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Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
(Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জামায়াতে ইসলামী), previously known as Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Bangladesh, or Jamaat for short,[3] is the largest[4] Islamist political party in Bangladesh.[5][6] On 1 August 2013 the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Supreme Court declared the registration of the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
illegal, ruling that the party is unfit to contest national elections.[7][8][9][10] Its predecessor, the party ( Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan), strongly opposed the independence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and break-up of Pakistan. In 1971, it collaborated with the Pakistani Army
Pakistani Army
in its operations against Bengali nationalists and pro-liberation intellectuals.[11][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] Upon the independence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971, the new government banned Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
from political participation and its leaders went into exile in Pakistan. Following the assassination of the first president and the military coup that brought Maj. Gen. Ziaur Rahman
Ziaur Rahman
to power in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1975, the ban on the Jamaat was lifted and the new party Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was formed. Its leaders were allowed to return. Abbas Ali Khan was the acting Amir of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh. The Jamaat agenda is the creation of an "Islamic state" with the Sha'ria legal system, and outlawing "un-Islamic" practices and laws. In the 1980s, the Jamaat joined the multi-party alliance for the restoration of democracy. It later allied with Ziaur Rahman's Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Nationalist Party and Jamaat leaders became ministers in the two BNP-led regimes of prime minister Begum Khaleda Zia
Begum Khaleda Zia
(from 1991 to 1996 and from 2001 to 2006). Its popularity has decreased and in 2008, it won only two of 300 elected seats in Parliament. In 2010 the government, led by the Awami League, began prosecution of war crimes committed during the 1971 war under the International Crimes Tribunal. By 2012, two leaders of the BNP and eight of Jamaat had been charged with war crimes, and by March 2013, three Jamaat leaders had been convicted of crimes. In response, the Jamaat has held major strikes and violent protests across the country, which have led to more than 60 deaths (mostly by security forces)[18] and alleged mass destruction of public and national properties. There has been calls from community and various groups to ban Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
as a political party.

Contents

1 History

1.1 British India (1941–1947) 1.2 Pakistan
Pakistan
period (1947–1971) 1.3 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
period (1971–present)

2 Controversy

2.1 Accusations of war crimes 2.2 International Crimes Tribunal

3 Cancellation of registration 4 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Islami Chhatra Shibir 5 2013 violence 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

The Jamaat in parliamentary elections

Year Results

1973 Party banned because of opposition to Bangladeshi independence and collaboration with the Pakistani army.

1979 Party legalized under the name "Islamic Democratic League" Together with larger Muslim League won 20 seats

1986 10 seats.[3]

1991 18 seats.[3]

1996 3 seats.[3]

2001 17 seats. (took part by forming alliance with 3 other parties.)[3]

2008 2 seats.[19](took part by forming alliance with 3 other parties.)

2013 The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Supreme Court declared the registration of the Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
illegal, ruling that the party is unfit to contest national polls.[7][8][9][10]

