Prussia
had taken over some border territories of the Commonwealth, with Austria
Austria
taking Szepes County in 1769-1770 and Prussia
Prussia
incorporating Lauenburg and Bütow.[7] On 19 February 1772, the agreement of partition was signed in Vienna.[9] A previous agreement between Prussia
Prussia
and Russia
Russia
had been made in Saint Petersburg on 6 February 1772.[9] Early in August Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops simultaneously entered the Commonwealth and occupied the provinces agreed upon among themselves. On 5 August, the three parties signed the treaty on their respective territorial gains on the Commonwealth's expense.[4] An attempt of Bar Confederates (including Casimir Pulaski[14]) to kidnap king Stanisław II Augustus
Stanisław II Augustus
on 3 November 1771 led the Habsburgs to withdraw their support from the confederates, expelling them from their territories.[15] It also gave the three courts another pretext to showcase the "Polish anarchy" and the need for its neighbors to step in and "save" the country and its citizens.[12][16] The king thereupon reverted to the Russian faction, and for this act targeting their king, the Confederation lost much of the support it had in Europe.[15] Nevertheless, its army, thoroughly reorganized by Dumouriez, maintained the fight. 1771 brought further defeats, with the defeat at Lanckorona
Lanckorona
on 21 May and Stałowicze at 23 October.[12] The final battle of this war was the siege of Jasna Góra, which fell on 13 August 1772.[12] The regiments of the Bar Confederation, whose executive board had been forced to leave Austria
Austria
(which previously supported them) after that country joined the Prusso-Russian alliance, did not lay down their arms. Many fortresses in their command held out as long as possible; Wawel Castle
Wawel Castle
in Kraków
Kraków
fell only at on 28 April;[9][17] Tyniec
Tyniec
fortress held until 13 July 1772;[18] Częstochowa, commanded by Casimir Pulaski, held until 18 August.[9][19] Overall, around 100,000 nobles fought 500 engagements between 1768 and 1772.[1] Perhaps the last stronghold of the confederates was in the monastery in Zagórz, which fell only on 28 November 1772. In the end, the Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
was defeated, with its members either fleeing abroad or being deported to Siberia by the Russians.[20] Bar Confederates taken as prisoners by the Russians, together with their families, formed the first major group of Poles exiled to Siberia.[20] It is estimated that about 5,000 former confederates were sent there.[12] Russians
Russians
organized 3 concentration camps in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
for Polish captives, where these concentrated persons have been waiting for their deportation there.[21] Legacy[edit] Until the times of the Bar Confederation, confederates – especially operating with the aid of outside forces – were seen as unpatriotic antagonists.[22] But in 1770, during the times that the Russian Army marched through the theoretically independent Commonwealth, and foreign powers forced the Sejm
Sejm
to agree to the First Partition of Poland, the confederates started to create an image of Polish exiled soldiers, the last of those who remained true to their Motherland, an image that would in the next two centuries lead to the creation of Polish Legions and other forces in exile.[22] The Confederation has generated varying assessments from the historians. While none deny its patriotic desire to rid the Commonwealth from the outside (primarily Russian) influence, some such as Jacek Jędruch, criticize it for its regressive stand on the civil rights issues, primarily with regards to the religious tolerance (Jędruch writes of "religious bigotry", "narrowly Catholic" stand) and assert it contributed to the First Partition[2][11] while others such as Bohdan Urbankowski applaud it as the first serious national military effort trying to restore Polish independence.[22] The Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
has been described as the first Polish uprising,[3] and the last mass movement of szlachta.[11] It also is commemorated on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Warsaw, with the inscription "KONFEDERACJA BARSKA 29 II 1768 – 18 VII 1772”. See also[edit]

Aleksandr Bibikov Józef Sawa-Caliński Koliyivshchyna

References[edit]

