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Provisional Government of Bangladesh

Mukti Bahini

 India

Indian Armed Forces (3–16 December 1971)

 Pakistan

Govt. of East Pakistan

Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces

Paramilitary forces:

Jamaat-e-Islami Nagorik Shanti Committee Razakars Al-Badr Al-Shams

Commanders and leaders

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (President of Provisional Government of Bangladesh) Tajuddin Ahmad (Prime Minister of Provisional Government of Bangladesh) M. A. G. Osmani (Cdr-in-C, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces) Maj. K.M. Shafiullah (Commander, S Force) Maj. Ziaur Rahman (Commander, Z Force) Maj. Khaled Mosharraf (Commander, K Force)

V. V. Giri (President of India) Indira Gandhi (Prime Minister of India) Swaran Singh (External Minister of India) Gen Sam Manekshaw (Chief of Army Staff) Lt.Gen J.S. Arora (GOC-in-C, Eastern Command) Lt.Gen Sagat Singh (GOC-in-C, IV Corps) Maj.Gen Inderjit Singh Gill (Dir., Military Operations) Maj.Gen Om Malhotra (COS, IV Corps) Maj.Gen Farj R. Jacob (COS, Eastern Command) Maj.Gen Shabeg Singh (GOC, Garhwal Rifles/Training MB) V.Adm Nilakanta Krishnan (FOC-in-C, Eastern Naval Command) AM Hari Chand Dewan (AOC-in-C, Eastern Air Command) K. Sankaran Nair (Deputy Director, RA&W)

Abdul Motaleb Malik (Governor of East Pakistan) Ghulam Azam (Chair, Nagorik Shanti Committee) Motiur Rahman Nizami ( Emir
Emir
of Jamaat-e-Islami) Abdul Quader Molla (Leader, Al-Badr) Abul Kalam Azad (Leader, Razakar) Fazlul Qadir Chaudhry (Leader, Al-Shams)

Yahya Khan (President of Pakistan) Nurul Amin (Prime Minister of Pakistan) Gen. A.H. Khan (Chief of Staff, Army GHQ) Lt.Gen A.A.K. Niazi  (Commander, Eastern Command) MGen Rao Farman Ali  (Mil.Adv., Govt. EPk) MGen Khadim Hussain  (GOC, 14th Infantry
Infantry
Division) RAdm Moh'd Shariff  (Cdr, Eastern Naval Command) Capt. Ahmad Zamir  (CO, Pakistan
Pakistan
Marines East) Cdr Zafar Muhammad † (CO, PNS Ghazi) Air Cdre Inamul Haque  (AOC, Eastern Air Command) Air Cdre Mitty Masud (AOC, Eastern Air Cmnd. (1969–71))

Units involved

175,000[2][3] 250,000[2] ~365,000 regular troops (~97,000+ in East Pakistan)[2] ~25,000 militiamen[4]

Casualties and losses

~30,000 killed[5][6] 1,426–1,525 killed[7] 3,611–4,061 wounded[7] ~8,000 killed ~10,000 wounded 90,000—93,000 captured[8] (including 79,676 troops and 10,324—12,192 local militiamen)[7][9][10]

Civilian death:[6] Estimates range between 300,000 and 3 million.

v t e

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War

Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
resistance

Searchlight Jackpot Barisal Kamalpur Daruin Nakshi Border Outpost Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway Goalhati Dhalai Border Outpost Garibpur§ Gazipur§ Sylhet§ Kushtia Ghasipur Bogra§

Indian intervention

Cactus-Lilly Chengiz Khan Jackpot‡ PNS Ghazi Trident Python Atgram Basantar Boyra Chamb Dhalai Hilli‡ Longewala Sylhet‡ Meghna Heli Bridge Tangail Air War‡ Naval War

1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Genocide

Dhaka
Dhaka
University Shankharipara Jinjira Akhira Jathibhanga Demra Chuknagar Madhyapara Bakhrabad Burunga

Systematic events

Killing of intellectuals Rape Provisional Government Refugees in India Instrument of Surrender

§ indicates events in the internal resistance movement linked to the Indo-Pakistani War. ‡ indicates events in the Indo-Pakistani War
War
linked to the internal resistance movement in Bangladesh.

Part of a series on the

History of Bangladesh

Etymology Timeline Traditional Urheimat

Ancient

Neolithic, c. 7600 – c. 3300 BCE Bronze Age, c. 3300 – c. 1200 BCE Iron Age, c. 1200 – c. 200 BCE

Janapada, c. 1200 – c. 600 BCE Northern Black Polished Ware, c. 700 – c. 200 BCE Pundra Kingdom, c. 700 – c. 200 BCE

Bengal in Mahabharata, c. 400 – c. 325 BCE Gangaridai
Gangaridai
Kingdom, c. 350 – c. 325 BCE Mauryan Empire, c. 325 – c. 185 BCE Samatata
Samatata
Kingdom, c. 232 BCE – c. 800 AD Shunga-Kushan Period, c. 185 BCE – c. 75 AD Southwestern Silk Road, c. 114 BCE – c. 1450 AD Indo-Roman trade relations, c. 30 BCE – c. 600 AD

Classical

Gupta Empire, c. 240 – c. 550 AD Sylhet-Assam Varmans, c. 350 – c. 650 Gauda Kingdom, c. 590 – c. 626 Khadga dynasty, c. 650 – c. 750 Pala Empire, c. 750 – c. 1100 Arrival of Islam, c. 800 – c. 1050 Harikela
Harikela
Kingdom, c. 900 – c. 1050

Candra dynasty, c. 900 – c. 1050

Sena dynasty, c. 1070 – c. 1320 Deva dynasty, c. 1100 – c. 1250

Medieval

Delhi Sultanate, c. 1204 – c. 1338

Mamluk Dynasty Khalji Dynasty Tugluq Dynasty

Sonargaon
Sonargaon
Sultanate, c. 1338 – c. 1352 Bengal Sultanate, c. 1352 – c. 1576

Ilyas Shahi dynasty Hussain Shahi dynasty Karrani dynasty

Suri Dynasty, c. 1540 – c. 1556 Twelve Bhuyans, c. 1550 – c. 1620 Porto Grande de Bengala, c. 1528 – c. 1666 Chittagong-Arakan Kingdom, c. 1530 – c. 1666 Mughal Empire, c. 1576 – c. 1717

Bengal Subah

Modern

Nawabs of Bengal, c. 1717 – c. 1757 Company Raj, c. 1757 – c. 1858 Faraizi Movement, c. 1818 – c. 1884 The Great Rebellion, c. 1857 – c. 1858 British Raj, c. 1858 – c. 1947

Bengal Renaissance Eastern Bengal and Assam Prime Minister of Bengal

East Bengal, c. 1947 – c. 1955

Bengali Language Movement

East Pakistan, c. 1955 – c. 1971

Six Point Movement 1969 uprising in East Pakistan Pakistani general election, 1970

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War, c. 1971

Declaration of Independence Provisional Government of Bangladesh 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Genocide Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces

Bangladeshi Republic, c. 1972 – present

Related articles

Timeline of Bangladeshi history Bangladeshi art History of Bengali literature

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
portal

v t e

The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War[a] (Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho), also known as the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
War
War
of Independence, or simply the Liberation War
War
in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan
East Pakistan
during the 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
genocide. It resulted in the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The war began after the Pakistani military junta based in West Pakistan
Pakistan
launched Operation Searchlight
Operation Searchlight
against the people of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
on the night of 25 March 1971. It pursued the systematic elimination of nationalist Bengali civilians, students, intelligentsia, religious minorities and armed personnel. The junta annulled the results of the 1970 elections and arrested Prime minister-designate Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The war ended on 16 December 1971 after West Pakistan
Pakistan
surrendered. Rural and urban areas across East Pakistan
East Pakistan
saw extensive military operations and air strikes to suppress the tide of civil disobedience that formed following the 1970 election stalemate. The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army, which had the backing of Islamists, created radical religious militias – the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams – to assist it during raids on the local populace.[13][14][15][16][17] Urdu-speaking Biharis
Biharis
in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(ethnic minority) were also in support of Pakistani military. Members of the Pakistani military and supporting militias engaged in mass murder, deportation and genocidal rape. The capital Dhaka
Dhaka
was the scene of numerous massacres, including the Operation Searchlight and Dhaka
Dhaka
University massacre. An estimated 10 million Bengali refugees fled to neighboring India, while 30 million were internally displaced.[18] Sectarian violence
Sectarian violence
broke out between Bengalis and Urdu-speaking immigrants. An academic consensus prevails that the atrocities committed by the Pakistani military were a genocide. The Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence
Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence
was proclaimed from Chittagong
Chittagong
by members of the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
– the national liberation army formed by Bengali military, paramilitary and civilians. The East Bengal Regiment and the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Rifles played a crucial role in the resistance. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani
M. A. G. Osmani
and eleven sector commanders, the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces waged a mass guerrilla war against the Pakistani military. They liberated numerous towns and cities in the initial months of the conflict. The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army regained momentum in the monsoon. Bengali guerrillas carried out widespread sabotage, including Operation Jackpot
Operation Jackpot
against the Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy. The nascent Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Air Force flew sorties against Pakistani military bases. By November, the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
forces restricted the Pakistani military to its barracks during the night. They secured control of most parts of the countryside.[19] The Provisional Government of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was formed on 17 April 1971 in Mujibnagar
Mujibnagar
and moved to Calcutta as a government in exile. Bengali members of the Pakistani civil, military and diplomatic corps defected to the Bangladeshi provisional government. Thousands of Bengali families were interned in West Pakistan, from where many escaped to Afghanistan. Bengali cultural activists operated the clandestine Free Bengal Radio Station. The plight of millions of war-ravaged Bengali civilians caused worldwide outrage and alarm. The Indian state led by Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
provided substantial diplomatic, economic and military support to Bangladeshi nationalists. British, Indian and American musicians organised the world's first benefit concert in New York City to support the Bangladeshi people. Senator Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
in the United States led a congressional campaign for an end to Pakistani military persecution; while US diplomats in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
strongly dissented with the Nixon administration's close ties to the Pakistani military dictator Yahya Khan. India
India
joined the war on 3 December 1971, after Pakistan
Pakistan
launched preemptive air strikes on North India. The subsequent Indo-Pakistani War
War
witnessed engagements on two war fronts. With air supremacy achieved in the eastern theatre and the rapid advance of the Allied Forces of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and India, Pakistan
Pakistan
surrendered in Dacca on 16 December 1971. The war changed the geopolitical landscape of South Asia, with the emergence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as the seventh-most populous country in the world. Due to complex regional alliances, the war was a major episode in Cold War
Cold War
tensions involving the United States, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the People's Republic of China. The majority of member states in the United Nations recognised Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as a sovereign nation in 1972.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Language controversy 1.2 Disparities 1.3 Religious and cultural differences 1.4 Political differences 1.5 Response to the 1970 cyclone 1.6 Operation Searchlight 1.7 Declaration of independence

