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The Ifranids, also called Banu Ifran, Ifran, or the children of the Ifran (Arabic: بنو يفرن‎, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata
Zenata
Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.In the 8th century, they established a kingdom in Central Maghreb, Algeria
Algeria
with Tlemcen
Tlemcen
as its capital. The Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
resisted or revolted against foreign occupiers—Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines—of their territory in Africa. In the seventh century, they sided with Kahina
Kahina
in her resistance against the Muslim Umayyad
Umayyad
invaders. In the eighth century they mobilized around the dogma of sufri, revolting against the Arab Umayyads
Umayyads
and Abbasids. In the 10th century they founded a dynasty opposed to the Fatimids, the Zirids, the Umayyads, the Hammadids
Hammadids
and the Maghraoua. The Banu Ifran were defeated by the Almoravids
Almoravids
and the invading Arabs (the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym)[1] to the end of the 11th century. The Ifranid dynasty
Ifranid dynasty
[2] was recognized as the only dynasty that has defended the indigenous people of the Maghreb, by the Romans referred to as the Africani.[3] In 11th century Iberia, the Ifrenid founded a Taifa of Ronda
Taifa of Ronda
since 1039[4] at Ronda
Ronda
in Andalusia
Andalusia
and governed from Cordoba for several centuries.[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Etymology 3 Religion

3.1 Before Islam 3.2 During Islam

4 Dynasty 5 Ifran in Spain 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

Tlemcen, a capital of Banu Ifran

The Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
were one of the four major tribes of the Zenata
Zenata
or Gaetulia
Gaetulia
[6] confederation, and were known as expert cavalrymen. According to Ibn Khaldoun, "Ifrinides" or "Ait Ifren" were successfully resisting Romans, Vandals
Vandals
and Byzantines who sought to occupy North Africa
North Africa
before the arrival of the Muslim armies. According to Corippus in his Iohannis,[7] during the reign of Justinian I between 547 and 550, the Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
challenged the Byzantine armies under John Troglita
John Troglita
to war.[8][9][10][11] Their chief Abu Qurra rebuilt the city of Tlemcen
Tlemcen
in Algeria
Algeria
in 765 (formerly, it was a Roman city named Pomaria). They opposed the Egyptian Fatimid Caliphate, aligning themselves with the Maghrawa tribe and the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, although they themselves became Kharijites. Led by Abu Yazid, they surged east and attacked Kairouan
Kairouan
in 945. Another leader, Ya'la ibn Muhammad captured Oran
Oran
and constructed a new capital, Ifgan, near Mascara. Under the leadership of their able general Jawhar, who killed Ya'la in battle in 954,[12] the Fatimids struck back and destroyed Ifgan, and for some time afterward the Banu Ifran reverted to being scattered nomads in perpetual competition with their Sanhaja
Sanhaja
neighbours. Some settled in regions of Spain, such as Málaga. Others, led by Hammama, managed to gain control of the Moroccan province of Tadla. Later, led by Abu al-Kamāl, they established a new capital at Salé
Salé
on the Atlantic coast, though this brought them into conflict with the Barghawata
Barghawata
tribes on the seaboard.

The dynasty of the Ifrinids, Ibn Khadloun, Histoire des Berbères, section Banou Ifran

