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Bannaventa
Bannaventa
was a Romano-British fortified town[1] which was situated on the Roman road
Roman road
of Watling Street, which today is known as the A5 trunk road. Bannaventa
Bannaventa
is 1 mile (1.6 km) northeast of the village of Norton in the English county of Northamptonshire. The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
grid reference for the centre of the town is SP612645.[2]

Contents

1 Iter II (Watling Street) 2 Name 3 Description

3.1 Rediscovery

4 Confusion with Saint Patrick's birthplace 5 References 6 External links

Iter II (Watling Street)[edit] The road where Bannaventa
Bannaventa
was located is thought to be the first road constructed by the Romans in Britain. It begins in Portus Ritupis (now Richborough) in the county of Kent
Kent
and runs in a north westerly direction linking many Roman settlements and towns along its route. At Viroconium (now Wroxeter
Wroxeter
in Shropshire), the road branched with one route going to Deva Victrix
Deva Victrix
(now Chester) and the other into Wales. Bannaventa
Bannaventa
was a small fortified town on this road and was 10.9 miles north west of the Roman town of Lactodorum
Lactodorum
(now Towcester).17.3 miles to the north west was the Roman settlement of Venonis (now Wigston Parva) where Watling street is intersected by the Fosse Way. Name[edit] Bannaventa
Bannaventa
is derived from Brittonic *bannā "peak, horn, hill" (cf. Modern Welsh ban, "top, tip, point, summit, crest, peak, beacon, height, pinnacle, turret, hill, mountain, bare hill")[3] and *wentā, of obscure origin, but perhaps "place of sacrifice"[4][5] or simply "place, field" (as in Welsh cad-went "battle-field")[6][7] Mention of the settlement can be found in Emperor Antoninus Pius’s Itinerarium, Iter Britanniarum (The Road Routes of Antoninus Augustus).[8] The extracts are as follows:

Iter 2, Venone XII, Benaventa XVII, Lactodorum
Lactodorum
XII. Iter 6, Lactodorum
Lactodorum
XVI, Isannavaria XII, Tripontium
Tripontium
XII. Iter 8, Venone XII, Benaventa XVIII, Magiovinter XXVIII.

The translation of these place names are as follows although Isannavantia is assumed to be Bannaventa.

Venone = High Cross, Wigston Parva, Leicestershire Isannavantia = Bannaventa Tripontium
Tripontium
= Cave's Inn, Warwickshire Magiovinter = Dropshort, Buckinghamshire

Description[edit]

A coin discovered at the site

Bannaventa
Bannaventa
was a posting station for Roman travellers and would have operated along the lines of the Coaching towns of a later period along Watling street. The town would have been a vital part of the road infrastructure of Roman Britain. The Fortified town would provide a safe, warm resting place where provisions for the journey could be purchased and horses and other livestock could be safely stabled overnight. The town would also provide some protection for the wider population in the vicinity in times of danger. In close proximity of the town there are several other Roman sites which are connected with Bannaventa. These include the remains of a villa on the summit of near-by Borough Hill,[9] another smaller settlement between Thrupp lodge and Thrupp Grounds (SP 599651)[10] and various other small homesteads have been located at grid references SP613638, SP608649 and another Roman villa
Roman villa
at SP605649.[11] Rediscovery[edit] It was not until the early 18th century that the site of Bannaventa was positively identified. Previously, sites at near-by Weedon Bec, Daventry- Borough Hill
Borough Hill
and even Northampton
Northampton
had been suggested.[12] There have been many archaeological finds across the site including the discovery of a skeleton and numerous cremations in a Roman burial ground a little south of the boundary of the fortifications. Other discoveries include Constantinian coins, some foundations, stonework, and pottery; most were found in the early 18th century and they led to the definitive location of the town.[13] More finds in the 20th century have been discovered and are listed below:

View from the North West corner of Bannaventa

A number of rubbish pits dating from the 1st and 2nd century In 1900, Roman coins of Victorinus
Victorinus
and Samian ware, remnants of buildings including wall plaster, rotten wood, roof slates, and a cobbled floor. In 1922 Roman coins including a Sestertius
Sestertius
of Hadrian. In 1957 a Large Nene Valley
Nene Valley
beaker, large painted pot, part of a glass bowl. Fragments of a black Samian pot plus many other artefacts.