2 Liberation war

2.1 March–June 2.2 June–September 2.3 October–December

3 Indian involvement

3.1 Air and naval war

4 Surrender and aftermath

4.1 Reaction in West Pakistan
Pakistan
to the war

5 Atrocities 6 Foreign reaction

6.1 United Nations 6.2 Bhutan 6.3 US and USSR 6.4 China

7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Background

Map of the British Raj
British Raj
in 1909 showing Muslim
Muslim
majority areas in green, including modern-day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
on the east and Pakistan
Pakistan
on the west.

Prior to the Partition of British India, the Lahore Resolution initially envisaged separate Muslim-majority states in the eastern and northwestern zones of British India. A proposal for an independent United Bengal
United Bengal
was mooted by Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy in 1946, but was opposed by the colonial authorities. The East Pakistan
Pakistan
Renaissance Society advocated the creation of a sovereign state in eastern British India. Eventually, political negotiations led, in August 1947, to the official birth of two states, Pakistan
Pakistan
and India,[20] giving presumably permanent homes for Muslims and Hindus respectively following the departure of the British. The Dominion of Pakistan
Pakistan
comprised two geographically and culturally separate areas to the east and the west with India
India
in between.[21] The western zone was popularly (and for a period, also officially) termed West Pakistan
Pakistan
and the eastern zone (modern-day Bangladesh) was initially termed East Bengal and later, East Pakistan. Although the population of the two zones was close to equal, political power was concentrated in West Pakistan
Pakistan
and it was widely perceived that East Pakistan
East Pakistan
was being exploited economically, leading to many grievances. Administration of two discontinuous territories was also seen as a challenge.[22] On 25 March 1971, after an election won by an East Pakistani political party (the Awami League) was ignored by the ruling (West Pakistani) establishment, rising political discontent and cultural nationalism in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
was met by brutal[23] suppressive force from the ruling elite of the West Pakistan
Pakistan
establishment,[24] in what came to be termed Operation Searchlight.[25] The violent crackdown by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army[26] led to Awami League
Awami League
leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declaring East Pakistan's independence as the state of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
on 26 March 1971.[27] Most Bengalis threw their support behind this move although Islamists and Biharis
Biharis
opposed this and sided with the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army instead.[28] Pakistani President Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan ordered the Pakistani military to restore the Pakistani government's authority, beginning the civil war.[27] The war led to a sea of refugees (estimated at the time to be about 10 million)[29][30] flooding into the eastern provinces of India.[31] Facing a mounting humanitarian and economic crisis, India
India
started actively aiding and organising the Bangladeshi resistance army known as the Mukti Bahini. Language controversy Main article: Language Movement

Language movement memorial

In 1948, Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
declared that "Urdu, and only Urdu" would be the federal language of Pakistan.[32][33] However, Urdu
Urdu
was historically prevalent only in the north, central, and western region of the subcontinent; whereas in East Bengal, the native language was Bengali, one of the two most easterly branches of the Indo-European languages.[34] The Bengali-speaking people of Pakistan constituted over 30% of the country's population. The government stand was widely viewed as an attempt to suppress the culture of the eastern wing. The people of East Bengal
East Bengal
demanded that their language be given federal status alongside Urdu
Urdu
and English. The Language Movement
Language Movement
began in 1948, as civil society protested the removal of the Bengali script from currency and stamps, which were in place since the British Raj. The movement reached its climax in 1952, when on 21 February, the police fired on protesting students and civilians, causing several deaths. The day is revered in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as the Language Movement
Language Movement
Day. Later, in memory of the deaths in 1952, UNESCO
UNESCO
declared 21 February as International Mother Language Day
International Mother Language Day
in November 1999.[35] Disparities Although East Pakistan
East Pakistan
had a larger population, West Pakistan dominated the divided country politically and received more money from the common budget.

Year Spending on West Pakistan
Pakistan
(in millions of Pakistani rupees) Spending on East Pakistan
East Pakistan
(in millions of Pakistani rupees) Amount spent on East as percentage of West

1950–55 11,290 5,240 46.4

1955–60 16,550 5,240 31.7

1960–65 33,550 14,040 41.8

1965–70 51,950 21,410 41.2

Total 113,340 45,930 40.5

Source: Reports of the Advisory Panels for the Fourth Five Year Plan 1970–75, Vol. I, published by the planning commission of Pakistan.

Bengalis were under-represented in the Pakistan
Pakistan
military. Officers of Bengali origin in the different wings of the armed forces made up just 5% of overall force by 1965; of these, only a few were in command positions, with the majority in technical or administrative posts.[36] West Pakistanis believed that Bengalis were not "martially inclined" unlike Pashtuns
Pashtuns
and Punjabis; the "Martial races" notion was dismissed as ridiculous and humiliating by Bengalis.[36] Moreover, despite huge defence spending, East Pakistan
East Pakistan
received none of the benefits, such as contracts, purchasing and military support jobs. The Indo-Pakistani War
War
of 1965 over Kashmir
Kashmir
also highlighted the sense of military insecurity among Bengalis, as only an under-strength infantry division and 15 combat aircraft without tank support were in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
to thwart any Indian retaliations during the conflict.[37][38] Religious and cultural differences The only common bond between the two Pakistani wings was religion. But there were differences even in religious practices. Bengali Muslims tended to be less conservative in religious zeal, and had come to accept their Hindu minority and neighbours despite some communal clashes.[39] Many Bengali Muslims strongly objected to the Islamist paradigm imposed by the Pakistani state.[40] Most members of West Pakistan's ruling elite also belonged to a liberal society, yet understood a common faith as the mobilising factor behind Pakistan's creation and the subsuming of Pakistan's multiple identities into one.[40] Cultural and linguistic differences between the two wings outweighed any religious unity. The Bengalis were very proud of their culture and language which, with its Eastern Nagari
Nagari
script and Pali
Pali
vocabulary, was unacceptable to the West Pakistani elite, who considered it to smack of Hindu culture.[41] The Bangladeshi liberation struggle against Pakistan
Pakistan
was led by secular leaders.[42] With this reality and the feeling of Islamic solidarity in the background, Islamists in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
viewed Bengali nationalism
Bengali nationalism
as unacceptable and instead sided with the Pakistani Army's efforts to crush the Bengali independence movement.[43] Secularists hailed the Bangladeshi victory as the triumph of secular Bengali nationalism
Bengali nationalism
over religion-centred Pakistani nationalism.[44] Most of the politically-active ulama of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
either remained neutral or sided with the Pakistani state, since they perceived the break-up of Pakistan
Pakistan
as a loss for Islam.[45] Political differences Although East Pakistan
East Pakistan
accounted for a slight majority of the country's population,[46] political power remained in the hands of West Pakistanis. Since a straightforward system of representation based on population would have concentrated political power in East Pakistan, the West Pakistani establishment came up with the "One Unit" scheme, where all of West Pakistan
Pakistan
was considered one province. This was solely to counterbalance the East wing's votes. After the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, Pakistan's first prime minister, in 1951, political power began to devolve to the new President of Pakistan, which replaced the office of Governor General when Pakistan
Pakistan
became a republic, and, eventually, the military. The nominal elected chief executive, the Prime Minister, was frequently sacked by the establishment, acting through the President. The East Pakistanis observed that the West Pakistani establishment would swiftly depose any East Pakistanis elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, such as Khawaja Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali Bogra, or Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. Their suspicions were further aggravated by the military dictatorships of Ayub Khan (27 October 1958 – 25 March 1969) and Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan
(25 March 1969 – 20 December 1971), both West Pakistanis. The situation reached a climax in 1970, when the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Awami League, the largest East Pakistani political party, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, won a landslide victory in the national elections. The party won 167 of the 169 seats allotted to East Pakistan, and thus a majority of the 313 seats in the National Assembly. This gave the Awami League
Awami League
the constitutional right to form a government. However, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
(a former Foreign Minister), the leader of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Peoples Party, refused to allow Rahman to become the Prime Minister of Pakistan.[47] Instead, he proposed the idea of having two Prime Ministers, one for each wing. The proposal elicited outrage in the east wing, already chafing under the other constitutional innovation, the " One Unit
One Unit
scheme". Bhutto also refused to accept Rahman's Six Points. On 3 March 1971, the two leaders of the two wings along with the President General Yahya Khan met in Dacca to decide the fate of the country. After their discussions yielded no satisfactory results, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman called for a nationwide strike. Bhutto feared a civil war, therefore, he sent his trusted companion, Mubashir Hassan.[47] A message was conveyed, and Rahman decided to meet Bhutto.[47] Upon his arrival, Rahman met with Bhutto and both agreed to form a coalition government with Rahman as Premier and Bhutto as President.[47] However, the military was unaware of these developments, and Bhutto increased his pressure on Rahman to reach a decision.[47] On 7 March 1971, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(soon to be the prime minister) delivered a speech at the Racecourse Ground (now called the Suhrawardy Udyan). In this speech he mentioned a further four-point condition to consider at the National Assembly Meeting on 25 March:

The immediate lifting of martial law. Immediate withdrawal of all military personnel to their barracks. An inquiry into the loss of life. Immediate transfer of power to the elected representative of the people before the assembly meeting 25 March.

He urged his people to turn every house into a fort of resistance. He closed his speech saying, "Our struggle is for our freedom. Our struggle is for our independence." This speech is considered the main event that inspired the nation to fight for its independence. General Tikka Khan was flown into Dacca to become Governor of East Bengal. East-Pakistani judges, including Justice Siddique, refused to swear him in. Between 10 and 13 March, Pakistan
Pakistan
International Airlines cancelled all their international routes to urgently fly "government passengers" to Dacca. These "government passengers" were almost all Pakistani soldiers in civilian dress. MV Swat, a ship of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy carrying ammunition and soldiers, was harboured in Chittagong
Chittagong
Port, but the Bengali workers and sailors at the port refused to unload the ship. A unit of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Rifles refused to obey commands to fire on the Bengali demonstrators, beginning a mutiny among the Bengali soldiers. Response to the 1970 cyclone The 1970 Bhola cyclone
1970 Bhola cyclone
made landfall on the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
coastline during the evening of 12 November, around the same time as a local high tide,[48] killing an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 people. Though the exact death toll is not known, it is considered the deadliest tropical cyclone on record.[49] A week after the landfall, President Khan conceded that his government had made "slips" and "mistakes" in its handling of the relief efforts due to a lack of understanding of the magnitude of the disaster.[50] A statement released by eleven political leaders in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
ten days after the cyclone hit charged the government with "gross neglect, callous and utter indifference". They also accused the president of playing down the magnitude of the problem in news coverage.[51] On 19 November, students held a march in Dacca protesting the slowness of the government's response.[52] Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani
Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani
addressed a rally of 50,000 people on 24 November, where he accused the president of inefficiency and demanded his resignation. As the conflict between East and West Pakistan
Pakistan
developed in March, the Dacca offices of the two government organisations directly involved in relief efforts were closed for at least two weeks, first by a general strike and then by a ban on government work in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
by the Awami League. With this increase in tension, foreign personnel were evacuated over fears of violence. Relief work continued in the field, but long-term planning was curtailed.[53] This conflict widened into the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War
War
in December and concluded with the creation of Bangladesh. This was one of the first times that a natural event helped trigger a civil war.[54] Operation Searchlight Main article: Operation Searchlight

Location of Bengali and Pakistani military units during Operation Searchlight, March 1971

A planned military pacification carried out by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army – codenamed Operation Searchlight
Operation Searchlight
– started on 25 March 1971 to curb the Bengali independence movement[25] by taking control of the major cities on 26 March, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military,[55] within one month. The Pakistani state claimed to justify starting Operation Searchlight
Operation Searchlight
on the basis of anti-Bihari violence by Bengalis in early March.[56] Before the beginning of the operation, all foreign journalists were systematically deported from East Pakistan.[57] The main phase of Operation Searchlight
Operation Searchlight
ended with the fall of the last major town in Bengali hands in mid-May. The operation also began the 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
genocide. These systematic killings served only to enrage the Bengalis, which ultimately resulted in the secession of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
later in the same year. Bangladeshi media and reference books in English have published casualty figures which vary greatly, from 5,000–35,000 in Dacca, and 200,000–3,000,000 for Bangladesh as a whole,[58] although independent researchers, including the British Medical Journal, have put forward the figure ranging from between 125,000 and 505,000.[59] American political scientist Rudolph Rummel puts total deaths at 1.5 million.[60] The atrocities have been referred to as acts of genocide.[61] According to the Asia Times,[62]

At a meeting of the military top brass, Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan
declared: "Kill 3 million of them and the rest will eat out of our hands." Accordingly, on the night of 25 March, the Pakistani Army launched Operation Searchlight to "crush" Bengali resistance in which Bengali members of military services were disarmed and killed, students and the intelligentsia systematically liquidated and able-bodied Bengali males just picked up and gunned down.

Although the violence focused on the provincial capital, Dacca, it also affected all parts of East Pakistan. Residential halls of the University of Dacca were particularly targeted. The only Hindu residential hall – Jagannath Hall
Jagannath Hall
– was destroyed by the Pakistani armed forces, and an estimated 600 to 700 of its residents were murdered. The Pakistani army denied any cold blooded killings at the university, though the Hamoodur Rahman Commission
Hamoodur Rahman Commission
in Pakistan concluded that overwhelming force was used at the university. This fact, and the massacre at Jagannath Hall
Jagannath Hall
and nearby student dormitories of Dacca University, are corroborated by a videotape secretly filmed by Professor Nurul Ula of the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
University of Engineering and Technology, whose residence was directly opposite the student dormitories.[63] The scale of the atrocities was first made clear in the West when Anthony Mascarenhas, a Pakistani journalist who had been sent to the province by the military authorities to write a story favourable to Pakistan's actions, instead fled to the United Kingdom and, on 13 June 1971, published an article in The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
describing the systematic killings by the military. The BBC
BBC
wrote: "There is little doubt that Mascarenhas' reportage played its part in ending the war. It helped turn world opinion against Pakistan
Pakistan
and encouraged India
India
to play a decisive role", with Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi herself stating that Mascarenhas' article has led her "to prepare the ground for India's armed intervention".[64] Hindu areas suffered particularly heavy blows. By midnight, Dacca was burning, especially the Hindu-dominated eastern part of the city. Time magazine reported on 2 August 1971, "The Hindus, who account for three-fourths of the refugees and a majority of the dead, have borne the brunt of the Pakistani military hatred."[65] Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
was arrested by the Pakistani Army. Yahya Khan appointed Brigadier (later General) Rahimuddin Khan
Rahimuddin Khan
to preside over a special tribunal prosecuting Rahman with multiple charges. The tribunal's sentence was never made public, but Yahya caused the verdict to be held in abeyance in any case. Other Awami League
Awami League
leaders were arrested as well, while a few fled Dacca to avoid arrest. The Awami League
Awami League
was banned by General Yahya Khan.[66] Declaration of independence See also: Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence
Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence
and 7th March Speech of Bangabandhu The violence unleashed by the Pakistani forces on 25 March 1971 proved the last straw to the efforts to negotiate a settlement. Following these outrages, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
signed an official declaration that read:

Today Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is a sovereign and independent country. On Thursday night, West Pakistani armed forces suddenly attacked the police barracks at Razarbagh and the EPR headquarters at Pilkhana in Dacca. Many innocent and unarmed have been killed in Dhaka
Dhaka
city and other places of Bangladesh. Violent clashes between E.P.R. and Police on the one hand and the armed forces of Pakistan
Pakistan
on the other, are going on. The Bengalis are fighting the enemy with great courage for an independent Bangladesh. May Allah aid us in our fight for freedom. Joy Bangla [May Bangladesh
Bangladesh
be victorious].

Sheikh Mujib also called upon the people to resist the occupation forces through a radio message. Rahman was arrested on the night of 25–26 March 1971 at about 1:30 am (as per Radio Pakistan's news on 29 March 1971).