British India (1941–1947)[edit] Main article: Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan The Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
was founded in pre-partition British India by Syed Ab'ul Ala Maududi at Islamia Park, Lahore on 26 August 1941 as a movement to promote Social and Political Islam. Jamaat opposed the creation of a separate state of Pakistan
Pakistan
for the Muslims of India. It also did not support the Muslim League, then the largest Muslim party, in the election of 1946. Pakistan
Pakistan
period (1947–1971)[edit] After the creation of Pakistan, Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
divided into separate Indian and Pakistani national organisations. The East Pakistan
East Pakistan
wing of Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan
Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan
later became Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jamaat-e-Islami. Jammat-e-Islami participated in the democratic movement in Pakistan during the Martial Law Period declared by General Ayub Khan. An all-party democratic alliance (DAC) was formed in 1965. Jamaat head in East Pakistan, Ghulam Azam
Ghulam Azam
was a member of the alliance, which also included Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani
Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani
and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.[20][21] During the 1950s and especially the 1960s, tension developed and escalated between East and West Pakistan, which had many differences in language and culture although both were majority Muslim. East Pakistan
Pakistan
had a majority of Pakistan's population and economic activity but Pakistan's government and military were largely dominated by the upper classes from the west. Friction first developed over use of Bengali language[22] then political autonomy for the East, and the perceived poor response of the government to a massive cyclone killing up to half a million people in East Pakistan.[23] In 1970, the pro-autonomy Awami League
Awami League
won a majority in Pakistan's Parliament but[24] was blocked by West Pakistanis from taking office. After compromise talks broke down, the Pakistan
Pakistan
military launched Operation Searchlight[25] to crush East Pakistan
East Pakistan
opposition,[26] beginning the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War. The Pakistan
Pakistan
military's chief targets included intellectuals and Hindus, and about one million refugees fled to neighbouring India.[27] As an Islamist party JI was uninterested in ethnic issues or local languages but strongly supported Islamic unity, and so supported the Pakistani military in their campaign. East Pakistan
East Pakistan
JI head Ghulam Azam coordinated the development and operation of paramilitary forces during the war, including Razakar, Al-shams, Al-badr for collaboration with the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army. These units committed genocide and other war crimes at the time, most notorious of which was the systematic execution of Bengali pro-liberation intellectuals on 14 December 1971. As the war neared its end, a final effort to wipe off as many intellectuals as possible took place, to eliminate the future leaders of the new nation. On 14 December 1971, over 200 of East Pakistan's intellectuals including professors, journalists, doctors, artists, engineers, and writers were picked up from their homes in Dhaka
Dhaka
by the Al-Badr militias . Notable novelist Shahidullah Kaiser and playwright Munier Choudhury were among the victims. They were taken blindfolded to torture cells in Mirpur, Mohammadpur, Nakhalpara, Rajarbagh and other locations in different sections of the city. Later they were executed en masse, most notably at Rayerbazar and Mirpur. Estimates of those East Pakistanis massacred throughout the war range from thirty thousand to three million.[28] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
period (1971–present)[edit] Jamaat was banned after the independence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in December 1971, and its top leaders fled to West Pakistan. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, first president of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
also cancelled the citizenship of Golam Azam, the leader of Jamaat who moved to Pakistan, the Middle East and the UK.[29] Golam first fled to Pakistan
Pakistan
and organised an " East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Recovery Week". As information about his participation in the killing of civilians came to light "a strong groundswell of resentment against" East Pakistan
East Pakistan
JI leadership developed and Golam and Maulan Abdur Rahim were sent to Saudi Arabia. In Saudi, Azam and some of his followers successfully appealed for donations to "defend Islam" in Bangladesh, asserting that the Hindu minority there were "killing Muslims and burning their homes."[30] Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
was assassinated by a small group of Bangladesh Army officers in August 1975, enabling army chief Major general Ziaur Rahman to seize power in November after a series of coups and counter-coups. These post-Mujib regimes were immediately recognised by both Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, and the Jamaat once again resumed political activities in Bangladesh. Rahman also allowed Azam to return to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as the leader of Jamaat.[29] After the end of military rule in 1990, mass protests began against Azam and Jamaat under war criminal charges headed by Jahanara Imam, an author who lost her two sons and husband in the liberation war. Azam's citizenship was challenged in a case that went to the Bangladesh Supreme Court, as he held only a Pakistani passport. Absent prosecution of Azam for war crimes, the Supreme Court ruled that he had to be allowed a Bangladeshi passport and the freedom to resume his political activities. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
police arrested Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
chief and former Industry Minister Matiur Rahman Nizami
Matiur Rahman Nizami
from his residence in the capital in a graft case on 19 May 2008. Earlier, two former Cabinet Ministers of the immediate past BNP-led alliance government, Abdul Mannan Bhuiyan and Shamsul Islam were sent to Dhaka
Dhaka
Central Jail after they surrendered before the court.[citation needed] As a result, in the parliamentary elections of December 2008, the Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
party garnered fewer than 5 seats out of the total 300 that constitute the national parliament. The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Nationalist Party is concerned, as the Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
has been their primary political partner in the Four-Party Alliance.[31] Controversy[edit] Accusations of war crimes[edit] Many of Jamaat's leaders are accused of committing war crimes and genocide during the liberation war of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971 and several have been convicted by the International Crimes Tribunal.[32] International Crimes Tribunal[edit] Main article: International Crimes Tribunal (Bangladesh) The International Crimes Tribunal was formed in 2009 shortly after the Awami League