In 1970 the site was photographed from the air. This revealed the position of Roman Watling Street
Watling Street
as it bisected the town, and the outline of the town lying to the west of the A5.[14] The settlement was enclosed by an irregular quadrilateral shape with broad rounded corners, bounded by a series of three sets of banks and ditches. The enclosed area covered some 13.5 acres (55,000 m²). Inside the enclosure evidence has been found of the wooden buildings which made up most of the town. Nothing obviously Roman now remains above ground. Confusion with Saint Patrick's birthplace[edit] Saint Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, tells us in his Confession that he had been born in a settlement called Bannavem Taburniae.[15] The location is unknown, but the first part of the name can probably be read as Bannaventa. This led at least one local historian to guess that Patrick was born at the Roman town described above.[16] However an early Life of Patrick describes his birthplace as "near the western sea", as indeed we should expect, as he was carried into slavery in Ireland by Irish raiders. The name of Patrick's birthplace incorporated some such word as "Taburniae", probably to distinguish it from the Bannaventa
Bannaventa
now in Northamptonshire.[17] References[edit]

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 October 2004. Retrieved 25 October 2004.  Description and name given. roman-britain.org ^ 'OS' Explorer Map, Rugby & Daventry
Daventry
222, ISBN 978-0-319-23734-2 ^ Delamarre, Xavier, Noms de lieux celtiques de l'Europe ancienne (−500 / +500), Errance Paris, 2012, p. 70-71. ^ Delamarre, Xavier, Noms de lieux celtiques de l'Europe ancienne (−500 / +500), Errance Paris, 2012, p. 71; p. 263. ^ Xavier Delamarre, "Notes d'onomastique vieille-celtique", Keltische Forschungen 5, 2010–2012, pp. 99–138. ^ Zair, Nicholas, The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Celtic, Brill, 2012, p. 192, 199. ^ Schumacher, Stefan, Die keltischen Primärverben: ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon, Innsbrucker Beiträge zür Sprachwissenschaft, 2004, p. 368. ^ Borough Hill
Borough Hill
(Daventry) and its History by William Edgar, Page 53 ASIN: B001075ZNY ^ Borough Hill
Borough Hill
(Daventry) and its History by William Edgar, Page 39 ASIN: B001075ZNY ^ An Inventory of Archaeological Sites in North West Northamptonshire, Page 154, Fig 118. ISBN 0-11-700900-8 ^ An Inventory of Archaeological Sites in North West Northamptonshire, Page 153, Fig 116. ISBN 0-11-700900-8 ^ Borough Hill
Borough Hill
(Daventry) and its History by William Edgar, Page 54, Discussion on the Location. ASIN: B001075ZNY ^ An Inventory of Archaeological Sites in North West Northamptonshire, Page 150 . ISBN 0-11-700900-8 ^ 1970 Air Photographs taken by J.K.S. St Joseph, Cambridge University Air Photographs ^ Confessio of St Patrick. ^ Borough Hill
Borough Hill
(Daventry) and its History by William Edgar, Page 57 ^ A. L. F. Rivet and Colin Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain (1979), 511–512

Tripontium, by Jack Lucas FSA (1997) ISBN 0-9531265-0-1

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bannaventa.

Roman-Britain.org – info about Bannaventa

Coordinates: 52°16′31″N 1°06′08″W / 52.275291°N 1.102188°W / 52.275291; -1.102188

v t e

Major towns of Roman Britain

Placenames in brackets are either present-day names or counties where the towns formerly existed.

Capitals

Britannia Superior

Londinium
Londinium
(London)

Britannia Inferior

Eboracum
Eboracum
(York)

Camulodunum
Camulodunum
(Colchester)

Surviving

Caesaromagus (Chelmsford) Corinium Dobunnorum
Corinium Dobunnorum
(Cirencester) Deva Victrix
Deva Victrix
(Chester) Durnovaria
Durnovaria
(Dorchester) Durovernum Cantiacorum
Durovernum Cantiacorum
(Canterbury) Glevum
Glevum
(Gloucester) Isca Augusta
Isca Augusta
(Caerleon) Isca Dumnoniorum
Isca Dumnoniorum
(Exeter) Isurium Brigantum
Isurium Brigantum
(Aldborough) Lactodurum
Lactodurum
(Towcester) Lindum Colonia
Lindum Colonia
(Lincoln) Luguvalium
Luguvalium
(Carlisle) Moridunum (Carmarthen) Noviomagus Reginorum
Noviomagus Reginorum
(Chichester) Petuaria (Brough) Ratae Corieltauvorum
Ratae Corieltauvorum
(Leicester) Venta Belgarum
Venta Belgarum
(Winchester) Venta Silurum
Venta Silurum
(Caerwent) Verulamium
Verulamium
(St Albans) Viroconium Cornoviorum
Viroconium Cornoviorum
(Wroxeter)

Extinct

Alchester (Wendlebury) Bannaventa
Bannaventa
(Northamptonshire) Calleva Atrebatum
Calleva Atrebatum
(Hampshire) Cunetio
Cunetio
(Wiltshire) Venta Icenorum
Venta Icenorum
(Norfolk)

List of Roman plac

.