During the 11th century, the Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
contested with the Maghrawa tribe for the control of Morocco after the fall of the Idrisid dynasty. Ya'la's son Yaddū took Fes
Fes
by surprise in January 993 and held it for some months until the Maghrawa ruler Ziri ibn Atiyya returned from Spain
Spain
and reconquered the region. In May or June 1033, Fes
Fes
was recaptured by Ya'la's grandson Tamīm. Fanatically devoted to religion, he began a persecution of the Jews,[13] and is said to have killed 6000 of their men while confiscating their wealth and women, but Ibn Khaldoun says only persecution without killing.[14] Sometime in the period 1038-1040 the Maghrawa tribe retook Fes, forcing Tamīm to flee to Salé. Soon after that time, the Almoravids
Almoravids
began their rise to power and effectively conquered both the Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
and their brother-rivals the Maghrawa. Etymology[edit] Ifran is a plural for Afar, Efri or Ifri; it is probably derived from the last of these, which means "cave" in Berber. Other possibilities are that their name is derived from one of the major gods of the pagan Berbers, Ifrou, or that the name is derived from the region of Yifran in present-day north-west Libya[15] where they may have originated. The name of the Ifran tribe has many alternative spellings, such as Ifuraces or Afar in Latin, or Ifrinidi, Iforen, Fren, Wafren, Yefren, Yafren, or Yafran, but all of the names mean simply "The Sons of Ifri". The banu- was added by the Arab writers, who called them "ben ifren" or "Ifrinid". Religion[edit] Before Islam[edit]

As of Hadrian
Hadrian
(136), representing Africa

Among the Ifran, animism was the principal spiritual philosophy. Ifri was also the name of a Berber deity, and their name may have an origin in their beliefs.[16] [16] Ifru rites symbolized in caves were held to gain favor or protection for merchants and traders. The myth of this protection is befittingly depicted on Roman coins.[17][18] Ifru was regarded as a sun goddess, cave goddess and protector of the home.[19][20] Ifru or Ifran was regarded as a Berber version of Vesta. Dehia, usually referred to as The Kahina
Kahina
was the Dejrawa Berber queen, prophetess, and leader of the non-Muslim response to the advancing Arab armies. Some historians claim Kahina
Kahina
was Christian,[21] or a follower of the Judaic faith,[13][22][23] though few of the Ifran were Christians, even after more than half a millennium of Christianity among the urban populations and the more sedentary tribes. Ibn Khaldun simply states that Ifran were Berbers, and says nothing of their religion before the advent of Islam. During Islam[edit] The Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
were opposed to the Sunnis of the Arab armies. They eventually converted, but summoned under the Kharidjite movement within Islam. Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
claimed that the " Zenata
Zenata
people say they are Muslims but they still oppose the Arab army.".[24][25] After 711, the Berbers were systematically converted to Islam and many became devout members of the faith. Dynasty[edit]

Preceded by Rustamid
Rustamid
and Umayyad
Umayyad
Dynasty Ifrinid Dynasty 950- 1066 Succeeded by Almoravid
Almoravid
dynasty

Ifran in Spain[edit]

Ronda
Ronda
was built by Abu Nour in 1014

The Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
were influential in Spain
Spain
in the 11th century AD. The Ifran house of Corra ruled the Andalusian city Ronda
Ronda
in Spain. Yeddas was the military leader of the Berber troops who were at war against the Christian king and El Mehdi. Abu Nour or Nour of the house of Corra became lord of Ronda
Ronda
and then Seville
Seville
in Andalusia
Andalusia
from 1023 to 1039 and from 1039 to 1054. The son of Nour bin Badis Hallal ruled Ronda
Ronda
from 1054 to 1057, and Abu Nacer from 1057 to 1065.[26] Notes[edit]