An iconic poster by Quamrul Hassan
Quamrul Hassan
on General Yahya Khan, representing the Pakistani military junta as demons.[67]

A telegram containing the text of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's declaration reached some students in Chittagong. The message was translated to Bengali by Dr. Manjula Anwar. The students failed to secure permission from higher authorities to broadcast the message from the nearby Agrabad Station of Pakistan
Pakistan
Broadcasting Corporation. However, the message was read several times by the independent Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendro Radio established by some rebel Bangali Radio workers in Kalurghat. Major
Major
Ziaur Rahman
Ziaur Rahman
was requested to provide security of the station and he also read the Declaration on 27 March 1971.[68] Major Ziaur Rahman
Ziaur Rahman
broadcast announcement of the declaration of independence on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

This is Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra. I, Major
Major
Ziaur Rahman, at the direction of Bangobondhu Mujibur Rahman, hereby declare that Independent People's Republic of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has been established. At his direction, I have taken the command as the temporary Head of the Republic. In the name of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, I call upon all Bengalees to rise against the attack by the West Pakistani Army. We shall fight to the last to free our motherland. Victory is, by the Grace of Allah, ours. Joy Bangla.[69]

The Kalurghat Radio Station's transmission capability was limited, but the message was picked up by a Japanese ship in the Bay of Bengal. It was then re-transmitted by Radio Australia[70] and later by the British Broadcasting Corporation. M. A. Hannan, an Awami League
Awami League
leader from Chittagong, is said to have made the first announcement of the declaration of independence over the radio on 26 March 1971.[71] 26 March 1971 is considered the official Independence Day of Bangladesh, and the name Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was in effect henceforth. In July 1971, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
openly referred to the former East Pakistan
East Pakistan
as Bangladesh.[72] Some Pakistani and Indian officials continued to use the name "East Pakistan" until 16 December 1971. Liberation war Main articles: Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
and Timeline of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War March–June At first, resistance was spontaneous and disorganised, and was not expected to be prolonged.[73] However, when the Pakistani Army cracked down upon the population, resistance grew. The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
became increasingly active. The Pakistani military sought to quell them, but increasing numbers of Bengali soldiers defected to this underground " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
army". These Bengali units slowly merged into the Mukti Bahini and bolstered their weaponry with supplies from India. Pakistan responded by airlifting in two infantry divisions and reorganising their forces. They also raised paramilitary forces of Razakars, Al-Badrs and Al-Shams (who were mostly members of the Muslim
Muslim
League and other Islamist groups), as well as other Bengalis who opposed independence, and Bihari Muslims who had settled during the time of partition. On 17 April 1971, a provisional government was formed in Meherpur District in western Bangladesh
Bangladesh
bordering India
India
with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who was in prison in Pakistan, as President, Syed Nazrul Islam as Acting President, Tajuddin Ahmad as Prime Minister, and General Muhammad Ataul Ghani Osmani as Commander-in-Chief, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces. As fighting grew between the occupation army and the Bengali Mukti Bahini, an estimated 10 million Bengalis sought refuge in the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal.[74] June–September

The eleven sectors during the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War.

Advertisement for former Beatle George Harrison's "Bangla Desh" single, released in July 1971 to raise international awareness and funds for the millions of Bangladeshi refugees.

See also: List of sectors in the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War
War
and Military plans of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Bangladesh
Bangladesh
forces command was set up on 11 July, with Col. M. A. G. Osmani as commander-in-chief (C-in-C) with the status of Cabinet Minister, Lt. Col., Abdur Rabb as chief of Staff (COS), Group Captain A K Khandker as Deputy Chief of Staff (DCOS) and Major
Major
A R Chowdhury as Assistant Chief of Staff (ACOS). General Osmani had differences of opinion with the Indian leadership regarding the role of the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
in the conflict. Indian leadership initially envisioned Bengali forces to be trained into a small elite guerrilla force of 8,000 members, led by the surviving East Bengal
East Bengal
Regiment soldiers operating in small cells around Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to facilitate the eventual Indian intervention,[75] but with the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
government in exile, General Osmani favoured a different strategy:[76][77]

Bengali conventional forces would occupy lodgment areas inside Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and then the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
government would request international diplomatic recognition and intervention. Initially Mymensingh
Mymensingh
was picked for this operation, but Gen. Osmani later settled on Sylhet. Sending the maximum number to guerrillas inside Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as soon as possible with the following objectives:[78][79]

Increasing Pakistani casualties through raids and ambush. Cripple economic activity by hitting power stations, railway lines, storage depots and communication networks. Destroy Pakistan
Pakistan
army mobility by blowing up bridges/culverts, fuel depots, trains and river crafts. The strategic objective was to make the Pakistanis spread their forces inside the province, so attacks could be made on isolated Pakistani detachments.

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was divided into eleven sectors in July,[80] each with a commander chosen from defected officers of the Pakistani army who joined the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
to conduct guerrilla operations and train fighters. Most of their training camps were situated near the border area and were operated with assistance from India. The 10th Sector was directly placed under the Commander in Chief (C-in-C) General M. A. G. Osmani and included the Naval Commandos and C-in-C's special force.[81] Three brigades (11 Battalions) were raised for conventional warfare; a large guerrilla force (estimated at 100,000) was trained.[82] Three brigades (eight infantry battalions and three artillery batteries) were put into action between July and September.[83] During June and July, Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
had regrouped across the border with Indian aid through Operation Jackpot
Operation Jackpot
and began sending 2000–5000 guerrillas across the border,[84] the so-called Monsoon
Monsoon
Offensive, which for various reasons (lack of proper training, supply shortage, lack of a proper support network inside Bangladesh) failed to achieve its objectives.[85][86][87] Bengali regular forces also attacked BOPs in Mymensingh, Comilla
Comilla
and Sylhet, but the results were mixed. Pakistani authorities concluded that they had successfully contained the Monsoon
Monsoon
Offensive, which proved a near-accurate observation.[88][89] Guerrilla operations, which slackened during the training phase, picked up after August. Economic and military targets in Dacca were attacked. The major success story was Operation Jackpot, in which naval commandos mined and blew up berthed ships in Chittagong, Mongla, Narayanganj
Narayanganj
and Chandpur on 15 August 1971.[90][91] October–December

Major
Major
battles

Battle of Boyra Battle of Garibpur Battle of Dhalai Battle of Hilli Battle of Kushtia

See also: Mitro Bahini
Mitro Bahini
Order of Battle December 1971; Pakistan
Pakistan
Army order of battle, December 1971; Evolution of Pakistan
Pakistan
Eastern Command plan; and Operation Jackpot Bangladeshi conventional forces attacked border outposts. Kamalpur, Belonia and the Battle of Boyra are a few examples. 90 out of 370 BOPs fell to Bengali forces. Guerrilla attacks intensified, as did Pakistani and Razakar reprisals on civilian populations. Pakistani forces were reinforced by eight battalions from West Pakistan. The Bangladeshi independence fighters even managed to temporarily capture airstrips at Lalmonirhat and Shalutikar.[2] Both of these were used for flying in supplies and arms from India. Pakistan
Pakistan
sent another five battalions from West Pakistan
Pakistan
as reinforcements. Indian involvement

Illustration showing military units and troop movements during the war.

See also: Indo-Pakistani War
War
of 1971

All unprejudiced persons objectively surveying the grim events in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
since March 25 have recognised the revolt of 75 million people, a people who were forced to the conclusion that neither their life, nor their liberty, to say nothing of the possibility of the pursuit of happiness, was available to them. — Indira Gandhi, Letter to Richard Nixon, 15 December 1971

Indira Gandhi

Allied Indian T-55 tanks on their way to Dacca

Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
had concluded that instead of taking in millions of refugees, India
India
would be economically better to go to war against Pakistan.[92] As early as 28 April 1971, the Indian Cabinet had asked General Manekshaw ( Chairman
Chairman
of the Chiefs of Staff Committee) to "Go into East Pakistan".[93] Hostile relations in the past between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
added to India's decision to intervene in Pakistan's civil war. Resultantly, the Indian government decided to support the creation of a separate state for ethnic Bengalis by supporting the Mukti Bahini. RAW helped to organise, train and arm these insurgents. Consequently, the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
succeeded in harassing Pakistani military in East Pakistan, thus creating conditions conducive for a full-scale Indian military intervention in early December.[92] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force (PAF) launched a pre-emptive strike on Indian Air Force bases on 3 December 1971. The attack was modelled on the Israeli Air Force's Operation Focus
Operation Focus
during the Six-Day War, and intended to neutralise the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
planes on the ground. The strike was seen by India
India
as an open act of unprovoked aggression, which marked the official start of the Indo-Pakistani War. As a response to the attack, both India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
formally acknowledged the "existence of a state of war between the two countries" even though neither government had formally issued a declaration of war.[94] Three Indian corps were involved in the liberation of East Pakistan. They were supported by nearly three brigades of Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
fighting alongside them, and many more who were fighting irregularly. That was far superior to the Pakistani army of three divisions.[95] The Indians quickly overran the country, selectively engaging or bypassing heavily defended strongholds. Pakistani forces were unable to effectively counter the Indian attack, as they had been deployed in small units around the border to counter the guerrilla attacks by the Mukti Bahini.[96] Unable to defend Dacca, the Pakistanis surrendered on 16 December 1971. Air and naval war The Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
carried out several sorties against Pakistan, and within a week, IAF aircraft dominated the skies of East Pakistan. It achieved near-total air supremacy by the end of the first week, as the entire Pakistani air contingent in the east, PAF No.14 Squadron, was grounded because of Indian and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
airstrikes at Tejgaon, Kurmitolla, Lal Munir Hat and Shamsher Nagar. Sea Hawks from the carrier INS Vikrant also struck Chittagong, Barisal
Barisal
and Cox's Bazar, destroying the eastern wing of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Navy and effectively blockading the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
ports, thereby cutting off any escape routes for the stranded Pakistani soldiers. The nascent Bangladesh Navy (comprising officers and sailors who defected from the Pakistani Navy) aided the Indians in the marine warfare, carrying out attacks, most notably Operation Jackpot.[97] Surrender and aftermath Further information: Pakistani Instrument of Surrender See also: Delhi Agreement

Signing of Pakistani Instrument of Surrender
Pakistani Instrument of Surrender
by Pakistan's Lt.Gen. A. A. K. Niazi in the presence of Indian military officers in Dhaka
Dhaka
on 16 Dec' 1971.

