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The Banat
Banat
is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania
Romania
(the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia
Serbia
(mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade
Belgrade
Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary
Hungary
(Csongrád county).[1][2][3][4][5] The region of Banat
Banat
is populated by ethnic Romanians, Serbs, Hungarians, Germans, Krashovani, Ukrainians, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Czechs, Croats, Jews, Romani and other ethnicities.

Contents

1 Names 2 Geography 3 History

3.1 Ancient times 3.2 Migration Period and Early Middle Ages 3.3 Hungarian administration (11th–16th centuries) 3.4 Ottoman administration (1552–1716) 3.5 Habsburg administration (1716–1867) 3.6 Hungarian administration (1867–1918) 3.7 The Banat
Banat
Question at the end of First World War 3.8 Romanian Banat
Banat
since the First World War 3.9 Serbian Banat
Banat
since the First World War 3.10 Hungarian Banat
Banat
since the First World War

4 Demographics

4.1 The whole Banat

4.1.1 1660–1666 4.1.2 1743–1753 4.1.3 1774 4.1.4 1840 4.1.5 1900 4.1.6 1910 4.1.7 Population table

4.2 Romanian Banat 4.3 Serbian Banat

5 Symbols 6 Cities 7 Tourist spots 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Names[edit] Further information: Ban (title), Banate (other), and Banat (other) During the Middle Ages, the term "banate" was designating a frontier province led by a military governor who was called ban. Such provinces existed mainly in South Slavic, Hungarian and Romanian lands. In South Slavic and other regional languages, terms for "banate" were: Serbian - бановина / banovina, Hungarian - bánság, Romanian - banat and Latin - banatus. At the time of the medieval Hungarian kingdom, the territory of modern-day Banat
Banat
appeared in written sources as "Temesköz" (first mentioned in 1374).[6][need quotation to verify] The Hungarian name mainly referred to the lowland areas between the Mureş, Tisza
Tisza
and Danube
Danube
Rivers.[6][7][need quotation to verify] Its Ottoman name was "Eyalet of Temeşvar" (later "Eyalet of Yanova"). During the Turkish occupation, the territory of Temesköz (Banat) was also called "Rascia" ("the country of the Serbs", 1577).[8] In the early modern period, there were two banates that partially or entirely included the territory of what is referred to in the current era as Banat: the Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș
Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș
in 16th and 17th century and the Banat of Temeswar
Banat of Temeswar
or Banat
Banat
of Temes in 18th and 19th centuries. The word "Banat" without any other qualification, typically refers to the historical Banat
Banat
of Temeswar, which acquired this title after the 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz. The name was also used from 1941 to 1944, during Axis occupation, for the short-lived political entity (see: Banat
Banat
(1941–44)), which covered only today's Serbian part of the historical Banat. The name Banat
Banat
is similar in different languages of the region; Romanian: Banat, Serbo-Croatian: Banat
Banat
/ Банат (pronounced [bǎnaːt]), Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, Bulgarian: Банат, German: Banat, Ukrainian: Банат, Turkish: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Czech: Banát, Greek: Βάνατον, Vànaton. Some of these languages would also have other terms, from their own frame of reference, to describe this historical and geographic region. Geography[edit]

Countryside view of rural areas of Romanian Banat

Main articles: Geography of Romania, Geography of Serbia, and Geography of Vojvodina The Banat
Banat
is defined as the part of the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
bordered by the River Danube
Danube
to the south, the River Tisa to the west, the River Mureș to the north, and the Southern Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
to the east. Its historical capital was Timișoara, now in Timiș County
Timiș County
in Romania. The territory of the Banat
Banat
is presently part of the Romanian counties Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad and Mehedinți; the Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Belgrade
Belgrade
City District; and the Hungarian Csongrád County. The Romanian Banat
Banat
is mountainous in the south and southeast, while in the north, west and south-west it is flat and in some places marshy. The climate, except in the marshy parts, is generally healthy. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, flax, hemp and tobacco are grown in large quantities, and the products of the vineyards are of a good quality. Game is plentiful and the rivers swarm with fish. The mineral wealth is great, including copper, tin, lead, zinc, iron and especially coal. Amongst its numerous mineral springs, the most important are those of Mehadia, with sulphurous waters, which were already known in the Roman period as the Termae Herculis (Băile Herculane). The present "Banat Region" of Romania
Romania
includes some areas that are mountainous and were not part of the historical Banat
Banat
or of the Pannonian plain. In Serbia, the Banat
Banat
is mostly plains. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, hemp and sunflower are grown, and mineral wealth consists of oil and natural gas. A popular tourist destination in the Banat
Banat
is Deliblatska Peščara. There are also several ethnic minorities in the region, including Hungarians
Hungarians
(10.21% of the population), Romanians, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Roma people, and others. History[edit]