^ Histoire des BerbYres et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique ... - ʻAbd al-Raḥman b. Muḥammad Ibn Khaldчn - Google Livres. Books.google.dz. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ Histoire politique du Maroc: pouvoir, légitimités, et institutions, ʻAbd al-Laṭīf Aknūsh, Abdelatif Agnouche,p.85, Afrique Orient, 1987 book on line ^ Compleḿent de l'Encycloped́ie moderne: dictionnaire abreǵe ́ des sciences, des ... - Noel̈ Desverges, Lжon Renier, Edouard Carteron, Firmin Didot (Firm). - Google Livres. Books.google.dz. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ Histoire Des Musulmans D'espagne ,Reinhart Pieter et Anne Dozy, p.238 Book on line ^ Rachel Arié (199O). Études sur la civilisation de l'Espagne musulmane [Studies on the Civilization of Muslim Spain]. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 154. ISBN 90-04-09116-5 – via Google Books.  ^ Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de la province , Société archéologique [1] ^ Corpus scriptorum historiae byzantinae , Barthold Georg Niebuhr ^ Corripus, la Johannide ^ Monographie de l'aurès , Delartigue ^ The Golden Age of the Moor, Ivan van Sertima, [2] ^ Itineraria Phoenicia , Edward Lipiński ^ So says the Rawd al-Qirtas. But according to Ibn Khaldun, Yala died assassinated by a member of the Fatimides
Fatimides
in 958. ^ a b Relations judéo-musulmanes au Marocperceptions et réalités , Michel Abitbol [3] ^ Ibn Khaldoun, Histoire des Berbères ^ A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period, edited by Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, p43 ^ a b Archives des missions scientifiques et littéraires , France Commission des missions scientifiques et littéraires, France, [4] ^ Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique, historique, du département de Constantine , Arnolet, 1878 ^ Recueil des notices et mщmoires de la Sociщtщ archщologique, historique, et ... - Google Livres. Books.google.fr. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ Les cultes païens dans l'Empire romain , Jules Toutain, page 416, p635 and p636 ^ Les cultes paяens dans l'Empire romain - Jules Toutain - Google Livres. Books.google.fr. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ Gabriel Camps, Berber encyclopaedia ^ The FalashasA Short History of the Ethiopian Jews
Jews
, David Kessler ^ Ibn Khaldoun, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique septentrionale, traduction de William McGuckin de Slane, éd. Paul Geuthner, Paris, 1978, tome 1, pp. 208-209 . ^ Ibn Khaldun, Histoire des berberes, Traduction Slane, édition Berti ^ La Berbérie et L'Islam et la France , Eugène Guernier, party 1, édition de l'union française, 1950 ^ [5] list of leaders in arabic

References[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Algeria

Prehistory

Aterian
Aterian
Culture (80,000 BC) Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
Culture (20,000 BC) Capsian culture
Capsian culture
(10,000 BC) Rock art in Oran, Djelfa, Tassili and Ahaggar

Green Sahara Roknia Madghacen Jedars

Related: Archeology of Algeria

Antiquity

Getulia
Getulia
(~500 BC–40 AD) Numidia
Numidia
(202–46 BC) Punic Wars
Punic Wars
(264–146 BC) Jugurthine War
Jugurthine War
(111–106 BC) Roman Mauretania and Africa (146 BC–590 AD) Vandalic War
Vandalic War
(533–534 AD) Prefecture of Africa (534–585 AD) Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698 AD)

Early African Church Partenia

Fossatum Africae Gemellae

Middle Ages

Arab conquest (647–709 AD) Umayyads
Umayyads
(703–744 AD) Ifranids (742–1066 AD) Muhallabids
Muhallabids
(771–793 AD) Rustamids (776–909 AD) Idrisids (789–828 AD) Aghlabids
Aghlabids
(800–909 AD) Fatimids
Fatimids
(909–1171 AD) Maghrawas (970–1068 AD) Zirids
Zirids
(973–1152 AD) Hammadids
Hammadids
(1014–1152 AD) Almoravids
Almoravids
(1040–1147 AD) Almohads (1121–1269 AD) Marinids (1215–1465 AD) Hafsids (1229–1574 AD) Ziyyanids (1235–1556 AD)

Modern times Ottoman Algeria
Algeria
(16th - 19th centuries)

Regency of Algiers Ottoman governors

Emirate of Ait Abbas Emirate of Kuku

Barbary pirates Barbary Slave Trade

First Barbary War Second Barbary War

French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)

French conquest French governors

Resistance Pacification

Emir Abdelkader Fatma N'Soumer

Mokrani Revolt Cheikh Bouamama

Nationalism RCUA FLN GPRA

Algerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putsch

Évian Accords Independence referendum

Pied-Noir Harkis Oujda Group

Contemporary era 1960s–80s

Arab nationalism 1965 putsch

Berber Spring 1988 Riots

1990s

Algerian Civil War
Algerian Civil War
(Timeline)