On 16 December 1971, Lt. Gen Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, CO of Pakistan Army forces located in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
signed the Instrument of Surrender. At the time of surrender only a few countries had provided diplomatic recognition to the new nation. Over 93,000 Pakistani troops surrendered to the Indian forces & Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation forces, making it the largest surrender since World War
War
II,[8][98] although the Pakistani Army had fought gallantly according to Indian Army
Indian Army
Chief Sam Manekshaw.[99] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
sought admission in the UN with most voting in its favour, but China
China
vetoed this as Pakistan
Pakistan
was its key ally.[100] The United States, also a key ally of Pakistan, was one of the last nations to accord Bangladesh
Bangladesh
recognition.[101] To ensure a smooth transition, in 1972 the Simla Agreement
Simla Agreement
was signed between India
India
and Pakistan. The treaty ensured that Pakistan
Pakistan
recognised the independence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in exchange for the return of the Pakistani PoWs. India
India
treated all the PoWs in strict accordance with the Geneva Convention, rule 1925.[102] It released more than 93,000 Pakistani PoWs in five months.[8] Further, as a gesture of goodwill, nearly 200 soldiers who were sought for war crimes by Bengalis were also pardoned by India. The accord also gave back 13,000 km2 (5,019 sq mi) of land that Indian troops had seized in West Pakistan
Pakistan
during the war, though India
India
retained a few strategic areas;[103] most notably Kargil (which would in turn again be the focal point for a war between the two nations in 1999). This was done as a measure of promoting "lasting peace" and was acknowledged by many observers as a sign of maturity by India. However, some in India[104] felt that the treaty had been too lenient to Bhutto, who had pleaded for leniency, arguing that the fragile democracy in Pakistan
Pakistan
would crumble if the accord was perceived as being overly harsh by Pakistanis. Reaction in West Pakistan
Pakistan
to the war Reaction to the defeat and dismemberment of half the nation was a shocking loss to top military and civilians alike. Few had expected that they would lose the formal war in under a fortnight, and there was also unsettlement over what was perceived as a meek surrender of the army in East Pakistan. Yahya Khan's dictatorship collapsed and gave way to Bhutto, who took the opportunity to rise to power. General Niazi, who surrendered along with 93,000 troops, was viewed with suspicion and contempt upon his return to Pakistan. He was shunned and branded a traitor. The war also exposed the shortcomings of Pakistan's declared strategic doctrine that the "defence of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
lay in West Pakistan".[105][106]

Memorial for freedom fighters

Atrocities Main articles: 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
genocide, 1971 killing of Bengali intellectuals, and Rape during the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War During the war there were widespread killings and other atrocities – including the displacement of civilians in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(East Pakistan at the time) and widespread violations of human rights began with the start of Operation Searchlight
Operation Searchlight
on 25 March 1971. Members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias from Jamaat e Islami killed an estimated 300,000[64] to 3,000,000 people and raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.[107][108][109] Some Islamic clerics issued fatwas (a ruling on a point of Islamic law) in support of raping Bengali women, especially Hindu women, as they considered the conflict a holy war.[110] During the war, a fatwa in Pakistan
Pakistan
declared that the Bengali freedom fighters were Hindus and that their women could be taken as "the booty of war".[111]

Rayerbazar killing field photographed immediately after the war, showing dead bodies of intellectuals (image courtesy: Rashid Talukder, 1971)

A large section of the intellectual community of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
were murdered, mostly by the Al-Shams and Al-Badr forces,[112] at the instruction of the Pakistani Army.[113] Just two days before the surrender, on 14 December 1971, Pakistan
Pakistan
Army and Razakar militia (local collaborators) picked up at least 100 physicians, professors, writers and engineers in Dacca, and murdered them, leaving the dead bodies in a mass grave.[114] Many mass graves have been discovered in Bangladesh.[115] The first night of war on Bengalis, which is documented in telegrams from the American Consulate in Dacca to the United States
United States
State Department, saw indiscriminate killings of students of Dacca University and other civilians.[116] Numerous women were tortured, raped and killed during the war; the exact numbers are not known and are a subject of debate. The widespread rape of Bangladeshi women led to birth of thousands of war babies.[117][118][119] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army also kept numerous Bengali women as sex-slaves inside the Dacca Cantonment. Most of the girls were captured from Dacca University and private homes.[120] There was significant sectarian violence not only perpetrated and encouraged by the Pakistani army,[121] but also by Bengali nationalists against non-Bengali minorities, especially Biharis.[122] In June 1971, Bihari representatives stated that 500,000 Biharis
Biharis
were killed by Bengalis.[123] R.J. Rummel gives a prudent estimate of 150,000 killed.[124] On 16 December 2002, the George Washington University's National Security Archive published a collection of declassified documents, consisting mostly of communications between US embassy officials and United States
United States
Information Service centres in Dacca and India, and officials in Washington, D.C.[116] These documents show that US officials working in diplomatic institutions within Bangladesh
Bangladesh
used the terms "selective genocide"[125] and "genocide" (see The Blood Telegram) for information on events they had knowledge of at the time. Genocide
Genocide
is the term that is still used to describe the event in almost every major publication and newspaper in Bangladesh,[126][127] although in Pakistan, the accusations against Pakistani forces continue to be disputed. Foreign reaction

French minister Andre Malraux
Andre Malraux
vowed to fight alongside the Mukti Bahini in the Liberation War.[128][129]

Following Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's declaration of independence in March 1971, a worldwide campaign was undertaken by the Provisional Government of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to drum up political support for the independence of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
as well as humanitarian support for the Bengali people. Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
provided extensive diplomatic and political support to the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
movement. She toured many countries in a bid to create awareness of the Pakistani atrocities against Bengalis. This effort was to prove vital later during the war, in framing the world's context of the war and to justify military action by India.[130] Also, following Pakistan's defeat, it ensured prompt recognition of the newly independent state of Bangladesh. United Nations Though the United Nations condemned the human rights violations during and following Operation Searchlight, it failed to defuse the situation politically before the start of the war. Following India's entry into the war, Pakistan, fearing certain defeat, made urgent appeals to the United Nations to intervene and force India
India
to agree to a ceasefire. The UN Security Council assembled on 4 December 1971 to discuss the hostilities in South Asia. After lengthy discussions on 7 December, the United States
United States
made a resolution for "immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of troops". While supported by the majority, the USSR vetoed the resolution twice. In light of the Pakistani atrocities against Bengalis, the United Kingdom and France abstained on the resolution.[94][131] On 12 December, with Pakistan
Pakistan
facing imminent defeat, the United States requested that the Security Council be reconvened. Pakistan's Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was rushed to New York City to make the case for a resolution on the cease fire. The council continued deliberations for four days. By the time proposals were finalised, Pakistan's forces in the East had surrendered and the war had ended, making the measures merely academic. Bhutto, frustrated by the failure of the resolution and the inaction of the United Nations, ripped up his speech and left the council.[131] Most UN member nations were quick to recognise Bangladesh
Bangladesh
within months of its independence.[130] Bhutan As the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War
War
approached the defeat of the Pakistan Army, the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan
Bhutan
became the first state in the world to recognise the newly independent country on 6 December 1971.[132] Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the first President of Bangladesh visited Bhutan
Bhutan
to attend the coronation of Jigme Singye Wangchuck, the fourth King of Bhutan
Bhutan
in June 1974. US and USSR

Senator Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
led US congressional support for Bangladeshi independence

The Nixon administration
Nixon administration
was widely criticised for its close ties with the military junta led by General Yahya Khan. American diplomats in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
expressed profound dissent in the Blood Telegram.

The US government stood by its old ally Pakistan[133] both politically and materially. US President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and his National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
feared Soviet expansion into South and Southeast Asia. Pakistan
Pakistan
was a close ally of the People's Republic of China, with whom Nixon had been negotiating a rapprochement and which he intended to visit in February 1972. Nixon feared that an Indian invasion of West Pakistan
Pakistan
would mean total Soviet domination of the region, and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States
United States
and the regional position of America's new tacit ally, China. To demonstrate to China
China
the bona fides of the United States as an ally, and in direct violation of the US Congress-imposed sanctions on Pakistan, Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan
Pakistan
and routed them through Jordan and Iran,[134] while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies to Pakistan. The Nixon administration also ignored reports it received of the genocidal activities of the Pakistani Army in East Pakistan, most notably the Blood telegram.[135] Nixon denied getting involved in the situation, saying that it was an internal matter of Pakistan, but when Pakistan's defeat seemed certain, Nixon sent the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal,[136] a move deemed by the Indians as a nuclear threat. Enterprise arrived on station on 11 December 1971. On 6 and 13 December, the Soviet Navy
Soviet Navy
dispatched two groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, from Vladivostok; they trailed US Task Force 74 in the Indian Ocean from 18 December until 7 January 1972.[137] [138][139] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
supported Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Indian armies, as well as the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
during the war, recognising that the independence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
would weaken the position of its rivals – the United States and China. It gave assurances to India
India
that if a confrontation with the United States
United States
or China
China
developed, the USSR would take countermeasures. This was enshrined in the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty signed in August 1971. The Soviets also sent a nuclear submarine to ward off the threat posed by USS Enterprise in the Indian Ocean.[140][141] At the end of the war, the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
countries were among the first to recognise Bangladesh. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
accorded recognition to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
on 25 January 1972.[142] The United States
United States
delayed recognition for some months, before according it on 8 April 1972.[143] China As a long-standing ally of Pakistan, the People's Republic of China reacted with alarm to the evolving situation in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
and the prospect of India
India
invading West Pakistan
Pakistan
and Pakistani-controlled Kashmir. Believing that just such an Indian attack was imminent, Nixon encouraged China
China
to mobilise its armed forces along its border with India
India
to discourage it. The Chinese did not, however, respond to this encouragement, because unlike the 1962 Sino-Indian War
War
when India
India
was caught entirely unaware, this time the Indian Army
Indian Army
was prepared and had deployed eight mountain divisions to the Sino-Indian border to guard against such an eventuality.[94] China
China
instead threw its weight behind demands for an immediate ceasefire. When Bangladesh
Bangladesh
applied for membership to the United Nations in 1972, China
China
vetoed their application[144] because two United Nations resolutions regarding the repatriation of Pakistani prisoners of war and civilians had not yet been implemented.[145] China
China
was also among the last countries to recognise independent Bangladesh, refusing to do so until 31 August 1975.[130][144] In popular culture Main article: Artistic depictions of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War See also

