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BANGALORE (/bæŋɡəˈlɔːr/ ), officially known as BENGALURU ( ( listen )), is the capital of the Indian state
Indian state
of Karnataka
Karnataka
. It has a population of about 8.42 million and a metropolitan population of about 8.52 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. It is located in southern India
India
on the Deccan Plateau . Its elevation is over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, the highest of India's major cities.

A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas , the Cholas and the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
, ruled the present region of Bangalore
Bangalore
until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore. In 1638, the Marāthās conquered and ruled Bangalore
Bangalore
for almost 50 years, after which the Mughals captured and sold the city to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty . It was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo- Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore . The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore , which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj . In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India
India
. Following India\'s independence in 1947, Bangalore
Bangalore
became the capital of Mysore State
Mysore State
, and remained capital when the new Indian state
Indian state
of Karnataka
Karnataka
was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore
Bangalore
– city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada
Kannada
name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006.

Bangalore
Bangalore
is sometimes referred to as the " Silicon Valley of India " (or "IT capital of India") because of its role as the nation's leading information technology (IT) exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO , Infosys
Infosys
, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore
Bangalore
is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. It is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), National Institute of Fashion Technology
National Institute of Fashion Technology
, Bangalore, National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R">" (ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು) (literally, "hero stone ", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur , "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE . It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old Kannada).

An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II , while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada
Kannada
term for Pterocarpus marsupium
Pterocarpus marsupium
(also known as the Indian Kino Tree ), a species of dry and moist deciduous trees , that grew abundantly in the region.

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka
Karnataka
announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore
Bangalore
to Bengalūru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bangalore
Bangalore
Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change. The government of Karnataka
Karnataka
accepted the proposal, and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006. The Union government have approved (along with other 12 cities) this request in October 2014 and Bangalore
Bangalore
was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Bangalore
History of Bangalore

EARLY AND MEDIEVAL HISTORY

The Begur Nageshwara Temple was built in Bangalore
Bangalore
around c. 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
. Someshwara Temple dates from the Hoysala era

A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India
India
at Jalahalli , Sidhapura and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE ( Iron Age
Iron Age
), burial grounds were established at Koramangala
Koramangala
and Chikkajala
Chikkajala
on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus
Augustus
, Tiberius
Tiberius
, and Claudius
Claudius
found at Yeswanthpur and HAL indicate that Bangalore
Bangalore
was involved in trans-oceanic trade with ancient civilisations in 27 BCE.

The region of modern-day Bangalore
Bangalore
was part of several successive South Indian kingdoms. Between the fourth and the tenth centuries, the Bangalore
Bangalore
region was ruled by the Western Ganga Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
of Karnataka, the first dynasty to set up effective control over the region. According to Edgar Thurston there were twenty eight kings who ruled Gangavadi from the start of the Christian
Christian
era till its conquest by the Cholas. These kings belonged to two distinct dynasties: the earlier line of the Solar race which had a succession of seven kings of the Ratti or Reddi tribe, and the later line of the Ganga race. The Western Gangas ruled the region initially as a sovereign power (350–550), and later as feudatories of the Chalukyas of Badami
Badami
, followed by the Rashtrakutas till the tenth century. The Begur Nageshwara Temple was commissioned around 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga King Ereganga Nitimarga I and extended by his successor Nitimarga II. Around 1004, during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I
Raja Raja Chola I
, the Cholas defeated the Western Gangas under the command of the crown prince Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
, and captured Bangalore. During this period, the Bangalore
Bangalore
region witnessed the migration of many groups — warriors, administrators, traders, artisans, pastorals, cultivators, and religious personnel from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and other Kannada speaking regions. The Chokkanathaswamy temple at Domlur , the Aigandapura complex near Hesaraghatta
Hesaraghatta
, Mukthi Natheshwara Temple at Binnamangala, Choleshwara Temple at Begur , Someshwara Temple at Madiwala , date from the Chola era.

In 1117, the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
defeated the Cholas in the Battle of Talakad in south Karnataka, and extended its rule over the region. Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
expelled the Cholas from all parts of Mysore state. By the end of the 13th century, Bangalore
Bangalore
became a source of contention between two warring cousins, the Hoysala ruler Veera Ballala III of Halebidu and Ramanatha, who administered from the Hoysala held territory in Tamil Nadu. Veera Ballala III had appointed a civic head at Hudi (now within Bangalore
Bangalore
Municipal Corporation limits), thus promoting the village to the status of a town. After Veera Ballala III's death in 1343, the next empire to rule the region was the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
, which itself saw the rise of four dynasties, the Sangamas (1336–1485), the Saluvas (1485–1491), the Tuluvas (1491–1565), and the Aravidu (1565–1646). During the reign of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire, Achyuta Deva Raya
Achyuta Deva Raya
of the Tuluva Dynasty raised the Shivasamudra Dam across the Arkavati river at Hesaraghatta
Hesaraghatta
, whose reservoir is the present city's supply of regular piped water.

FOUNDATION AND EARLY MODERN HISTORY

Bangalore Fort
Bangalore Fort
in 1860 showing fortifications and barracks. The fort was originally built by Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
I as a mud fort in 1537. Bangalore Palace
Bangalore Palace
, built in 1887 in Tudor architectural style was modelled on the Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
in England.

Modern Bangalore
Bangalore
was begun in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
I , who aligned with the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire to campaign against Gangaraja (whom he defeated and expelled to Kanchi), and who built a mud-brick fort for the people at the site that would become the central part of modern Bangalore. Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
was restricted by rules made by Achuta Deva Raya, who feared the potential power of Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
and did not allow a formidable stone fort. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes". Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions—each called a "pete" ( Kannada
Kannada
pronunciation: ). The town had two main streets—Chikkapeté Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapeté Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapeté Square—the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
I's successor, Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
II, built four towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. During the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
rule, many saints and poets referred to Bangalore
Bangalore
as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" or "Kalyānapuri" ("Auspicious City").