^ a b Lieven, Dominic, ed. (2006). The Cambridge History of Russia: Volume 2, Imperial Russia, 1689-1917. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 9780521815291.  ^ a b "Confederation of Bar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-04-29. Its activities precipitated a civil war, foreign intervention, and the First Partition of Poland.  ^ a b Deck-Partyka, Alicja (2006). Poland, a Unique Country & Its People. Bloomington: AuthorHouse. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4259-1838-5. Retrieved 24 August 2011.  ^ a b c d "Partitions of Poland". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Little, Richard (2007). The Balance of Power in International Relations. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87488-5.  ^ a b Lukowski, Jerzy; Zawadzki, Hubert (2001). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1. Retrieved 24 October 2012.  ^ a b c "Poland: The First Partition". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Korman, Sharon (1996). The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice. Oxford University Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-19-828007-1. Retrieved 24 October 2012.  ^ a b c d e Lewinski Corwin, Edward Henry (1917). The Political History of Poland. Polish Book Importing Company. pp. 310–315.  ^ Scott, H. M. (2001). The Emergence of the Eastern Powers, 1756-1775. Cambridge University Press. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-0-521-79269-1. Retrieved 24 October 2012.  ^ a b c d Jędruch, Jacek (1998). Constitutions, Elections, and Legislatures of Poland, 1493–1977: A Guide to their History. EJJ Books. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-0-7818-0637-4. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Barska Konfederacja". WIEM Encyklopedia (in Polish).  ^ Morfill, William Richard (1893). The Story of the Nations: Poland. London: Unwin. p. 215.  ^ Kajencki, AnnMarie Francis (2005). Count Casimir Pulaski: From Poland
Poland
to America, a Hero's Fight for Liberty. New York: Power Plus. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-4042-2646-3. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ a b Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386-1795. University of Washington Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-295-98093-5. Retrieved 5 June 2012.  ^ Pickus, David (2001). Dying with an Enlightening Fall: Poland
Poland
in the Eyes of German Intellectuals, 1764-1800. Lanham: Lexington Books. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7391-0153-7. Retrieved 4 December 2011.  ^ Nehring, Halina. "Kartki z kalendarza: kwiecień". Opcja Na Prawo (in Polish). Archived from the original on 20 April 2008.  ^ " Tyniec
Tyniec
jako twierdza Konfederatów Barskich". Stowarzyszenie "Nasz Radziszów" (in Polish). Archived from the original on 4 July 2008.  ^ Davies, Norman (2005). God's Playground A History of Poland: Volume 1: The Origins to 1795. Oxford University Press. p. 392. ISBN 978-0-19-925339-5. Retrieved 24 October 2012.  ^ a b Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 664. ISBN 978-0-19-820171-7. Retrieved 24 October 2012.  ^ Konopczyński, Władysław (1991) [1938]. Konfederacja barska (in Polish). 2. Warsaw: Volumen. pp. 733–734. ISBN 83-85218-06-8.  ^ a b c Urbankowskipl, Bohdan (1997). Józef Piłsudski: marzyciel i strateg [Józef Piłsudski: Dreamer and Strategist] (in Polish). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo ALFA. p. 155. ISBN 978-83-7001-914-3. 

Further reading[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bar, Confederation of". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Aleksander Kraushar, Książę Repnin i Polska w pierwszem czteroleciu panowania Stanisława Augusta (1764-1768), (Prince Repin and Poland
Poland
in the first four years of rule of Stanislaw August (1764–1768))

2nd edition, corrected and expanded. vols. 1-2, Kraków
Kraków
1898, G. Gebethner i Sp. Revised edition, Warszawa: Gebethner i Wolff; Kraków: G. Gebethner i Spółka, 1900.

F. A. Thesby de Belcour, The Confederates of Bar (in Polish) (Cracow, 1895) Charles Francois Dumouriez, Mémoires et correspondance (Paris, 1834). Radom i Bar 1767-1768: dziennik wojennych działań jenerał-majora Piotra Kreczetnikowa w Polsce w r. 1767 i 1768 korpusem dowodzącego i jego wojenno-polityczną korespondencyą z księciem Mikołajem Repninem Poznań 1874

External links[edit]

Poland
Poland
the Confederation of Bar, 1768-1772

v t e

Polish uprisings

Partitions

Bar Confederation Kościuszko Uprising Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1794) Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1806) November Uprising Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1846) Kraków
Kraków
Uprising Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1848) January Uprising Baikal insurrection 1866 Łódź insurrection

Second Republic

Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–19) Sejny Uprising Silesian Uprisings

World War II

Czortków Uprising Zamość Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising Białystok
Białystok
Ghetto Uprising Częstochowa
Częstochowa
Ghetto Uprising Operation Tempest Operation Ostra Brama Lwów Uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising Kraków
Kraków
Uprising

People's Republic

Poznań 1956 protests Polish 1970 protests Solidarity

v t e

Polish wars and conflicts

Piast Poland

Battle of Cedynia German–Polish War (1002–18) Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis 1072 war against Bohemia Battle of Głogów 1146 war against Germany 1156 war against Germany First Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1240/41) Second Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1259/60) Third Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1287/88)

Battle of Legnica

Polish–Teutonic War (1326–32)

Battle of Płowce

Galicia–Volhynia Wars

Jagiellon Poland

Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War

Battle of Grunwald

Polish–Teutonic War (1414) Polish–Teutonic War (1422) Polish–Teutonic War (1431–35) Battle of Grotniki 1444 war against the Ottomans

Battle of Varna

Thirteen Years' War War of the Priests Polish–Moldavian War Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1512–22)

Battle of Orsha

Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21) Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1534–37) Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland

Commonwealth

Northern Seven Years' War Danzig rebellion

Battle of Lubieszów

Siege of Danzig (1577) Livonian War

Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory

War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1587–88)