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War
War
portal Bangladesh
Bangladesh
portal War
War
portal

Timeline of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Mukti Bahini Awards and decorations of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Movement demanding trial of war criminals (Bangladesh) Liberation War
War
Museum The Concert for Bangladesh

Footnotes Notes

^ This war is known in Bangla as Muktijuddho or Shwadhinota Juddho.[11] This war is also called the Civil War
War
in Pakistan[12]

Citations

^ http://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/5312/Instrument+of+Surrender+of+Pakistan+forces+in+Dacca "The Pakistan
Pakistan
Eastern Command agree to surrender all Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Jagjit Singh Aurora, General Officer Commanding-in –chief of the Indian and Bangladesh forces in the eastern theatre." ^ a b c d " India
India
Pakistan
Pakistan
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& the Karakoram Highway By Owen Bennett-Jones, Lindsay Brown, John Mock, Sarina Singh, Pg 30 ^ p. 442 Indian Army
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after Independence by KC Pravel: Lancer 1987 ISBN 81-7062-014-7 ^ Thiranagama, edited by Sharika; Kelly, Tobias (2012). Traitors : suspicion, intimacy, and the ethics of state-building. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812222377. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Islamist leader Ghulam Azam
Ghulam Azam
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Jagjit Singh Aurora
in The Illustrated Weekly of India
India
dated 23 December 1973 quoted in Indian Army after Independence by KC Pravel: Lancer 1987 ISBN 81-7062-014-7 ^ a b c Khan, Shahnawaz (19 January 2005). "54 Indian PoWs of 1971 war still in Pakistan". Daily Times. Lahore. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ Figure from Pakistani Prisoners of War
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in India
India
by Col S.P. Salunke p.10 quoted in Indian Army
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Mukti Bahini
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(1972). Pakistan: Failure in National Integration. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03625-6.  Pg 166–167 ^ "The events in East Pakistan, 1971: a legal study". ICJ.  ^ a b Husain Haqqani (10 March 2010). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-0-87003-285-1.  ^ Anne Noronha dos Santos (2007). Military Intervention and Secession in South Asia: The Cases of Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kashmir, and Punjab. p. 24.  ^ Pakistan: From the Rhetoric of Democracy to the Rise of Militancy. Routledge. 2012. p. 168.  ^ LINTNER, BERTIL (2004). "Religious Extremism and Nationalism in Bangladesh" (PDF). p. 418.  ^ Ali Riaz; Mohammad Sajjadur Rahman (29 January 2016). Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Bangladesh. Routledge. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-1-317-30877-5.  ^ Ishtiaq Ahmed (1998). State, Nation and Ethnicity in Contemporary South Asia. A&C Black. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-1-85567-578-0.  ^ Sayeed, Khalid B. (1967). The Political System of Pakistan. Houghton Mifflin. p. 61.  ^ a b c d e Hassan, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Dr. Professor Mubashir (May 2000). "§Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: All Power to People! Democracy and Socialism to People!". The Mirage of Power. Oxford University, United Kingdom: Dr. Professor Mubashir Hassan, professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Engineering and Technology and the Oxford University Press. pp. 50–90. ISBN 978-0-19-579300-0.  ^ India
India
Meteorological Department (1970). "Annual Summary – Storms & Depressions" (PDF). India
India
Weather Review 1970. pp. 10–11. Retrieved 15 April 2007.  ^ Fritz, Hermann M.; Blount, Chris. "Thematic paper: Role of forests and trees in protecting coastal areas against cyclones". Coastal protection in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean tsunami: What role for forests and trees?. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ Schanberg, Sydney (22 November 1970). "Yahya Condedes 'Slips' In Relief". The New York Times.  ^ Staff writer (23 November 1970). "East Pakistani Leaders Assail Yahya on Cyclone Relief". The New York Times. Reuters.  ^ Staff writer (18 November 1970). "Copter Shortage Balks Cyclone Aid". The New York Times.  ^ Durdin, Tillman (11 March 1971). "Pakistanis Crisis Virtually Halts Rehabilitation Work in Cyclone Region". The New York Times. p. 2.  ^ Olson, Richard (21 February 2005). "A Critical Juncture Analysis, 1964–2003" (PDF). USAID. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2007.  ^ Salik, Siddiq, Witness To Surrender, pp 63, 228–9 ISBN 984-05-1373-7 ^ D' Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War
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Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 9780415565660.  ^ Siddiqui, Asif (December 1997). "From Deterrence and Coercive Diplomacy to War: The 1971 Crisis in South Asia". Journal of International and Area Studies. 4 (1): 73–92. JSTOR 43106996.  ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls". necrometrics.com. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ Bergman, David (24 April 2014). "Questioning an iconic number" (1). The Hindu. The Hindu. Retrieved 28 September 2016.  ^ Rummel, Rudolph. "Chapter 8: Statistics of Pakistan's Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources". Statistics of Democide: Genocide
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and Mass Murder since 1900. p. 544. ISBN 978-3-8258-4010-5. "...They also planned to indiscriminately murder hundreds of thousands of its Hindus and drive the rest into India. ... This despicable and cutthroat plan was outright genocide'.  ^ Zunaid Kazi. "History : The Bangali Genocide, 1971". Virtual Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.  ^ Debasish Roy Chowdhury (23 June 2005). "Indians are bastards anyway". Asia Times Online.  ^ Malik, Amita (1972). The Year of the Vulture. New Delhi: Orient Longmans. pp. 79–83. ISBN 0-8046-8817-6.  ^ a b " Bangladesh
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war: The article that changed history – Asia". BBC. 16 December 2011.  ^ "The Hindu genocide that Hindus and the world forgot". India Tribune. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013.  ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica – Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.  ^ Afreen Mallick, Sadya. "'Potua' and freedom's colours". thedailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 12 February 2016.  ^ "arts.bdnews24.com " সংযোজনস্বাধীনতার ঘোষণা: বেলাল মোহাম্মদের সাক্ষাৎকার". bdnews24.com.  ^ Sen Gupta, Jyoti (1974). History of freedom movement in Bangladesh, 1943-1973: some involvement. Calcutta: Naya Prokash. pp. 325–326. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ Gupta, Jyoti Sen (1974). History of freedom movement in Bangladesh, 1943-1973: some involvement. Naya Prokash. pp. 325–326.  ^ "History : The Declaration of Independence". Virtual Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014.  ^ M1 India, Pakistan, and the United States: Breaking with the Past By Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli ISBN 0-87609-199-0, 1997, Council on Foreign Relations. pp 37 ^ Pakistan
Pakistan
Defence Journal, 1977, Vol 2, pp. 2–3 ^ "Bangladesh". State.gov. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.  ^ Jacob, Lt. Gen. JFR, Surrender at Dacca, pp 90–91 ^ Jacob, Lt. Gen. JFR, Surrender at Dacca, pp 42–44, pp 90–91 ^ Hassan, Moyeedul, Muldhara’ 71, pp 45–46 ^ Islam, Major
Major
Rafiqul, A Tale of Millions, pp. 227, 235 ^ Shafiullah, Maj. Gen. K.M., Bangladesh
Bangladesh
at War, pp 161–163 ^ Islam, Major
Major
Rafiqul, A Tale of Millions, pp. 226–231 ^ " Bangladesh
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Liberation Armed Force". Liberation War
War
Museum, Bangladesh.  ^ Raja, Dewan Mohammad Tasawwar, O GENERAL MY GENERAL (Life and Works of General M. A. G. Osmani), pp. 35–109, ISBN 978-984-8866-18-4 ^ Jacob, Lt. Gen. JFR, Surrender at Dacca, pp 44 ^ Hassan, Moyeedul, Muldhara 71, pp 44 ^ Ali, Maj. Gen. Rao Farman, How Pakistan
Pakistan
Got Divided, pp 100 ^ Hassan, Moyeedul, Muldhara 71, pp 64–65 ^ Khan, Maj. Gen. Fazal Mukeem, Pakistan's Crisis in Leadership, p 125 ^ Ali, Rao Farman, When Pakistan
Pakistan
Got Divided, p 100 ^ Niazi, Lt. Gen. A.A.K, The Betrayal of East Pakistan, p 96 ^ Roy, Mihir, K (1995). War
War
in the Indian Ocean. 56, Gautaum Nagar, New-Delhi, 110049, India: Lancer Publisher & Distributor. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-897829-11-0.  ^ Robi, Mir Mustak Ahmed (2008). Chetonai Ekattor. 38, Bangla Bazar (2nd Floor), Dacca-1100, Bangladesh: Zonaki Publisher. p. 69.  ^ a b "Indo-Pakistani Wars". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.  ^ "1971: Making Bangladesh