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
in 1565 in the Battle of Talikota , Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. Kempe Gowda declared independence, then in 1638, a large Adil Shahi Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by his second in command Shāhji Bhōnslé defeated Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
III, and Bangalore
Bangalore
was given to Shāhji as a jagir (feudal estate). In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan, under orders from Aurangzeb , defeated Ekoji I , son of Shāhji, and sold Bangalore
Bangalore
to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
for three lakh rupees. After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali , Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. Hyder Ali is credited with building the Delhi
Delhi
and Mysore gates at the northern and southern ends of the city in 1760. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan . Hyder and Tipu contributed towards the beautification of the city by building Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens in 1760. Under them, Bangalore
Bangalore
developed into a commercial and military centre of strategic importance.

The Bangalore
Bangalore
fort was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis on 21 March 1791 during the Third Anglo-Mysore War and formed a centre for British resistance against Tipu Sultan. Following Tipu's death in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), the British returned administrative control of the Bangalore
Bangalore
"pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore and was incorporated into the Princely State of Mysore , which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj . The old city ("pētē") developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore. The Residency of Mysore State
Mysore State
was first established in Mysore City in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore
Bangalore
in 1804. It was abolished in 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence . The British found Bangalore
Bangalore
to be a pleasant and appropriate place to station their garrison and therefore moved their cantonment to Bangalore
Bangalore
from Seringapatam in 1809 near Halsur, about 6 kilometres (4 mi) north-east of the city. A town grew up around the cantonment, by absorbing several villages in the area. The new centre had its own municipal and administrative apparatus, though technically it was a British enclave within the territory of the Wodeyar Kings of the Princely State of Mysore. Two important developments which contributed to the rapid growth of the city, include the introduction of telegraph connections to all major Indian cities in 1853 and a rail connection to Madras , in 1864.

LATER MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY HISTORY

A view of Bangalore
Bangalore
Pete during the 1890s A view of Bangalore Cantonment
Bangalore Cantonment
(c. 1895) Map of the city and environs, ca 1914. The Bangalore torpedo
Bangalore torpedo
was invented in Bangalore
Bangalore
in 1922.

In the 19th century, Bangalore
Bangalore
essentially became a twin city , with the "pētē", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas
Kannadigas
and the cantonment created by the British. Throughout the 19th century, the Cantonment gradually expanded and acquired a distinct cultural and political salience as it was governed directly by the British and was known as the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore. While it remained in the princely territory of Mysore, Cantonment had a large military presence and a cosmopolitan civilian population that came from outside the princely state of Mysore, including British and Anglo-Indians army officers.

Bangalore
Bangalore
was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that claimed nearly 3,500 lives. The crisis caused by the outbreak catalysed the city's sanitation process. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations. Regulations for building new houses with proper sanitation facilities came into effect. A health officer was appointed and the city divided into four wards for better co-ordination. Victoria Hospital was inaugurated in 1900 by Lord Curzon , the then Governor-General of British India
India
. New extensions in Malleswaram and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pētē. In 1903, motor vehicles came to be introduced in Bangalore. In 1906, Bangalore
Bangalore
became one of the first cities in India to have electricity from hydro power , powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra
Shivanasamudra
. The Indian Institute of Science was established in 1909, which subsequently played a major role in developing the city as a science research hub. In 1912, the Bangalore torpedo , a defensive explosive weapon widely used in World War I
World War I
and World War II
World War II
, was devised in Bangalore
Bangalore
by British army officer Captain McClintock of the Madras Sappers and Miners .

Bangalore's reputation as the "Garden City of India" began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV . Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to improve the city. Bangalore
Bangalore
played an important role during the Indian independence movement . Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
visited the city in 1927 and 1934 and addressed public meetings here. In 1926, the labour unrest in Binny Mills due to demand by textile workers for payment of bonus resulted in lathi charging and police firing, resulting in the death of four workers, and several injuries. In July 1928, there were notable communal disturbances in Bangalore, when a Ganesh idol was removed from a school compound in the Sultanpet area of Bangalore. In 1940, the first flight between Bangalore
Bangalore
and Bombay
Bombay
took off, which placed the city on India's urban map.

After India's independence in August 1947, Bangalore
Bangalore
remained in the newly carved Mysore State
Mysore State
of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh (appointed governor). The "City Improvement Trust" was formed in 1945, and in 1949, the "City" and the "Cantonment" merged to form the Bangalore City Corporation . The Government of Karnataka later constituted the Bangalore Development Authority in 1976 to co-ordinate the activities of these two bodies. Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas
Kannadigas
from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore
Bangalore
experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81, which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000. In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as MICO
MICO
(Motor Industries Company), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city.

By the 1980s, it was clear that urbanisation had spilled over the current boundaries, and in 1986, the Bangalore
Bangalore
Metropolitan Region Development Authority , was established to co-ordinate the development of the entire region as a single unit. On 8 February 1981, a major fire broke out at Venus Circus in Bangalore, where more than 92 lives were lost, the majority of them being children. Bangalore
Bangalore
experienced a growth in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows into multi-storied apartments. In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational corporation to set up base in Bangalore. Other information technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had established itself as the Silicon Valley of India. Today, Bangalore
Bangalore
is India's third most populous city. During the 21st century, Bangalore
Bangalore
has suffered terrorist attacks in 2008 , 2010 , and 2013 .

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Bangalore geography and environment
Bangalore geography and environment
The Hesaraghatta Lake
Hesaraghatta Lake
in Bangalore
Bangalore

Bangalore
Bangalore
lies in the southeast of the South Indian state
Indian state
of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian
Precambrian
Deccan Plateau ) at an average elevation of 900 m (2,953 ft). :8 It is located at 12°58′N 77°34′E / 12.97°N 77.56°E / 12.97; 77.56 and covers an area of 741 km2 (286 sq mi). The majority of the city of Bangalore
Bangalore
lies in the Bangalore
Bangalore
Urban district of Karnataka
Karnataka
and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district
Bangalore Rural district
. The Government of Karnataka
Karnataka
has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore
Bangalore
Rural district.