FIS GIA List of massacres

High Council of State Civil Concord

2000s to present

Peace Charter AQIM Arab Spring

Related topics

Outline of Algeria Military history of Algeria (List of wars involving Algeria) Postal history of Algeria (List of people on stamps of Algeria) History of North Africa

Algeria
Algeria
portal

v t e

Ibn Abi Zar, Rawd al-Qirtas. Annotated Spanish translation: A. Huici Miranda, Rawd el-Qirtas. 2nd edition, Anubar Ediciones, Valencia, 1964. Vol. 1 ISBN 84-7013-007-2. C. Agabi (2001), article "Ifren" in Encyclopédie Berbère vol. 24, p. 3657-3659 (Édisud, Aix-en-Provence, ISBN 2-85744-201-7) Ibn Khaldun, Kitab el Ibar, French translation (ISBN 2-7053-3638-9) Le passé de l'Afrique du Nord. Écrit par E.F. Gautier. Édition Payot, Paris KITAB EL-ISTIQÇA. TRADUCTION A. GRAULLE. Auteur AHMED BEN KHALED EN-NACIRI ES-SLAOUI Ibn Khaldoun Les prolégomènes El Mokadima Gisèle Halimi. Title: La Kahina.

External links[edit]

(in English) Tunisia and Africa and Ifran (in French) genealogy of Ibn Khaldun (in French) Ouargla Town of Algeria (in French) Tribe of Djelfa and Tlemcen (in French) History of Kenitra town in Morocco (in French) History of Touggourt town in Algeria (in French) Merindjissa and Ifran (in French) History of Mahdia Morocco (in French) History of Tlemcen
Tlemcen
Algeria (in French) Medina Sale Marocco (in French) Adrar in Algeria
Algeria
tribe of Zenata (in French) history of Almoravide and Ifran (in Arabic) Ifran at Ronda Links to books at Books.google.com (in French): [6]; [7]; [8]; [9]; [10]; [11]; [12]; [13]; [https://books.google.com/books?id=n7gBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR147&dq=ifren&as_brr=1&hl=fr; [14]

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (August 2013) Click [show] for important translation instructions.

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v t e

Berber peoples

Ancient

Psylli Banioubae Gaetuli Garamantes Leuathae Libu Macae Marmaridae Mauri

Bakouatae Makanitae

Meshwesh Musulamii Nasamones Numidae

Masaesyli Massylii

Quinquegentiani

Middle-Ages

Adjissa Awerba Awregha Azdeja Bahlula Barghawata Fazaz Fendelawa Ghumara Gazoula Ghiatta Godala Guanches Haskura Houara Kutama Lamtuna Luwata Madyuna Masmuda Matmata Nafzawa Sanhaja Zanata

Banu Ifran Jarawa Maghrawa

Modern

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v t e

Islamic dynasties in Maghreb
Maghreb
region

Salihids (710–1019) Barghawata
Barghawata
(744-1058) Rustamids (767-909) Muhallabids
Muhallabids
(771–793) Idrisids (780–985 ) Ifranids (790-1066) Aghlabids
Aghlabids
(800–909) Zirids
Zirids
(973–1148) Banu Kanz (1004–1412) Hammadids
Hammadids
(1008–1152) Almoravids
Almoravids
(1040–1147) Khurasanids (1059-1158) Almohads (f. 1130, r. 1147–1269) Hafsids (1229–1574) Ziyyanids (1235–1556) Marinids (f. 1244, r. 1269–1465) Wattasids (1472–1554) Saadi (f. 1509, r. 1554–1659) Kingdom of Ait Abbas
Kingdom of Ait Abbas
(f. 1510, r. 1510–1872) Kuku Sultanate (1515-1638) Alaouites (f. 1631, r. 1666–present) Husainids (1705–1957) Karamanli (1711–1835) Senussi

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