History of Banat

Historical Banat

Glad Banat
Banat
in the Middle Ages Ajtony Eyalet of Temeşvar Banate of Lugos and Karánsebes Banat
Banat
of Temeswar Banatian Military Frontier District of Velika Kikinda Voivodeship of Serbia
Serbia
and Temes Banat Temes County Torontál
Torontál
County Krassó-Szörény
Krassó-Szörény
County Banat
Banat
Republic

Modern Romanian Banat

Ţinutul Timiş Timiş County Caraş-Severin County Vest development region

Modern Serbian Banat

Banat, Bačka
Bačka
and Baranja Banat
Banat
(1941–1944) North Banat
Banat
District Central Banat
Banat
District South Banat
Banat
District

Modern Hungarian Banat

Csongrád County

v t e

For earlier events, see Prehistory of Transylvania, Prehistory of Romania, Prehistoric Serbia, and Prehistoric Hungary. Ancient times[edit] Main articles: Scordisci, Dacia, Celts, Celts
Celts
in Transylvania, Roman Empire, Roman Dacia, and Ancient history of Transylvania The first known inhabitants of present-day Banat
Banat
were the Neolithic populations. In the 4th century BC, Celtic tribes
Celtic tribes
settled in this area. Various Hallstatt
Hallstatt
and La Tène
La Tène
objects were found in this area. The most important tribes were the Scordisci
Scordisci
and the Taurisci. The Scordisci, who formed a powerful state even minted their own coins, imitating the Macedonian tetradrachm. The Scordisci
Scordisci
subdued as all the other tribes in the region to the getic ruler Burebista, therefore their region was part of the Dacian kingdom under Burebista
Burebista
in the first century BC, but the balance of power in the area partially changed during the campaigns of Augustus. At the beginning of the 2nd century A.D., Trajan
Trajan
led two wars against the Dacians: the campaigns of 101-102, and 105-106. Eventually, the territory of Banat
Banat
fell under Roman rule. It became an important link between Dacia
Dacia
province and the other parts of the Empire. Roman rule had a significant impact: castra and guard stations were established and roads and public buildings built. The public bath establishments of Ad Aquas Herculis, modern-day Băile Herculane
Băile Herculane
were also established. Some of the important Roman settlements in Banat
Banat
were: Arcidava (today Vărădia), Centum Putea (today Surducu Mare), Berzobis (today Berzovia), Tibiscum (today Jupa), Agnaviae (today Zăvoi), Ad Pannonios (today Teregova), Praetorium (today Mehadia), and Dierna (today Orșova). In 273 A.D. Emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
withdrew the Roman Army from Dacia. The area fell into the hands of foederati such as the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
(Iazyges, Roxolani, Limigantes) and later the Goths, who also took control of other parts of Dacia.