The topology of Bangalore
Bangalore
is generally flat, though the western parts of the city are hilly. The highest point is Vidyaranyapura Doddabettahalli , which is 962 metres (3,156 feet) and is situated to the north-west of the city. No major rivers run through the city, although the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills , 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi , a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage . A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km2 (83 sq mi) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centres located in the periphery of Bangalore.

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri
Kaveri
provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta
Hesaraghatta
reservoirs of the Arkavathi river. Bangalore
Bangalore
receives 800 million litres (211 million US gallons ) of water a day, more than any other Indian city. However, Bangalore
Bangalore
sometimes does face water shortages, especially during summer- more so in the years of low rainfall. A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index
Air Quality Index
(AQI) of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration.

Bangalore
Bangalore
has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks , the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal
Hebbal
lake, Ulsoor lake, Yediyur Lake and Sankey Tank
Sankey Tank
. Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites , gneisses and migmatites , while the soils of Bangalore
Bangalore
consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils.

Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees. Though Bangalore
Bangalore
has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.

CLIMATE

Bangalore
Bangalore
has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its high elevation, Bangalore
Bangalore
usually enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make summer somewhat uncomfortable. The coolest month is January with an average low temperature of 15.1 °C (59.2 °F) and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 35 °C (95 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore
Bangalore
is 39.2 °C (103 °F) (recorded on 24 April 2016) as there was a strong El Nino in 2016 There were also unofficial records of 41 °C (106 °F) on that day. The lowest ever recorded is 7.8 °C (46 °F) in January 1884. Winter temperatures rarely drop below 14 °C (57 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 36 °C (97 °F). Bangalore
Bangalore
receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order. The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms , which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. Most of the rainfall occurs during late afternoon/evening or night and rain before noon is infrequent. November 2015 (290.4 mm) was recorded as one of the wettest months in Bangalore
Bangalore
with heavy rains causing severe flooding in some areas, and closure of a number of organisations for over a couple of days. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179 millimetres (7 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.

CLIMATE DATA FOR BANGALORE

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 32.8 (91) 35.9 (96.6) 37.3 (99.1) 39.2 (102.6) 38.9 (102) 38.1 (100.6) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 32.4 (90.3) 31.7 (89.1) 31.1 (88) 39.2 (102.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 27.9 (82.2) 30.7 (87.3) 33.1 (91.6) 34.0 (93.2) 33.3 (91.9) 29.6 (85.3) 28.3 (82.9) 27.8 (82) 28.6 (83.5) 28.2 (82.8) 27.2 (81) 26.5 (79.7) 29.6 (85.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 15.8 (60.4) 17.5 (63.5) 20.0 (68) 22.0 (71.6) 21.7 (71.1) 20.4 (68.7) 19.9 (67.8) 19.8 (67.6) 19.8 (67.6) 19.6 (67.3) 18.0 (64.4) 16.2 (61.2) 19.2 (66.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 7.8 (46) 9.4 (48.9) 11.1 (52) 14.4 (57.9) 16.7 (62.1) 16.7 (62.1) 16.1 (61) 14.4 (57.9) 15.0 (59) 13.2 (55.8) 9.6 (49.3) 8.9 (48) 7.8 (46)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 1.9 (0.075) 5.4 (0.213) 18.5 (0.728) 41.5 (1.634) 107.4 (4.228) 106.5 (4.193) 112.9 (4.445) 147.0 (5.787) 212.8 (8.378) 168.3 (6.626) 48.9 (1.925) 15.7 (0.618) 986.8 (38.85)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 0.2 0.4 1.1 3.1 6.7 6.2 7.2 9.9 9.8 8.3 3.8 1.4 58.1

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 60 52 30 43 60 72 76 79 76 73 70 68 63.3

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 262.3 247.6 271.4 257.0 241.1 136.8 111.8 114.3 143.6 173.1 190.2 211.7 2,360.9

Source #1: Indian Meteorological Department

Source #2: NOAA (humidity and sun: 1971–1990)

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Housing in Bangalore St. Francis Xavier Cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bangalore

POPULATION GROWTH

CENSUS POP.

1941 406,760

1951 778,977

91.5%

1961 1,207,000

54.9%

1971 1,654,000

37.0%

1981 2,922,000

76.7%

1991 4,130,000

41.3%

2001 5,101,000

23.5%

2011 8,425,970

65.2%

Source: Census of India
India

RELIGION IN BANGALORE (2011)

Religion

Percent

Hinduism   78.87%

Islam   13.90%

Christianity   5.61%

Jainism   0.97%

Others†   0.65%

Distribution of religions †Includes Sikhism (0.15%), Buddhism (0.06%).

With an estimated population of 8.5 million in 2011, Bangalore
Bangalore
is the fifth most populous city in India
India
and the 18th most populous city in the world. Bangalore
Bangalore
was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi
New Delhi
between 1991 and 2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade. Residents of Bangalore
Bangalore
are referred to as "Bangaloreans" in English and Bengaloorinavaru or Bengaloorigaru in Kannada. People from other states have migrated to Bangalore.

According to the 2011 census of India, 78.9% of Bangalore's population is Hindu
Hindu
, a little less than the national average . Muslims comprise 13.9% of the population, roughly the same as their national average. Christians and Jains account for 5.6% and 1.0% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. The city has a literacy rate of 89%. Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums . —a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai
Mumbai
(50%) and Nairobi
Nairobi
(60%). The 2008 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore
Bangalore
accounts for 8.5% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India
India
which is an increase in the crime rate when compared to the number of crimes fifteen years ago.

Bangalore
Bangalore
suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast-growing cities in developing countries: rapidly escalating social inequality, mass displacement and dispossession, proliferation of slum settlements, and epidemic public health crisis due to severe water shortage and sewage problems in poor and working-class neighbourhoods.

