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The Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir (Arabic: بنو الأخيضر‎) was a dynasty that ruled in Najd
Najd
and al- Yamamah
Yamamah
(central Arabia) from 867 to at least the mid-eleventh century. An Alid
Alid
dynasty, they were descendents of Muhammad
Muhammad
through his daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
and his grandson Al-Hasan, and at least one contemporary traveler[1] describes them as having been Shi'ites
Shi'ites
of the Zaydi
Zaydi
persuasion. Their capital was known as al-Khidhrimah, which lay near the present-day city of Al-Kharj
Al-Kharj
in Saudi Arabia.

Contents

1 History 2 Rulers 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

History[edit]

Al- Yamamah
Yamamah
in the early Islamic period

The founder of the dynasty was Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir ibn Ibrahim ibn Musa al-Djawn ibn Abd Allah al-Kāmil ibn Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali al Murtaza
Ali al Murtaza
bin Abi Talib. Muhammad's brother Isma'il had launched a rebellion in the Tihamah
Tihamah
in 865 against the Abbasid government and temporarily occupied the city of Mecca.[2] After Isma'il's death the following year, Muhammad
Muhammad
began stirring up trouble along the road running between the Hejaz and Iraq, but was defeated by the road's governor Abu 'l-Saj Dewdad.[3] Fleeing from the government forces, he made his way in al- Yamamah
Yamamah
and established himself there in 867.[4] Al- Yamamah
Yamamah
at the time was nominally part of the Abbasid Caliphate, but the central government had largely neglected the area for years due to its remoteness. With the exception of the occasional raid by government forces,[5] the tribes there were largely self-governing. When Muhammad
Muhammad
arrived in al-Yamamah, he likely gained the support of the Banu Hanifa, the largest tribe in the area, and created an independent amirate.[6] It is not known how much of al- Yamamah
Yamamah
was ruled by Muhammad
Muhammad
and his descendents. Descriptions of the extent of the amirate by medieval Muslim historians vary; one source states that it controlled only al-Khidhrimah and its outskirts, while another claims that it ruled over a territory that extended as far north as Qurran.[7] The early rule of the Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir was characterized by a sustained economic depression. Thousands of people are recorded as having emigrated from al- Yamamah
Yamamah
to various provinces of the caliphate in order to escape the turmoil. Muhammad
Muhammad
has been blamed for this period of hardship due to his oppressive rule,[8] although it has been noted that reports of mass emigration from al- Yamamah
Yamamah
began years before his arrival.[9] Muhammad
Muhammad
was succeeded as amir by his son Yusuf, who was himself succeeded by his son Isma'il. Isma'il established an alliance with the powerful Qarmatians
Qarmatians
of neighboring Al-Hasa. He participated in the capture of Kufa
Kufa
in 925 and was given command of the town by the Qarmatian leader Abu Tahir. Relations between the two sides, however, subsequently soured, and in 928 Isma'il and several members of his family were killed in a battle with the Qarmatians.[9] Isma'il was succeeded by his son al-Hasan, and at this point the amirate likely subordinate to the Qarmatians.[10] After the rule of al-Hasan's son Ahmad, the history of the Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir becomes obscure. When the traveler Nasir-i Khusraw arrived in al- Yamamah
Yamamah
in 1051, the Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir were still ruling there, but at some point after this the Banu Kilab
Banu Kilab
took over the country.[9] Rulers[edit]

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir (from 866) Yusuf ibn Muhammad Isma'il ibn Yusuf (to 928) Al-Hasan ibn Yusuf Ahmad ibn al-Hasan Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'far Descendents of Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'far

After Ahmad, the list of rulers becomes uncertain, but later amirs were descendents of his son Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'far.[9] See also[edit]

Alids List of Shi'a Muslim dynasties

Notes[edit]

^ See Nasir Khusraw's Safarnameh. ^ Tabari, v. 35: pp. 108-9; Mas'udi, p. 395 ^ Madelung, "Banu Saj" ^ Madelung, "Al-Ukhaydir," p. 792; Mas'udi, pp. 402-3 ^ For one such incident, see Tabari, v. 34: pp. 46-51 ^ Askar, p. 139 ^ Juhany, pp. 45-6 ^ Askar, pp. 139-40 ^ a b c d Madelung, "Al-Ukhaydir," p. 792 ^ Askar, p. 140

References[edit]

Al-Askar, Abdullah. Al-Yamama in the Early Islamic Era. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 2002. ISBN 0-86372-400-0 Al-Juhany, Uwaidah M. Najd
Najd
Before the Salafi Reform Movement: Social, Political, and Religious Conditions During the Three Centuries Preceding the Rise of the Saudi State. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 2002. ISBN 0-86372-401-9 Madelung, W. "Banu Saj." Encyclopaedia Iranica. Ed. Ehsan Yarshater. Columbia University. Retrieved 21 August 2011. Madelung, W. "Al-Ukhaydir." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume X. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2000. ISBN 90-04-11211-1 Al-Mas'udi, Ali ibn al-Husain. Les Prairies D'Or, Tome Septieme. Trans. C. Barbier de Meynard. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1873. Al-Tabari, Abu Ja'far Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir. The History of al-Tabari. Ed. Ehsan Yar-Shater. 40 vols. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1985-2007.

v t e

Muslim dynasties in Arabian Peninsula

Ziyadids (819–1018) Yufirids (847-997) Banu Ukhaidhir
Banu Ukhaidhir
(865–1066) Rassids
Rassids
(893–1970) Qarmatians
Qarmatians
(900–1073) Fatimid
Fatimid
(909-1171) Wajihids (926-965) Sharif of Mecca
Mecca
(967–1925) Sulayhids (1047–1138) Najahids (1050-1158) Sulaymanids
Sulaymanids
(1063-1174) Uyunids (1076–1240) Zurayids
Zurayids
(1083-1174) Hamdanids (1099-1174) Nabhani (1154-1624) Mahdids
Mahdids
(1159-1174) Rasulids (1229–1454) Usfurids (1253–1320) Jarwanids (1305–1487) Kathiri
Kathiri
(1395–1967) Jabrids (15th–16th century) Tahirids (1454–1526) Qasimids (1597-1872) Yaruba (1624-1742) Qawasim of Ras al Khaymah (1727–present) House of Saud
House of Saud
(1744–present) Al Said
Al Said
(1749-present) House of Sabah
House of Sabah
(1752–present) Al Nahyan family
Al Nahyan family
(1761–present) Ajman (18th century–present) Qawasim of Sharjah (18th century–present) Umm al-Quwain (1775–present) Al Khalifa family (1783–present) Mahra Sultanate
Mahra Sultanate
(18th century–1967) House of Thani
House of Thani
(1825–present) Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
(1833–present) Rashidis (1836–1921) Al Afifi (19th century–1967) Harharah (19th century–1967) Sharqis (1876–present) Qu'aiti
Qu'aiti
(1902–1967) Emirate of Beihan
Emirate of Beihan
(1903–1967) Mutawakki

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