Awami League
came to power. By November 2011, the International Crimes Tribunal had charged two BNP leaders and ten Jamaat leaders with war crimes committed during the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
liberation war and 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
genocide. Abul Kalam Azad, a nationally known Islamic cleric and former member of Jamaat, was charged with genocide, rape, abduction, confinement and torture. He was tried in absentia after having fled the country; police believe he is in Pakistan.[33] In January 2013, Azad was the first suspect to be convicted in the trials; he was found guilty of seven of eight charges and sentenced to death by hanging.[34] Azad's defence lawyer, a prominent Supreme Court lawyer appointed by the state, did not have any witnesses in the case; he said Azad's family failed to cooperate in helping locate witnesses and refused to testify.[35] The summary of verdict in the conviction of Abdul Quader Molla recognized the role played by Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
and its student wing ('Islami Chatra Sangha') as collaborators with the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
in 1971. The party was found guilty of forming paramilitary forces, such as Razakar and Al-Badr. It was said to have taken part in the systematic genocide of the Bangladeshi people and other violent activities.[36] As a result of the trials, the activists of the 2013 Shahbag Protest have demanded that the government ban Jamaat from Bangladeshi politics.[37][38] In response, the government started drafting a bill to ban Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
from Bangladeshi politics.[39] On 28 February 2013 Delwar Hossain Sayeedi, the deputy of Jamaat, was found guilty of genocide, rape and religious persecution. He was sentenced to death by hanging.[40] His defence lawyer had earlier complained that a witness who was supposed to testify for him was abducted from the gates of the courthouse on 5 November 2012, reportedly by police, and has not been heard from since. The government did not seem to take the issue seriously after the prosecution denied there was a problem.[41] Muhammad Kamaruzzaman, senior assistant secretary general of Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
was indicted on 7 June 2012 on 7 counts of crimes against humanity.[42] On 9 May 2013, he was convicted and given the death penalty on five counts of mass killings, rape, torture and kidnapping.[43] Ghulam Azam, ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
until 2000 was found guilty by the ICT on five counts. Incitement, conspiracy, planning, abatement and failure to prevent murder. He was sentenced on 15 July 2013 to 90 years imprisonment.[44] Ali Ahsan Mohammad Mojaheed, Secretary General of Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
was sentenced to death by hanging on 22 November 2015.[45] Chowdhury Mueen-Uddin, who fled to the UK after the liberation of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and a leader of the London-based Jamaat organisation Dawatul Islam,[46] was indicted for crimes against humanity and genocide and being a leader of the Al-Badr militia. He is also accused of the murder of Bangladesh's top intellectuals during the war, although he has denied all charges.[47] Cancellation of registration[edit] On 27 January 2009, the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Supreme Court issued a ruling after 25 people from different Islamic organisations, including Bangladesh Tariqat Federation's Secretary General Syed Rezaul Haque Chandpuri, Jaker Party's Secretary General Munshi Abdul Latif and Sammilita Islami Jote's President Maulana Ziaul Hasan, filed a joint petition. Jamaat e Islami chief Motiur Rahman Nizami, Secretary General Ali Ahsan Mujaheed and the Election Commission Secretary were given six weeks time to reply, but they did not. The ruling asked to explain as to "why the Jamaat's registration should not be declared illegal". As a verdict of the ruling, High Court cancelled the registration of the Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
on 1 August 2013,[48][49] ruling that the party is unfit to contest national polls because its charter puts God above democratic process.[8][9][10][50] On 5 August 2013 the Supreme Court rejected Jamaat's plea against the High Court. The chamber judge of the Appellate Division Justice AHM Shamsuddin Choudhury Manik while rejecting the Jamaat's petition seeking stay on the High Court verdict, said that the Jamaat could move a regular appeal before the Appellate Division against the verdict after getting its full text.[51] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Islami Chhatra Shibir[edit] The student wing[52] of this organisation is the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Islami Chhatra Shibir, a major organisation at many colleges and universities including the Chittagong
Chittagong
College, University of Chittagong, University of Dhaka, Rajshahi University, Islamic University, Begum Rokeya University, Carmichael College
Carmichael College
etc. It is also influential in the madrassa system. It was known as Pakistan
Pakistan
Islami Chattra Shangha[53][54][55][56][57][58] It is a member of the International Islamic Federation of Student Organizations and the World Assembly of Muslim Youth. [59][59][60] This student group is also involved in violent clashes with other student groups,[61] is extremely militant and has been linked to numerous acts of violence.[62][63] 2013 violence[edit] Further information: 2013 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
riots In February 2013, following the verdict by the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT), and the announcement of death sentence of Delwar Hossain Sayidee (a leader of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jamaat-e-Islami,[64] during the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
liberation war of 1971[65]), supporters of Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
and its student wing Islami Chhatra Shibir
Islami Chhatra Shibir
were involved in country-wide violence, including attacks on police, minorities, the setting fire to Hindu temples, and other destruction of property.[3][66][67][68] More than 50 temples were damaged, and more than 1500 houses and business establishments of Hindus were torched in Noakhali, Gaibandha, Chittagong, Rangpur, Sylhet, Chapainawabganj, Bogra
Bogra
and in many other districts of the country,[69][70][71][72] By March 2013, at least 87 people killed by the government security forces.[73] The Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
supporters called for the fall of the government and reunification with Pakistan, and expulsion of non-Muslim Bangladeshis.[73][additional citation(s) needed] Supporters of Jamaat and its student wing Shibir stand accused of being involved in committing violence to retain their political power.[74] They have been accused widely from murdering opponent political party activists to instigating riot by spreading false news.[74][75][76] See also[edit]