The language that is spoken in Bangalore
Bangalore
is its native language Kannada
Kannada
. Other languages such as English, Telugu , Urdu , Tamil and Hindi are also spoken in a few places mostly by the migrants from northern India
India
and neighbouring states. The Kannada language
Kannada language
spoken in Bangalore
Bangalore
is a form of Kannada
Kannada
called as 'Old Mysuru Kannada' which is also used in most of the southern part of Karnataka
Karnataka
state. A vernacular dialect of this, known as Bangalore
Bangalore
Kannada
Kannada
, is spoken among the youth in Bangalore
Bangalore
and the adjoining Mysore regions. English (as an Indian dialect) is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the professional and business class.

The major communities of Bangalore
Bangalore
who share a long history in the city other than the Kannadigas
Kannadigas
are the Tamilians and Telugus , who migrated to Bangalore
Bangalore
in search of a better livelihood. Already in the 16th century, Bangalore
Bangalore
had speakers of Tamil, Kannada
Kannada
and Telugu, who spoke Kannada
Kannada
to carry out low profile jobs. However the Telugu Speaking Morasu Vokkaligas are the Native people of Bangalore
Bangalore
Telugu-speaking people initially came to Bangalore
Bangalore
on invitation by the Mysore royalty (a few of them have lineage dating back to Krishnadevaraya ).

Other native communities are the Tuluvas and the Konkanis of coastal Karnataka, the Kodavas of the Kodagu district of Karnataka. The migrant communities are Maharashtrians
Maharashtrians
, Punjabis , Rajasthanis , Gujaratis , Tamilians , Telugus , Sindhis , and Bengalis . Bangalore once had a large Anglo-Indian population, the second largest after Calcutta . Today, there are around 10,000 Anglo-Indians in Bangalore. Christians form a sizeable section of Bangalorean society, with migrant Tamil Christians forming the majority of the Christian population, while Kannada
Kannada
Catholics, Mangalorean Catholics
Mangalorean Catholics
, Syro-Malabar Nasranis and others form the rest of the population. Muslims form a very diverse population, consisting of Dakhini and Urdu-speaking Muslims, Kutchi Memons , Labbay and Mappilas .

CIVIC ADMINISTRATION

See also: Infrastructure in Bangalore

BANGALORE CITY IMPORTANT OFFICIALS

MUNICIPAL COMMISSIONER: G Kumar Nayak IAS

PRINCIPAL CHIEF COMMISSIONER OF INCOME TAX : Nutan Wodeyar IRS

MAYOR: Mrs. S.Shantakumari

POLICE COMMISSIONER: NS Megharik IPS

The Karnataka
Karnataka
High Court is the supreme judicial body in Karnataka
Karnataka
and is located in Bangalore. The Vikasa Soudha, situated adjacent to the Vidhana Soudha , houses many state ministries. A typical traffic speed interceptor used by the Bangalore
Bangalore
City Traffic Police

The Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation) is in charge of the civic administration of the city. It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore
Bangalore
Mahanagara Palike, with seven neighbouring City Municipal Councils, one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore. The number of wards increased to 198 in 2009. The BBMP is run by a city council composed of 250 members, including 198 corporators representing each of the wards of the city and 52 other elected representatives, consisting of members of Parliament and the state legislature. Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote . Members contesting elections to the council usually represent one or more of the state's political parties. A mayor and deputy mayor are also elected from among the elected members of the council. Elections to the BBMP were held on 28 March 2010, after a gap of three and a half years since the expiry of the previous elected body's term, and the Bharatiya Janata Party was voted into power – the first time it had ever won a civic poll in the city.

Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic. A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were close to ideal, while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic, quality of life ) aire quality and noise pollution scored poorly. The BBMP works in conjunction with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the Agenda for Bangalore's Infrastructure and Development Task Force (ABIDe) to design and implement civic and infrastructural projects.

The Bangalore City Police (BCP) has seven geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations. As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore
Bangalore
houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka
Karnataka
High Court , the Vidhana Soudha (the home of the Karnataka
Karnataka
state legislature) and Raj Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka). Bangalore
Bangalore
contributes four members to the lower house of the Indian Parliament
Indian Parliament
, the Lok Sabha , from its four constituencies: Bangalore
Bangalore
Rural , Bangalore
Bangalore
Central , Bangalore
Bangalore
North , and Bangalore
Bangalore
South , and 28 members to the Karnataka
Karnataka
Legislative Assembly .

Electricity in Bangalore
Bangalore
is regulated through the Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM), while water supply and sanitation facilities are provided by the Bangalore
Bangalore
Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB).

The city has offices of the Consulate General of Germany , France, Japan
Japan
Israel, British Deputy High Commission, along with honorary consulates of Ireland, Finland, Switzerland, Maldives, Mongolia, Sri Lanka and Peru. It also has a trade office of Canada and a virtual Consulate of the United States.

POLLUTION CONTROL

Bangalore
Bangalore
generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka
Karnataka
Composting
Composting
Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city. In 2008, Bangalore
Bangalore
produced around 2,500 metric tonnes of solid waste , and increased to 5000 metric tonnes in 2012, which is transported from collection units located near Hesaraghatta Lake
Hesaraghatta Lake
, to the garbage dumping sites. The city suffers significantly with dust pollution, hazardous waste disposal, and disorganised, unscientific waste retrievals. The IT hub, Whitefield region is the most polluted area in Bangalore. Recently a study found that over 36% of diesel vehicles in the city exceed the national limit for emissions.

SLUMS

According to a 2012 report submitted to the World Bank
World Bank
by Karnataka Slum
Slum
Clearance Board, Bangalore
Bangalore
has 862 slums from total of around 2000 slums in Karnataka. The families living in the slum are not ready to move into the temporary shelters. 42% of the households migrated from different parts of India
India
like Chennai, Hyderabad and most of North India, and 43% of the households had remained in the slums for over 10 years. The Karnataka
Karnataka
Municipality, works to shift 300 families annually to newly constructed buildings. One third of these slum clearance projects lack basic service connections, 60% of slum dwellers lack complete water supply lines and share BWSSB water supply.

