BANYAN VINES was a network operating system developed by Banyan Systems for computers running AT entries in the directory always had the form item@group@organization. This applied to user accounts as well as to resources like printers and file servers .
OSI layer VINES Protocol Stack
6 Remote Procedure Calls (RPC)
4 InterProcess Communications (IPC) Datagram Sequenced Packet Protocol (SPP) Stream
VINES CLIENT SOFTWARE
VINES client-software ran on most PC-based operating systems,
INITIAL MARKET RELEASE
With StreetTalk's inherent low bandwidth requirements, global companies and governments that grasped the advantages of worldwide directory services seamlessly spanning multiple time zones recognized VINE's technological edge. Users included gas and oil companies, power companies, public utilities—and U.S. Government agencies including the State Department, Treasury Department, Department of Agriculture, and Department of Defense.
The U.S. State Department, for example, was an early adopter of the
VINES technology. Able to take advantage of the then high-speed 56k
modems for telephonic connectivity of the developed world to the
limited telephone modem speeds of 300 baud over bad analog telephone
systems in the
DEFENSE DEPARTMENT ADOPTION
By the late 1980s the
US Marine Corps
Using both ground-based secure radio channels and satellite and military tactical phone switches, the Marine Corps was ready for its first big test of VINES: the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Units were able to seamlessly coordinate ground, naval, and air strikes across military boundaries by using the chat function to pass target lists and adjust naval gun fire on the fly. Ground fire support coordination agencies used VINES up and down command channels—from Battalion-to-Regiment through Division-to-Corps and Squadron-to-Group to Aircraft Wing-to-Corps, as well as in peer-to-peer unit communication.
For a decade, Banyan's OS competitors, Novell and Microsoft, dismissed the utility of directory services . Consequently, VINES dominated what came to be called the "directory services" space from 1985 to 1995. While seeming to ignore VINES, Novell and eventually Microsoft—companies with a flat server or domain-based network model—came to realize the strategic value of directory services. With little warning, Novell went from playing down the value of directory services to announcing its own: NetWare Directory Services (NDS). Eventually, Novell changed NDS to mean Novell Directory Services, and then renamed that to eDirectory.
Windows NT 5.0 (released as
Windows 2000 ) however, Microsoft
By the late 1990s, VINES' once-touted Street
Because Banyan could not quickly develop an OS to take advantage of
newer hardware, and apparently did not understand that the StreetTalk
directory services, not the shrink-wrapped OS, was the prime value
added—the company lost ground in the networking market. VINES sales
rapidly dried up, both because of these problems and because of the
rapid rise of
Windows NT . Banyan increasingly turned to Street
Also, Banyan continued to operate a closed OS. This required hardware manufacturers to submit hardware and driver requirements so that Banyan could write drivers for each peripheral. When more open systems with published APIs began to appear, Banyan did not alter their model. This made it difficult for client-side support to handle the explosive growth in, for example, printers. As competitors began to adopt some of VINES' outstanding wide area networking protocols and services, manufacturers were less inclined to send a unit to Banyan for VINES specific drivers when competitors let them write their own.
Dropping the Banyan brand for ePresence in 1999, as a general