Bangladesh
a reality – I". Indian Defence Review. Retrieved 21 June 2015.  ^ a b c " India
India
and Pakistan: Over the Edge". Time. 13 December 1971. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ "Bangladesh: Out of War, a Nation Is Born". Time. 20 December 1971. Retrieved 23 June 2011.  ^ Indian Army
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after Independence by Maj KC Praval 1993 Lancer, p. 317 ISBN 1-897829-45-0 ^ "Naval Commandos in Operation Jackpot". The Daily Star.  ^ "The 1971 war". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ Ahmad Faruqui (2003). Rethinking the National Security of Pakistan: The Price of Strategic Myopia. Ashgate. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7546-1497-5. Field Marshal Manekshaw, Chief of Staff of the Indian Army
Indian Army
in 1971, paid them the ultimate compliment when he stated that: The Pakistan
Pakistan
Army in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
fought very gallantly. But they had no chance. They were a thousand miles away from their base. And I had eight or nine months to make my preparations [while they were being worn out in a counter insurgency war against the secessionist forces of the Mukti Bahini]. I had a superiority of almost five-to-one.  ^ "Situation in the Indian Subcontinent". mofa.go.jp.  ^ Guess who's coming to dinner Naeem Bangali ^ "Bangladesh: Unfinished Justice for the crimes of 1971 – South Asia Citizens Web". Sacw.net. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.  ^ "The Simla Agreement
Simla Agreement
1972 – Story of Pakistan". Story of Pakistan. 1 June 2003. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.  ^ "India's Strategic Blunders in the 1971 War". www.rediff.com. Retrieved 3 August 2014.  ^ "Defencejournal". Defencejournal. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ "General Niazi's Failure in High Command". Ghazali.net. 21 August 2000. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ Sharlach 2000, pp. 92–93. ^ Sajjad 2012, p. 225. ^ White, Matthew, Death Tolls for the Major
Major
Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century ^ "The scars of war, victory and justice". The Opinion Pages. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ Siddiqi, Dina M. (1998). "Taslima Nasreen and Others: The Contest over Gender in Bangladesh". In Bodman, Herbert L.; Tohidi, Nayereh Esfahlani. Women in Muslim
Muslim
Societies: Diversity Within Unity. Lynne Rienner. pp. 208–209. ISBN 978-1-55587-578-7. Sometime during the war, a fatwa originating in West Pakistan
Pakistan
labeled Bengali freedom fighters 'Hindus' and declared that 'the wealth and women' to be secured by warfare with them could be treated as the booty of war. [Footnote, on p. 225:] S. A. Hossain, " Fatwa
Fatwa
in Islam: Bangladesh Perspective," Daily Star (Dhaka), 28 December 1994, 7.  ^ Many of the eyewitness accounts of relations that were picked up by "Al Badr" forces describe them as Bengali men. The only survivor of the Rayerbazar killings describes the captors and killers of Bengali professionals as fellow Bengalis. See 57 Dilawar Hossain, account reproduced in Ekattorer Ghatok-dalalera ke Kothay (Muktijuddha Chetona Bikash Kendro, Dacca, 1989) ^ "The Daily Star Web Edition (Vol. 5 Num 551)". archive.thedailystar.net. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ Times, Special
Special
To The New York (19 December 1971). "125 Slain in Dacca Area Believed Elite of Bengal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 June 2017. At least 125 persons, believed to be physicians, professors, writers and teachers, were found murdered today in a field outside Dacca. All the victims’ hands were tied behind their backs and they had been bayoneted, garroted or shot. They were among an estimated 300 Bengali intellectuals who had been seized by West Pakistani soldiers and locally recruited supporters.  ^ "tribuneindia... World". www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ a b Evans, Michael. "The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971". nsarchive.gwu.edu. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ "Bengali Wives Raped in War
War
Are Said to Face Ostracism" (PDF). The New York Times. 8 January 1972. Retrieved 10 November 2011.  ^ Menen, Aubrey (23 July 1972). "The Rapes of Bangladesh" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 10 November 2011.  ^ Astrachan, Anthony (22 March 1972). "U.N. Asked to Aid Bengali Abortions" (PDF). The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 November 2011.  ^ "East Pakistan: Even the Skies Weep". Time. 25 October 1971. p. 43. (Subscription required (help)). Refugees are still trekking into India
India
... telling of villages burned, residents shot, and prominent figures carried off and never heard from again. One of the more horrible revelations concerns 563 young Bengali women, some only 18, who have been held captive inside Dacca's dingy military cantonment since the first days of the fighting. Seized from Dacca University and private homes and forced into military brothels, the girls are all three to five months pregnant. The army is reported to have enlisted Bengali gynecologists to abort girls held at military installations. But for those at the Dacca cantonment it is too late for abortion.  ^ U.S. Consulate (Dacca) Cable, Sitrep: Army Terror Campaign Continues in Dacca; Evidence Military Faces Some Difficulties Elsewhere, 31 March 1971, Confidential, 3 pp ^ Sen, Sumit (1999). "Stateless Refugees and the Right to Return: the Bihari Refugees of South Asia, Part 1" (PDF). International Journal of Refugee
Refugee
Law. 11 (4): 625–645. doi:10.1093/ijrl/11.4.625. Retrieved 20 October 2006.  ^ Gerlach, Christian (2010). Extremely Violent Societies: Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World. Cambridge University Press. p. 148. ISBN 9781139493512.  ^ Rummel, R.J. (1997). Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. p. 334. ISBN 9781560009276.  ^ U.S. Consulate in Dacca (27 March 1971), Selective genocide, Cable (PDF) ^ "The Jamaat Talks Back". The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Observer (Editorial). 30 December 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2007.  ^ "::: Star Weekend Magazine :::". archive.thedailystar.net. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ "Bernard-Henri Levy: Andre Malraux's Bangladesh, Before the Radicals". The Daily Beast.  ^ "The Independent - Online Edition". The Independent Online and Print Version.  ^ a b c "The Recognition Story". Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Strategic and Development Forum. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ a b Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's farewell speech to the United Nations Security Council.  ^ " Bhutan
Bhutan
recognised Bangladesh
Bangladesh
first - Dhaka
Dhaka
Tribune". dhakatribune.com.  ^ Harris, Ralph (17 December 1971). "Nixon and Pakistan: An Unpopular Alliance". The Miami News. Miami, Florida, US. Reuters – via The Daily Star.  ^ Shalom, Stephen R., The Men Behind Yahya in the Indo-Pak War
War
of 1971 ^ "The triumvirate of the Diplomat, the Journalist and the Artist". The Daily Star. 17 December 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.  ^ Scott, Paul (21 December 1971). "Naval 'Show of Force' By Nixon Meant as Blunt Warning to India". Bangor Daily News. Google News.  ^ Anna Orton (2010). India's Borderland Disputes: China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Epitome Books. p. 116. ISBN 978-93-80297-15-6.  ^ Matthew White (20 October 2011). Atrocitology: Humanity's 100 Deadliest Achievements. Canongate Books. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-85786-125-2.  ^ Dexter Filkins (27 September 2013). "Collateral Damage:'The Blood Telegram,' by Gary J. Bass". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2015.  ^ "That same fleet but new face". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 January 2017.  ^ "December 1971: When The US Sent Its Naval Ships Into Bay Of Bengal, And USSR Responded". Retrieved 11 January 2017.  ^ "USSR, Czechoslovakia Recognize Bangladesh". Sumter, South Carolina, US: The Sumter Daily Item, via Google News. Associated Press. 25 January 1972.  ^ "Nixon Hopes for Subcontinent Peace". Spartanburg, South Carolina, US: Herald-Journal, via Google News. Associated Press. 9 April 1972.  ^ a b " China
China
Recognizes Bangladesh". Oxnard, California, US: The Press Courier, via Google News. Associated Press. 1 September 1975.  ^ " China
China
Veto Downs Bangladesh
Bangladesh
UN Entry". Montreal, Quebec, Canada: The Montreal Gazette, via Google News. United Press International. 26 August 1972. 