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Ιn 2012 Bangalore
Bangalore
generated 2.1 million tonnes of Municipal Solid Waste
Waste
(195.4 kg/cap/yr). The waste management scenario in the state of Karnataka
Karnataka
is regulated by the Karnataka
Karnataka
State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) under the aegis of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) which is a Central Government entity. As part of their Waste Management Guidelines the Government of Karnataka
Karnataka
through the Karnataka
Karnataka
State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) has authorised a few well-established companies to manage the bio-medical waste and hazardous waste in the state of Karnataka.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Bangalore Bangalore
Bangalore
city skyline showing UB City
UB City
to the left and Richmond Town area to the right HAL : IJT prototype in its hangar. Wonderla water park, Bangalore
Bangalore
The headquarters of Infosys
Infosys
, India's second largest IT company, is located in Bangalore
Bangalore

Recent estimates of the economy of Bangalore's metropolitan area have ranged from $45 to $83 billion (PPP GDP ), and have ranked it either fourth- or fifth-most productive metro area of India. The value of city's exports totalling ₹432 billion (US$6.7 billion) in 2004–05. With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore
Bangalore
is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India, and is also the country's fourth largest fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) market. Forbes considers Bangalore
Bangalore
one of "The Next Decade's Fastest-Growing Cities". The city is the third largest hub for high-net-worth individuals and is home to over 10,000-dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investment surplus of ₹45 million (US$698,850) and ₹5 million (US$77,700) respectively.

The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML), Central Manufacturing Technology Institute (CMTI) and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools) are located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city. Bangalore
Bangalore
also houses several research and development centres for many firms such as ABB, Airbus, Bosch, Boeing, GE, GM, Google, Microsoft, Mercedes-Benz, Nokia, Oracle, Philips, Shell, Toyota and Tyco.

Bangalore
Bangalore
is called as the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's ₹1,442 billion (US$22 billion) IT exports in 2006–07. Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters – Software Technology Parks of India
India
(STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronics City . UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group , is a high-end commercial zone. Infosys
Infosys
and Wipro , India's third and fourth largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies.

The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka. The encouragement of high-tech industry in Bangalore, for example, has not favoured local employment development, but has instead increased land values and forced out small enterprise. The state has also resisted the massive investments required to reverse the rapid decline in city transport which has already begun to drive new and expanding businesses to other centres across India. Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India
India
and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India
India
were located here; including Biocon
Biocon
, India's largest biotechnology company.

TRANSPORT

AIR

The new Kempegowda
Kempegowda
International Airport is located in Devanahalli
Devanahalli
.

Bangalore
Bangalore
is served by Kempegowda
Kempegowda
International Airport (IATA : BLR, ICAO : VOBL), located at Devanahalli
Devanahalli
, about 40 kilometres (25 miles) from the city centre. It was formerly called Bengaluru International Airport. The airport started operations from 24 May 2008 and is a private airport managed by a consortium led by the GVK Group . The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport at Vimanapura , a residential locality in the eastern part of the city. The airport is third busiest in India
India
after Delhi
Delhi
and Mumbai
Mumbai
in terms of passenger traffic and the number of air traffic movements (ATMs). Taxis and air conditioned Volvo
Volvo
buses operated by BMTC connect the airport with the city.

RAIL

A schematic map of Bangalore.

A rapid transit system called the Namma Metro is built. A 7 km (4.3 mi) stretch from Bayappanahalli to MG Road was opened to public on 20 October 2011, while another 10 km (6.2 mi) stretch from Malleswaram to Peenya was opened on 1 March 2014. Once completed, this will encompass a 42.3 km (26.3 mi) elevated and underground rail network comprising 41 stations. It is expected to connect central locations in Bangalore
Bangalore
to the airport near Devanahalli
Devanahalli
as well as the Chikballapur regions. This much delayed project is the city's primary response to the worsening city transport infrastructure which has become a major deterrent to continued business growth.

Bangalore
Bangalore
is a divisional headquarters in the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
. There are four major railway stations in the city: Krantiveer Sangolli Rayanna Railway Station , Bangalore Cantonment railway station , Yeshwantapur junction and Krishnarajapuram railway station , with railway lines towards Jolarpettai
Jolarpettai
in the east, Chikballapur
Chikballapur
in the north-east, Guntakal in the north, Tumkur in the northwest, Nelamangala
Nelamangala
in the west, Mysore in the southwest and Salem in the south.

The Rail Wheel Factory is Asia's second largest manufacturer of wheel and axle for railways and is headquartered in Yelahanka, Bangalore.

ROAD

BMTC's Volvo
Volvo
buses are a popular mode of commuting within Bangalore.

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are an important and reliable means of public transport available in the city. While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users. BMTC runs air-conditioned luxury buses on major routes, and also operates shuttle services from various parts of the city to Kempegowda International Airport . The BMTC also has a mobile app that provides real-time location of a bus using the global positioning system of the user's mobile device. The Karnataka
Karnataka
State Road Transport Corporation operates 6,918 buses on 6,352 schedules, connecting Bangalore
Bangalore
with other parts of Karnataka
Karnataka
as well as other neighbouring states. The main bus depots that KSRTC maintains are the Kempegowda
Kempegowda
Bus Station , locally known as "Majestic bus stand", where most of the out station buses ply from. Some of the KSRTC buses to Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Telangana
Telangana
and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
ply from Shantinagar Bus Station , Satellite Bus Station at Mysore road and Baiyappanahalli satellite bus station. BMTC and KSRTC were the first operators in India
India
to introduce Volvo city buses and intracity coaches in India. Lalbagh Park- Lakeview

Three-wheeled, yellow and black or yellow and green auto-rickshaws , referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxis , commonly called City Taxis, are usually available too, but they are only available on call or by online based services. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws.

There are currently 1,250 vehicles being registered daily on an average in Bangalore
Bangalore
RTOs. The total number of vehicles as on date are 44 lakh vehicles, with a road length of 11,000 kilometres (6,835 miles).

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Bangalore Bangalore Karaga , one of the oldest and most important festivals in Bangalore
Bangalore
Yakshagana – a theatre art of coastal Karnataka
Karnataka
is often played in town hall

Bangalore
Bangalore
is known as the "Garden City of India" because of its greenery, broad streets and the presence of many public parks, such as Lal Bagh
Lal Bagh
and Cubbon Park
Cubbon Park
. Bangalore
Bangalore
is sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and the "Rock/Metal Capital of India" because of its underground music scene and it is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts. In May 2012, Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
ranked Bangalore
Bangalore
3rd among the world's top 10 cities to visit.