Battle of Byczyna

1589 Tatar Invasion Kosiński Uprising 1593 Tatar Invasion Nalyvaiko Uprising Moldavian Magnate
Magnate
Wars Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) Polish–Swedish wars War against Sigismund

Battle of Stångebro

Polish–Swedish War (1600–29)

Polish–Swedish War (1600–11)

Battle of Kircholm

Polish–Swedish War (1617–18) Polish–Swedish War (1621–25) Polish–Swedish War (1626–29)

Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)

Battle of Kłuszyn

Zebrzydowski Rebellion Thirty Years' War

Battle of Humenné

Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21)

Battle of Chocim (1621)

1624 Tatar Invasion Zhmaylo Uprising Fedorovych Uprising Smolensk War

Siege of Smolensk (1632–33)

Polish–Ottoman War (1633–34) Pawluk Uprising Ostrzanin Uprising 1644 Tatar Invasion Khmelnytsky Uprising

Battle of Berestechko

Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War

The Deluge

Polish–Cossack–Tatar War (1666–71) Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76)

Battle of Chocim (1673)

Polish–Ottoman War (1683–99)

Battle of Vienna

Great Northern War War of the Polish Succession War of the Bar Confederation Polish–Russian War of 1792 Kościuszko Uprising

Poland
Poland
partitioned

Napoleonic Wars Peninsular War War of the Fourth Coalition

Prussian campaign

War of the Fifth Coalition

Polish–Austrian War

War of the Sixth Coalition

French invasion of Russia

Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1848) November Uprising January Uprising World War I

Second Republic

Polish–Ukrainian War Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising Polish–Czechoslovak War First Silesian Uprising Polish–Soviet War

Battle of Warsaw

Second Silesian Uprising Polish–Lithuanian War Third Silesian Uprising

Second World War

World War II German Invasion of Poland Polish contribution to World War II Italian Campaign Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising Białystok
Białystok
Ghetto Uprising Częstochowa
Częstochowa
Ghetto Uprising

Operation Tempest

Operation Ostra Brama Lwów uprising Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising

People's Republic

Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Third Republic

War in Afghanistan Iraq War

2003 invasion of Iraq Occupation of Iraq

v t e

Armed conflicts involving Russia
Russia
(incl. Imperial and Soviet times)

Internal

Razin's Rebellion Bulavin Rebellion Pugachev's Rebellion Decembrist revolt Russian Civil War August Uprising Bitch Wars Coup d'état attempt (1991) 1993 Russian constitutional crisis First Chechen War War of Dagestan Second Chechen War Insurgency in the North Caucasus

Pre-17th century

Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376) First Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1492–94) Russo-Swedish War (1495–97) Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1500–03) Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1507–08) Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1512–22) Fifth Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1534–37) Russo-Crimean Wars Russo-Kazan Wars Russo-Swedish War (1554–57) Livonian War Russian Conquest of Siberia (1580–1747) Russo-Swedish War (1590–95) Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
and the Time of Troubles Ingrian War Smolensk War Russo-Persian War (1651–53) Sino-Russian border conflicts
Sino-Russian border conflicts
(1652–89) Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1676–81) Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

18th–19th century

Great Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1710–11) Russo-Persian War (1722–23) War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1733–38) Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–48) Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) Seven Years' War Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) Bar Confederation Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) Russo-Swedish War (1788–90) Russo-Polish War (1792) Kościuszko Uprising Russo-Persian War (1796) War of the Second Coalition War of the Third Coalition Russo-Persian War (1804–13) War of the Fourth Coalition Russo-Turkish War (1806–12) Anglo-Russian War Finnish War War of the Fifth Coalition French invasion of Russia War of the Sixth Coalition War of the Seventh Coalition Russian conquest of the Caucasus Caucasian War

Russo-Circassian War Murid War

Russo-Persian War (1826–28) Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) November Uprising Russian conquest of Bukhara Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Crimean War January Uprising Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) Boxer Rebellion

Russian invasion of Manchuria

20th century

Russo-Japanese War Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911 World War I Russian Civil War Ukrainian–Soviet War Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19

Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian–Soviet War

Polish–Soviet War Red Army invasion of Azerbaijan Red Army invasion of Armenia Red Army invasion of Georgia Red Army intervention in Mongolia Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) Soviet–Japanese border conflicts Soviet invasion of Xinjiang Xinjiang War (1937) World War II

Soviet invasion of Poland Winter War Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940) Continuation War Eastern Front (World War II) Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Soviet–Japanese War

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states Ili Rebellion First Indochina War Korean War Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Eritrean War of Independence War of Attrition Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Sino-Soviet border conflict Vietnam War Ogaden War South African Border War Soviet–Afghan War

Post-Soviet

Nagorno-Karabakh War Transnistria War Georgian Civil War Tajikistani Civil War Russo-Georgian War Intervention in Ukraine

Annexation of Crimea War in Donbass

Intervention in Syria

Military history of Russia Russian Winter Russian Revolution Cold War Sphere

.