References  This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. Further reading See also: List of books on Liberation War
War
of Bangladesh

Ayoob, Mohammed and Subrahmanyam, K., The Liberation War, S. Chand and Co. pvt Ltd. New Delhi, 1972. Ayub, Muhammad (2005). An Army, its Role and Rule: A History of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army from Independence to Kargil 1947–1999. Pittsburgh: RoseDog Books. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3. Bass, Gary J. The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide. Vintage, 2014. ISBN 0307744620 Bhargava, G.S., Crush India
India
or Pakistan's Death Wish, ISSD, New Delhi, 1972. Bhattacharyya, S. K., Genocide
Genocide
in East Pakistan/Bangladesh: A Horror Story, A. Ghosh Publishers, 1988. Blood, A. K. (2005). The cruel birth of Bangladesh: Memoirs of an American diplomat. Dhaka: University Press. Brownmiller, Susan: Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape, Ballantine Books, 1993. Choudhury, G. W. (April 1972). "Bangladesh: Why It Happened". International Affairs. Royal Institute of International Affairs. 48 (2): 242–249. doi:10.2307/2613440. ISSN 0020-5850. JSTOR 2613440.  Choudhury, G. W. (1994) [First published 1974]. The Last Days of United Pakistan. Dhaka: University Press. ISBN 978-984-05-1242-3.  Govt. of Bangladesh, Documents of the war of Independence, Vol 01-16, Ministry of Information. Hitchens, Christopher, The Trials of Henry Kissinger, Verso (2001). ISBN 1-85984-631-9 Kanjilal, Kalidas, The Perishing Humanity, Sahitya Loke, Calcutta, 1976 Johnson, Rob, 'A Region in Turmoil' (New York and London, 2005) Malik, Amita, The Year of the Vulture, Orient Longmans, New Delhi, 1972. Matinuddin, General Kamal, Tragedy of Errors: East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Crisis, 1968–1971, Wajidalis, Lahore, Pakistan, 1994. Mookherjee, Nayanika, A Lot of History: Sexual Violence, Public Memories and the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War
War
of 1971, D. Phil thesis in Social Anthropology, SOAS, University of London, 2002. National Security Archive, The Tilt: the U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971 Quereshi, Major
Major
General Hakeem Arshad, The 1971 Indo-Pak War, A Soldiers Narrative, Oxford University Press, 2002. Raghavan, Srinath, 1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh, Harvard Univ. Press, 2013. Rummel, R.J., Death By Government, Transaction Publishers, 1997. Salik, Siddiq, Witness to Surrender, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 1977. Sisson, Richard & Rose, Leo, War
War
and secession: Pakistan, India, and the creation of Bangladesh, University of California Press (Berkeley), 1990. Stephen, Pierre, and Payne, Robert, Massacre, Macmillan, New York, (1973). ISBN 0-02-595240-4 Totten, Samuel et al., eds., Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views, Garland Reference Library, 1997 US Department of State Office of the Historian, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969–1976, Volume XI, South Asia
South Asia
Crisis, 1971 Zaheer, Hasan: The separation of East Pakistan: The rise and realisation of Bengali Muslim
Muslim
nationalism, Oxford University Press, 1994. Raja, Dewan Mohammad Tasawwar (2010). O GENERAL MY GENERAL (Life and Works of General M. A. G. Osmani). The Osmani Memorial Trust, Dacca, Bangladesh. ISBN 978-984-8866-18-4. 

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Leadership

Commander-in-chief: President of Bangladesh Chief of Air Staff Chief of Army Staff Chief of Naval Staff Principal Staff Officer Serving Generals

History and wars

Military history Bengal Army Bengal Regiment Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Gulf War Chattogram Hill Tracts conflict 2001 Indo-Bangla Border Skirmish 2015 Bangladesh–Arakan Army border clash

War
War
leaders

Maulana Bhashani Tajuddin Ahmed Ziaur Rahman M. Hamidullah Khan Khaled Mosharraf Syed Nazrul Islam Muhammad Mansur Ali A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman M.A.G. Osmani M. A. Jalil Abul Manzoor Shafaat Jamil Abu Osman Chowdhury Quazi Nuruzzaman Abu Taher

Decorations

Bir Shreshtho Bir Uttom Bir Bikrom Bir Protik Order of Military Merit

Personnel and equipment

Ranks

Air Force Army Navy

Training

ARTDOC National Defence College Defence Services Command and Staff College BUP BAIUST BAUET BAUST BIPSOT Military Academy Air Force Academy Naval Academy AFMC AFMI MIST National Cadet Corps Cadet Colleges

Equipment

Army equipment Active Military aircraft Historic Military aircraft Navy ships

active historic

Special
Special
ops

President Guard Regiment SSF Para-Commandos SWADS Counter Terrorism and Intelligence Bureau

v t e

Military of India
India

Indian Army Indian Navy Indian Air Force

Leadership

Chief of the Army Staff Chief of the Naval Staff Chief of the Air Staff Minister of Defence

Topics

History Academies Ranks and insignia

Army Air Force Navy

Special
Special
Forces Indian Peace Keeping Force Paramilitary forces Andaman and Nicobar Command Strategic Forces Command Nuclear Command Authority Ballistic missiles Weapons of mass destruction Defence Research and Development Organisation Ordnance Factories Board Territorial Army National Cadet Corps

Wars and conflicts

Indo-Pakistani wars

1947 1965 1971

Operation Polo Congo Crisis Operation Vijay Operation Trident Sino-Indian War Cho La incident Siachen conflict Blue Star Woodrose 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War Operation Cactus Kargil War Kashmir
Kashmir
insurgency Operation Parakram Piracy off the coast of Somalia

Category

Army Navy Air Force

v t e

Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces

Joint services and administrative  

Cabinet Committee on National Security Chief of General Staff Commander-in-Chief

President of Pakistan

Inter-Services Public Relations Inter-Services Selection Board Inter-Services Intelligence

Director General of the Inter-Services Intelligence

Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee

Chairman
Chairman
of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee

Joint Staff Headquarters Judge Advocate General Branch Military Lands and Cantonments Department Ministry of Defence

Minister of Defence

National Command Authority

Missiles Nuclear doctrine Strategic Plans Division Force Weapons of mass destruction

National Defence University National Security Council

Army  

Army Museum Army ranks and insignia Chief of Army Staff

replaced Commander-in-Chief of the Army

Corps, commands and regiments

I Corps II Corps IV Corps V Corps X Corps XI Corps XII Corps XXX Corps XXXI Corps Air Defence Corps Armoured Corps Army Strategic Forces Command Aviation Corps Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
Regiment Baloch Regiment Corps
Corps
of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Corps
Corps
of Engineers

Engineer-in-Chief Frontier Works Organisation

Corps
Corps
of Military Police Corps
Corps
of Signals Force Command Northern Areas Frontier Force Regiment Medical Corps Military Intelligence Northern Light Infantry
Infantry
Regiment Punjab Regiment Regiment of Artillery Sind Regiment Special
Special
Services Group

Education and training

Army Medical College Army Public Schools and Colleges System Cadet colleges College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Command and Staff College Military Academy Military College of Engineering Military College of Signals Parachute Training School

Equipment General Headquarters Hospitals Serving Generals

Air Force  

Air Force Museum Air Force ranks and insignia Air Headquarters Aircraft Bases Chief of Air Staff Education and training

Air Force Academy Air War
War
College College of Aeronautical Engineering College of Flying Training Combat Commanders School Fazaia Schools and Colleges System

Hospitals Squadrons and commands

Air Force Strategic Command Air Intelligence Special
Special
Service Wing Squadrons

Serving Air Marshals

Navy  

Bases

Ahsan Naval Base Akram Naval Base Hameed Naval Base Iqbal Naval Base Jinnah Naval Base Kalmat Naval Base Karachi Naval Dockyard Mehran Naval Base Qasim Naval Base

Chief of Naval Staff Education and training

Naval Academy Navy Engineering College Navy run basic education schools Navy School of Logistics and Management Navy War
War
College PNS Karsaz

Hospitals

PNS Darmaan Jah PNS Rahat PNS Shifa

Maritime Museum Naval Headquarters Naval ranks and insignia Squadrons and commands

Marines Naval Air Arm Naval Intelligence Naval Strategic Forces Command Navy Hydrographic Department Navy Northern Command Navy Punjab Command Navy Western Command Special
Special
Services Group Navy

Vessels Serving Admirals

Paramilitary forces

Airports Security Force Coast Guards Frontier Constabulary Frontier Corps

Bajaur Scouts Chagai Militia Chitral Scouts Gilgit Baltistan Scouts Kharan Rifles Khyber Rifles Zhob Militia

Maritime Security Agency National Guard Rangers

Wars and conflicts

India- Pakistan
Pakistan
War(s) of 1947-1948 / 1965 / 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War 1967 Israeli-Arab war 1973 Israeli-Arab war Jordan-Palestine Liberation Organization conflict 1970s Baloch insurgency Grand Mosque in Saudi Arabia seizure Soviet-Afghan war Siachen conflict 1991 Gulf War Kargil conflict War
War
in North-West Pakistan

Related

Awards and decorations Defence Housing Authority Defence industry of Pakistan

Air Weapons Complex Defence Science and Technology Organisation Heavy Industries Taxila Institute of Optronics Integrated Dynamics Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Khan Research Laboratories National Development Complex National Engineering and Scientific Commission Pakistan
Pakistan
Aeronautical Complex Pakistan
Pakistan
Ordnance Factories Wah Metallurgical Laboratory

Military history

Air Force history Foreign deployments of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces

Involvement in UN peacekeeping missions

Military coups

Khyber Border Coordination Center Women in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces

Category

Army Air Force Navy

Portal

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War
War
of Independence Guinea-Bissau War
War
of Independence Mozambican War
War
of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War
War
of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War
War
of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War
War
of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War
War
of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline

.