Bangalore
Bangalore
is also home to many vegan -friendly restaurants and vegan activism groups, and has been named as India's most vegan-friendly city by PETA India.

Biannual flower shows are held at the Lal Bagh
Lal Bagh
Gardens during the week of Republic Day (26 January) and Independence Day (15 August). Bangalore Karaga or "Karaga Shaktyotsava" is one of the most important and oldest festivals of Bangalore
Bangalore
dedicated to the Hindu
Hindu
Goddess Draupadi . It is celebrated annually by the Thigala community, over a period of nine days in the month of March or April. The Someshwara Car festival is an annual procession of the idol of the Halasuru Someshwara Temple (Ulsoor) led by the Vokkaligas , a farming community in southern Karnataka, occurring in April. Karnataka
Karnataka
Rajyotsava is widely celebrated on 1 November and is a public holiday in the city, to mark the formation of Karnataka
Karnataka
state on 1 November 1956. Other popular festivals in Bangalore
Bangalore
are Ugadi , Ram Navami , Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
, Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
, St. Mary\'s feast , Dasara , Deepawali
Deepawali
and Christmas
Christmas
.

The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore. Bangalore
Bangalore
has a wide and varied mix of restaurant types and cuisines and Bangaloreans deem eating out as an intrinsic part of their culture. Roadside vendors, tea stalls , and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine.

ART AND LITERATURE

Bangalore
Bangalore
did not have an effective contemporary art representation, as compared to Delhi
Delhi
and Mumbai
Mumbai
, until recently during the 1990s, several art galleries sprang up, notable being the government established National Gallery of Modern Art . Bangalore's international art festival , Art Bangalore, was established in 2010, and is South India's only art festival.

Kannada
Kannada
literature appears to have flourished in Bangalore
Bangalore
even before Kempe Gowda
Kempe Gowda
laid the foundations of the city. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Kannada
Kannada
literature was enriched by the Vachanas (a form of rhythmic writing) composed by the heads of the Veerashaiva Mathas (monastery) in Bangalore. As a cosmopolitan city, Bangalore
Bangalore
has also encouraged the growth of Telugu, Urdu, and English literatures. The headquarters of the Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat , a nonprofit organisation that promotes the Kannada
Kannada
language, is located in Bangalore. The city has its own literary festival , known as the " Bangalore
Bangalore
Literature Festival", which was inaugurated in 2012.

INDIAN CARTOON GALLERY

Indian Cartoon Gallery, Bangalore
Bangalore

The cartoon gallery is located in the heart of Bangalore, dedicated to the art of cartooning, is the first of its kind in India. Every month the gallery is conducting fresh cartoon exhibition of various professional as well as amateur cartoonist. The gallery is been organised by the Indian Institute of Cartoonists based in Bangalore that serves to promote and preserve the work of eminent cartoonists in India. the Institute has organised more than one hundred exhibitions of cartoons.

THEATRE, MUSIC, AND DANCE

Bangalore
Bangalore
is home to the Kannada
Kannada
film industry , which churns out about 80 Kannada
Kannada
movies each year. Bangalore
Bangalore
also has a very active and vibrant theatre culture with popular theatres being Ravindra Kalakshetra and the more recently opened Ranga Shankara The city has a vibrant English and foreign language theatre scene with places like Ranga Shankara and Chowdiah Memorial Hall leading the way in hosting performances leading to the establishment of the Amateur film industry. Kannada
Kannada
theatre is very popular in Bangalore, and consists mostly of political satire and light comedy. Plays are organised mostly by community organisations, but there are some amateur groups which stage plays in Kannada. Drama companies touring India
India
under the auspicies of the British Council and Max Müller
Max Müller
Bhavan also stage performances in the city frequently. The Alliance Française de Bangalore
Bangalore
also hosts numerous plays through the year.

Bangalore
Bangalore
is also a major centre of Indian classical music and dance. The cultural scene is very diverse due to Bangalore's mixed ethnic groups, which is reflected in its music concerts, dance performances and plays. Performances of Carnatic (South Indian) and Hindustani (North Indian) classical music, and dance forms like Bharat Natyam , Kuchipudi , Kathakali
Kathakali
, Kathak
Kathak
, and Odissi are very popular. Yakshagana , a theatre art indigenous to coastal Karnataka
Karnataka
is often played in town halls. The two main music seasons in Bangalore
Bangalore
are in April–May during the Ram Navami festival, and in September–October during the Dusshera festival, when music activities by cultural organisations are at their peak. Though both classical and contemporary music are played in Bangalore, the dominant music genre in urban Bangalore
Bangalore
is rock music. Bangalore
Bangalore
has its own subgenre of music, " Bangalore
Bangalore
Rock", which is an amalgamation of classic rock , hard rock and heavy metal , with a bit of jazz and blues in it. Notable bands from Bangalore
Bangalore
include Raghu Dixit Project , Kryptos , Inner Sanctum , Agam , All the fat children , and Swaratma .

The city hosted the Miss World 1996 beauty pageant.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Bangalore See also: List of educational institutions in Bangalore
Bangalore
Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science
– one of the premier institutes of science in India
India
Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Bangalore
, one of the premier management institutes in India
India
Christ University

Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore
Bangalore
was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion. The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar . Subsequently, the British Wesleyan
Wesleyan
Mission established the first English school in 1842, St. Joseph's Indian Institutions. The Bangalore
Bangalore
High School was started by the Mysore Government in 1858 and Bishop Cotton Boys\' School was started in 1865. In 1945 when World War II
World War II
came to an end, King George Royal Indian Military Colleges was started at Bangalore
Bangalore
by King George VI; the school is popularly known as Bangalore Military School National Law School of India
India
University ,a premier law university known as 'Harvard of the East'

In post-independent India, schools for young children (16 months–5 years) are called nursery, kindergarten or play school which are broadly based on Montessori or multiple intelligence methodology of education. Primary and secondary education in Bangalore
Bangalore
is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), International Baccalaureate (IB), International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). Schools in Bangalore
Bangalore
are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government). Bangalore
Bangalore
has a significant number of international schools due to expats and IT crowd. After completing their secondary education, students either attend Pre University (PUC) or continue High School in one of three streams – Arts , Commerce or Science. Alternatively, students may also enroll in Diploma courses. Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in universities through lateral entry.