Ghafoor Ahmed List of political parties in Bangladesh

References[edit]

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Pakistan
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sentences Jamaat-e-Islami
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Muhammad Kamaruzzaman
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Baxter, C (1997). Bangladesh, from a Nation to a State. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3632-5. OCLC 47885632.  External links[edit]

Full verdict on Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jamaat-e-Islami's registration cancellation Jamaat was 'involved in war crimes' Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Manifesto Nizami, Motiur Rahman. "Islamic Political Parties within the democratic process in Bangladesh: The Jamaat Approach" (PDF). Chatham House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2007.  Study ranks Shibir world's 3rd top armed group

v t e

Islamism
Islamism
in South Asia

Ideology

Ahl-i Hadith Barelvi Deobandi Islamism Pan-Islamism Wahhabism

Organisations

Afghanistan

Taliban

Bangladesh

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Islami Chhatra Shibir Islami Jatiya Oikya Front Islami Oikya Jote Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jamaat-e-Islami Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Bangladesh Islamic Front Bangladesh Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Islamic Front

India

Darul Uloom Deoband Darul Uloom Ahmadiyya Salafia Ahl-e-Hadith Girls Islamic Organisation of India Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Hind Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind National Development Front Popular Front of India Students Islamic Movement of India Students Islamic Organisation of India

Pakistan

Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan Jamiat Ahle Hadith Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Tanzeem-e-Islami Tehrik-e-Jafaria

Others

Ahlehadeeth Movement Bangladesh Hizb ut-Tahrir Jamaat-e-Islami Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Kashmir Jamaat ul-Fuqra Khaksars All India Khilafat Committee Muslim National Guard Tablighi Jamaat

Leaders

Ahmad Sirhindi Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani Qazi Syed Rafi Mohammad Syed Hayatullah Qazi Mir Imdad Ali Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi Mian Tufail Mohammad Ashraf Ali Thanwi Anwar Shah Kashmiri Mahmud al-Hasan Ubaidullah Sindhi Mohammad Ali Jouhar Shaukat Ali Muhammad Iqbal Allama Mashriqi Abul A'la Maududi Shah Ahmad Noorani Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq Fazl-ur-Rehman Ghulam Azam Muhammad Ilyas Qadri Motiur Rahman Nizami Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussain Najafi Grand Ayatollah Bashir Hussain Najafi Muhammad Taqi Usmani Muhammad Asadullah Al-Ghalib Safdar Nagori Jalaluddin Umri Israr Ahmed Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Qazi Hussain Ahmad Arif Hussain Hussaini Delwar Hossain Sayeedi Yusuf Islahi Syed Nazeer Husain Khalid Mehmood Soomro Siddiq Hasan Khan Ehsan Elahi Zaheer Sanaullah Amritsari Abul Kalam Azad Azizul Haque Fazlul Haque Amini Nurul Islam Farooqi

Events

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization Hudood Ordinances Shah Bano case Pakistani Islamisation programme referendum, 1984 Babri Masjid Hasba bill

Part of Islamism Militant Islamism
Islamism
in South Asia

v t e

Political parties in Bangladesh

Elections in Bangladesh Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Election Commission

Current coalitions

Grand Alliance 18 Party Alliance

Former coalitions

14 Party Alliance Four Party Alliance

Major parties

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Awami League Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Nationalist Party Jatiya Party

Minor parties

Liberal Democratic Party (Bangladesh) Jatiya Party (Manju) Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Muslim League Communist Party of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Marxist–Leninist) (Barua) Krishak Sramik Janata League Communist Party of Bangladesh National Awami Party Workers Party of Bangladesh Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal-JSD Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jatiya Party – BJP Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Khilafat Andolan Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jamaat-e-Islami Gano Forum Progressive Democratic Party (Bangladesh) Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Freedom Party Bangladesh
Bangladesh
National Awami Party Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Jatiya Party Islamic Front Bangladesh Islami Oikya Jote Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Khelafat Majlish Islami Andolan Bangladesh Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Islamic Front Khelafat Majlish

Regional parties

Parbatya Chattagram Jana Sanghati Samiti United People's Democratic Front

Defunct parties

Nagorik Shakti Bangladesh
Bangladesh
National Congress

Politics portal List of political parties Poli

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