The Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir (Arabic: بنو الأخيضر) was a dynasty
that ruled in
Najd and al-
Yamamah (central Arabia) from 867 to at
least the mid-eleventh century. An
Alid dynasty, they were descendents
Muhammad through his daughter
Fatimah and his grandson Al-Hasan,
and at least one contemporary traveler describes them as having
Shi'ites of the
Zaydi persuasion. Their capital was known as
al-Khidhrimah, which lay near the present-day city of
3 See also
Yamamah in the early Islamic period
The founder of the dynasty was
Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir ibn
Ibrahim ibn Musa al-Djawn ibn Abd Allah al-Kāmil ibn Al-Hasan
al-Mu'thannā bin Al-
Hassan al-mujtaba bin
Ali al Murtaza
Ali al Murtaza bin Abi
Talib. Muhammad's brother Isma'il had launched a rebellion in the
Tihamah in 865 against the Abbasid government and temporarily occupied
the city of Mecca. After Isma'il's death the following year,
Muhammad began stirring up trouble along the road running between the
Hejaz and Iraq, but was defeated by the road's governor Abu 'l-Saj
Dewdad. Fleeing from the government forces, he made his way in
Yamamah and established himself there in 867.
Yamamah at the time was nominally part of the Abbasid Caliphate,
but the central government had largely neglected the area for years
due to its remoteness. With the exception of the occasional raid by
government forces, the tribes there were largely self-governing.
Muhammad arrived in al-Yamamah, he likely gained the support of
the Banu Hanifa, the largest tribe in the area, and created an
It is not known how much of al-
Yamamah was ruled by
Muhammad and his
descendents. Descriptions of the extent of the amirate by medieval
Muslim historians vary; one source states that it controlled only
al-Khidhrimah and its outskirts, while another claims that it ruled
over a territory that extended as far north as Qurran.
The early rule of the Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir was characterized by a
sustained economic depression. Thousands of people are recorded as
having emigrated from al-
Yamamah to various provinces of the caliphate
in order to escape the turmoil.
Muhammad has been blamed for this
period of hardship due to his oppressive rule, although it has been
noted that reports of mass emigration from al-
Yamamah began years
before his arrival.
Muhammad was succeeded as amir by his son Yusuf, who was himself
succeeded by his son Isma'il. Isma'il established an alliance with the
Qarmatians of neighboring Al-Hasa. He participated in the
Kufa in 925 and was given command of the town by the
Qarmatian leader Abu Tahir. Relations between the two sides, however,
subsequently soured, and in 928 Isma'il and several members of his
family were killed in a battle with the Qarmatians.
Isma'il was succeeded by his son al-Hasan, and at this point the
amirate likely subordinate to the Qarmatians. After the rule of
al-Hasan's son Ahmad, the history of the Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir becomes
obscure. When the traveler Nasir-i Khusraw arrived in al-
1051, the Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir were still ruling there, but at some point
after this the
Banu Kilab took over the country.
Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir (from 866)
Yusuf ibn Muhammad
Isma'il ibn Yusuf (to 928)
Al-Hasan ibn Yusuf
Ahmad ibn al-Hasan
Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'far
Descendents of Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'far
After Ahmad, the list of rulers becomes uncertain, but later amirs
were descendents of his son Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'far.
List of Shi'a Muslim dynasties
^ See Nasir Khusraw's Safarnameh.
^ Tabari, v. 35: pp. 108-9; Mas'udi, p. 395
^ Madelung, "Banu Saj"
^ Madelung, "Al-Ukhaydir," p. 792; Mas'udi, pp. 402-3
^ For one such incident, see Tabari, v. 34: pp. 46-51
^ Askar, p. 139
^ Juhany, pp. 45-6
^ Askar, pp. 139-40
^ a b c d Madelung, "Al-Ukhaydir," p. 792
^ Askar, p. 140
Al-Askar, Abdullah. Al-Yamama in the Early Islamic Era. Reading, UK:
Ithaca Press, 2002. ISBN 0-86372-400-0
Al-Juhany, Uwaidah M.
Najd Before the Salafi Reform Movement: Social,
Political, and Religious Conditions During the Three Centuries
Preceding the Rise of the Saudi State. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press,
2002. ISBN 0-86372-401-9
Madelung, W. "Banu Saj." Encyclopaedia Iranica. Ed. Ehsan Yarshater.
Columbia University. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
Madelung, W. "Al-Ukhaydir." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume X. New
Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2000. ISBN 90-04-11211-1
Al-Mas'udi, Ali ibn al-Husain. Les Prairies D'Or, Tome Septieme.
Trans. C. Barbier de Meynard. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1873.
Al-Tabari, Abu Ja'far
Muhammad ibn Jarir. The History of al-Tabari.
Ed. Ehsan Yar-Shater. 40 vols. Albany, NY: State University of New
York Press, 1985-2007.
Muslim dynasties in Arabian Peninsula
Banu Ukhaidhir (865–1066)
Jabrids (15th–16th century)
Qawasim of Ras al Khaymah (1727–present)
House of Saud
House of Saud (1744–present)
Al Said (1749-present)
House of Sabah
House of Sabah (1752–present)
Al Nahyan family
Al Nahyan family (1761–present)
Ajman (18th century–present)
Qawasim of Sharjah (18th century–present)
Umm al-Quwain (1775–present)
Al Khalifa family (1783–present)
Mahra Sultanate (18th century–1967)
House of Thani
House of Thani (1825–present)
Al Maktoum (1833–present)
Al Afifi (19th century–1967)
Harharah (19th century–1967)
Emirate of Beihan
Emirate of Beihan (1903–1967)