Bangalore University
Bangalore University
, established in 1886, provides affiliation to over 500 colleges, with a total student enrolment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore
Bangalore
– Jnanabharathi and Central College. University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering was established in the year 1917, by Bharat Ratna Sir M. Visvesvaraya, At present, the UVCE is the only engineering college under the Bangalore University . Bangalore
Bangalore
also has many private Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University
Visvesvaraya Technological University
.

Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science
, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Indian Institute of Astrophysics , the Raman Research Institute , and International Centre for Theoretical Sciences are the premier institutes for scientific research and study in India. Nationally renowned professional institutes such as the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
Bangalore
(UASB), National Institute of Design (NID), National Institute of Fashion Technology
National Institute of Fashion Technology
(NIFT), National Law School of India
India
University (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore
Bangalore
(IIM-B), Institute of Wood Science and Technology , the ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP), the Indian Statistical Institute
Indian Statistical Institute
and International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore
Bangalore
(IIIT-B) are located in Bangalore. The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India
India
National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS). Bangalore
Bangalore
also has some of the best medical colleges in the country, like St. John\'s Medical College (SJMC) and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI). The M. P. Birla Institute of Fundamental Research has a branch located in Bangalore.

MEDIA

The first printing press in Bangalore
Bangalore
was established in 1840 in Kannada
Kannada
by the Wesleyan
Wesleyan
Christian
Christian
Mission. In 1859, Bangalore
Bangalore
Herald became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore
Bangalore
and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first Kannada
Kannada
newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore. Currently, Vijaya Karnataka
Karnataka
and The Times of India
India
are the most widely circulated Kannada
Kannada
and English newspapers in Bangalore
Bangalore
respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani and Deccan Herald both owned by the Printers (Mysore) Limited – the largest print media house in Karnataka. Other circulated newspapers are Vijayvani ,Vishwavani ,Kannadaprabha , Sanjevani , Bangalore Mirror , Udayavani provide localised news updates. On the web, Explocity provides listings information in Bangalore.

Bangalore
Bangalore
got its first radio station when All India
India
Radio , the official broadcaster for the Indian Government , started broadcasting from its Bangalore
Bangalore
station on 2 November 1955. The radio transmission was AM , until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India
India
to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore. In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore. The city probably has India's oldest Amateur (Ham) Radio Club – Bangalore
Bangalore
Amateur Radio Club (VU2ARC), which was established in 1959.

Bangalore
Bangalore
got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981. A production centre was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore
Bangalore
office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada
Kannada
on 19 November 1983. Doordarshan also launched a Kannada
Kannada
satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now named DD Chandana . The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore
Bangalore
started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels. Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore
Bangalore
has grown over the years, the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts. Direct To Home (DTH) services are also available in Bangalore
Bangalore
now.

The first Internet service provider in Bangalore
Bangalore
was STPI
STPI
, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s. This Internet service was, however, restricted to corporates until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995. Currently, Bangalore
Bangalore
has the largest number of broadband Internet connections in India.

Namma Wifi is a free municipal wireless network in Bangalore, the first free Wifi in India. It began operation on 24 January 2014. Service is available at M.G. Road, Brigade Road, and other locations. The service is operated by D-VoiS and is paid for by the State Government. Bangalore
Bangalore
was the first city in India
India
to have the 4th Generation Network (4G ) for Mobile.

SPORTS

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore
Bangalore

Cricket
Cricket
is by far the most popular sport. Bangalore
Bangalore
has many parks and gardens that provide excellent pitches for impromptu games. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former captains Rahul Dravid
Rahul Dravid
and Anil Kumble
Anil Kumble
. Some of the other notable players from the city who have represented India
India
include Gundappa Vishwanath , Syed Kirmani , E. A. S. Prasanna , B. S. Chandrasekhar , Roger Binny , Javagal Srinath , Venkatesh Prasad , Sunil Joshi
Sunil Joshi
, Robin Uthappa and Vinay Kumar . Bangalore's international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
, which has a seating capacity of 55,000 and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup , 1996 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup and the 2011 Cricket World Cup . The Chinnaswamy Stadium is the home of India's National Cricket
Cricket
Academy .

The Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League
franchise Royal Challengers Bangalore
Royal Challengers Bangalore
and the I-League club Bengaluru FC are based in the city. The city hosted some games of the 2014 Unity World Cup .

The city hosts the Women\'s Tennis Association (WTA) Bangalore
Bangalore
Open tournament annually. Beginning September 2008, Bangalore
Bangalore
has also been hosting the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open
Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open
ATP tournament annually.

The city is home to the Bangalore rugby football club (BRFC). Bangalore
Bangalore
has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club, The Bangalore
Bangalore
Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club , which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
and the Maharaja of Mysore. The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore.

India's Davis Cup team members, Mahesh Bhupathi and Rohan Bopanna reside in Bangalore. Other sports personalities from Bangalore
Bangalore
include national swimming champion Nisha Millet , world snooker champion Pankaj Advani
Pankaj Advani
and former All England Open
All England Open
badminton champion Prakash Padukone .

Bangalore
Bangalore
is home to Bengaluru Beast , 2017 vice champion of India's top professional basketball division, the UBA Pro Basketball League .

The city hast hosted some games of the 2014 Unity World Cup .

City based professional clubs CLUB SPORT LEAGUE STADIUM SPAN

Bengaluru Beast Basketball
Basketball
UBA

2015 –

Bengaluru Blasters Badminton
Badminton
PBL Koramangala
Koramangala
Indoor Stadium 2013 –

Bengaluru Bulls Kabaddi
Kabaddi
PKL Kanteerava Indoor Stadium 2014 –

Bengaluru FC Football I-League Sree Kanteerava Stadium 2013 –

HAL Bangalore
Bangalore
Football I-League Bangalore Football Stadium N/A

Karnataka
Karnataka
Bulldozers Cricket
Cricket
CCL M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
2011 –

Karnataka
Karnataka
Bulls Volleyball
Volleyball
IVL Kanteerava Indoor Stadium 2011 –

Karnataka
Karnataka
Lions Field hockey WSH Bangalore Hockey Stadium 2011 –

Royal Challengers Bangalore
Royal Challengers Bangalore
Cricket
Cricket
IPL M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
2008 –

Bangalore Brigadiers Cricket
Cricket
KPL M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
2009 –2011

Provident Bangalore Cricket
Cricket
KPL M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
2009 –2011

SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in India
India

This article contains a LIST OF MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION . Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (July 2017)

* Minsk
Minsk
, Belarus
Belarus
(1973) * Cleveland
Cleveland
, Ohio
Ohio
, United States
United States
(1992) * San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States
United States
(2008) * Chengdu
Chengdu
, Sichuan
Sichuan
, China
China
(2013)

SEE ALSO

* Book: Bangalore
Bangalore

* India
India
portal * Karnataka
Karnataka
portal * Bangalore
Bangalore
portal

* List of people from Bangalore * List of neighbourhoods in Bangalore * List of tallest buildings in Bangalore * List of tourist attractions in Bangalore
List of tourist attractions in Bangalore
* List of Chola temples in Bangalore

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. Retrieved 17 September 2013. * ^ "Idhu Akashvani, Bengalooru!". Deccan Herald. 23 January 2006. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007. * ^ "Radio City goes on air in Mumbai". Business Line. 23 May 2002. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007. * ^ "Radio gaga: 6 more FM stations". Deccan Herald. 8 January 2006. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007. * ^ " Bangalore
Bangalore
Amateur Radio Club Fifty Golden Years 1959–2009". Barc.in. Retrieved 29 March 2010. * ^ "VU2ARC". QRZ, Callsign Database. Retrieved 17 September 2013. * ^ A B "Doordarshan, Bangalore". the Press Information Bureau. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007. * ^ Sevanti Ninan (29 July 2001). "Tune in to quality". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007. * ^ "Consolidated list of channels allowed to be carried by Cable operators/Multi system operators/DTH licensees in India". the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007. * ^ "Rage against cable operators". The Times of India. 17 July 2004. Retrieved 8 October 2007. * ^ "Going for the action". Business Line. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2012. * ^ Rakesh Basant. " Bangalore
Bangalore
Cluster: Evolution, Growth and Challengers" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007. * ^ "A short recap on Internet developments in India". Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007. * ^ "A highly net-savvy city". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 December 2006. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007. * ^ "Free wifi on M.G. Road and Brigade Road from Friday". The Hindu. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. * ^ "First 4G Network for Mobile in India". Aitel 4G. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014. * ^ Bangalore
Bangalore
Mysore , pp. 29 * ^ "Cricinfo Page on Chinnaswamy Stadium". Content-usa.cricinfo.com. Retrieved 29 March 2010. * ^ "Address from NCA Website". ncabcci.com. Retrieved 9 October 2012. * ^ Bangalore
Bangalore
replaces Mumbai
Mumbai
on ATP Tour circuit. CBSSportsline.com. * ^ "Kicking up a storm". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 25 May 2009. * ^ "Detailed Account on Bangalore
Bangalore
Club". Oxford2oxford.co.uk. Retrieved 29 March 2010. * ^ Profile. CBSSports.com. CBS Interactive * ^ " Davis Cup – Player profile – Rohan BOPANNA (IND)". daviscup.com. International Tennis Federation
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. * ^ "Touch Play: The Prakash Padukone Story Badminton
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FURTHER READING

* De, Aditi (2008). Multiple city: writings on Bangalore. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-310025-6 . * Sarma, I.K. (1992). Temples of the Gangas of Karnataka. Archaeological Survey of India. ISBN 0-19-560686-8 . * Srinivas, Smriti (2004). Landscapes of Urban Memory: The Sacred and the Civic in India's High-tech City (revised ed.). Orient Blackswan . ISBN 9788125022541 . * Government of Karnataka
Karnataka
(1990). Karnataka
Karnataka
State Gazetteer: Bangalore
Bangalore
District. * Raman, A. (1994). Bangalore
Bangalore
Mysore (illustrated ed.). Orient Blackswan . ISBN 978-0-86311-431-1 . * C. Hayavadana Rao (1929). The Mysore State
Mysore State
Gazetteer. * Nair, Janaki (2005). The Promise of the Metropolis: Bangalore's Twentieth Century (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 978-0-19-566725-7 . * Pinto, Jerry; Srivastava, Rahul (2008). Talk
Talk
of the Town. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-333013-4 . * Rangachari, Edgar Thurston, K. (1993). Castes and tribes of southern India. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120602885 . * Rice, B. Lewis (2001). Mysore : a gazetteer compiled for government. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120609778 . * Stein, Burton (1989). The New Cambridge History of India
India
. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26693-2 . * Hasan, Fazlul. Bangalore
Bangalore
Through The Centuries. Bangalore: Historical Publications, 1970. * Plunkett, Richard. South India. Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
, 2001. ISBN 1-86450-161-8 * Vagale, Uday Kumar. ""Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections"" (PDF). (773 KB). Digital Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia Tech. 27 April 2004. * Hunter, Cotton, Burn, Meyer. "The Imperial Gazetteer of India", 2006. Oxford, Clarendon Press
Clarendon Press
. 1909. * "Bangalore". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 315.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to BANGALORE .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for BANGALORE .

* Bruhat Bangalore
Bangalore
Mahanagara Palike * Official website of Bangalore
Bangalore
Development Authority * Bangalore
Bangalore
at DMOZ
DMOZ

ARTICLES RELATED TO BANGALORE

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