Ancient Indo-European peoples in Banat

Ancient Roman cities in Banat

Migration Period and Early Middle Ages[edit] Main articles: Romania
Romania
in the Early Middle Ages, Transylvania
Transylvania
in the Middle Ages, Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages, Origin of the Romanians, and Slavs The Goths
Goths
were forced out by the Huns, who organized their ruling center in the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
(the Pannonian Plain), an area that included the northwestern part of today's Banat. After the death of Attila, the Hunnic empire disintegrated in days. The previously subjected Gepids
Gepids
formed a new kingdom in the area, only to be defeated 100 years later by the Avars. One governing center of the Avars was formed in the region, which played an important role in the Avar–Byzantine wars. An inscription on one of the vessels from the Treasure of Sânnicolau Mare
Treasure of Sânnicolau Mare
(which origin is disputed) recorded names of two local rulers, Butaul
Butaul
and Buyla, who bore Slavic ruling titles of župan. The Avar rule over the area lasted until the 9th century, until Charlemagne's campaigns. The Banat
Banat
region became part of the First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
a few decades later. Archaeological evidence shows the Avars and Gepids
Gepids
lived here until the middle of the 10th century. The Avar rule had triggered considerable Slavic migration to the southern Pannonian plain and to the Balkans. In 895, the Hungarians
Hungarians
living in Etelköz
Etelköz
entered the Byzantine-Bulgarian war as allies of Byzantium, and defeated the Bulgars. Because of this, the Bulgarians allied with the Pechenegs, who attacked the Hungarian settlements. This led to the process of what is known as the Hungarian conquest of the Pannonian basin, referred to by them as "hometaking" (honfoglalás) in Hungarian. This also resulted in the loss of part of the territories north of the Danube
Danube
for the Bulgarian empire. According to Gesta Hungarorum chronicle, a local ruler known as Glad ruled over the Banat
Banat
and his army was formed by Vlachs, Bulgarians and Cumans[9] Ahtum
Ahtum
was another early-11th-century ruler in the territory now known as Banat. His primary source is the Long Life of Saint Gerard, a 14th-century hagiography. Chanadinus, Ahtum's former commander-in-chief, defeated and killed Ahtum, occupying his realm.[9] Hungarian administration (11th–16th centuries)[edit]

Banat
Banat
in 16th century map Tabula Hungariae. Note the dramatic geographic changes — a large lake around Zrenjanin
Zrenjanin
is today dried out

Main articles: Banat
Banat
in the Middle Ages, Romania
Romania
in the Middle Ages, and Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages Banat
Banat
was administered by The First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
from the 9th to the 11th century, but that control gradually migrated to the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
which administered it from the 11th century up until 1552, when the region of Temesvár (today Timișoara) was taken by the Ottoman Empire. The area of the Timiș river was not the land of the Hungarian royal tribe. When nomadic Hungarians
Hungarians
came to Transylvania there was no direct Bulgarian political rule there.[10] In the eastern part of the Pannonian basin among Christians, the Byzantine rite became more influential after Ahtum's conversion to Christianity. This was halted with the establishment of the Kingdom of Hungary. István I reasserted dominance over the last local leader, Ahtum
Ahtum
( Ajtony
Ajtony
in other sources). Ahtum
Ahtum
was a semi-independent ruler of Banat
Banat
and an Orthodox Christian. Ahtum
Ahtum
constructed a Byzantine monastery at Morisena. His vassal Csanád
Csanád
defeated him by the will of King Stephen I of Hungary. The territory of the modern Banat
Banat
did not form a separate territorial unit in medieval Kingdom of Hungary, it was an integral part of it. The territory was shared by Krassó, Keve, Temes, Csanád, Arad and Torontál
Torontál
Counties. In 1233, under the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
administration, the Banate of Severin, a military frontier area was formed, including some eastern parts of the modern Banat. In the 14th century, the region became of priority concern to the Kingdom, as the southern border of the Banat was the most important defensive line against Ottoman expansion from the Southeast.

Duchy of Glad, 9th century

Duchy of Ahtum, 11th century

Counties of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
in present-day Banat
Banat
region in the 14th century

Banate of Severin

Ottoman administration (1552–1716)[edit]

After the capture of Temesvár, 1552

Main articles: Eyalet of Temeşvar, Early Modern Romania, and Ottoman Serbia The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
took over the area and incorporated the Banat
Banat
in 1552. It was absorbed as an Ottoman eyalet (province) named the Eyalet of Temeşvar. The Banat
Banat
region was mainly populated by Rascians (Serbs) in the west and Vlachs
Vlachs
(Romanians) in the east; thus, in some historical sources it was referred to as Rascia and in others Wallachia[citation needed]. Numerous Ottoman Muslims settled in the area, living mostly in the cities and associated with trade and administration. Not all of the Banat
Banat
fell immediately under Turkish rule. Eastern regions around Lugoj
Lugoj
and Caransebeș
Caransebeș
came under the rule of Princes of Transylvania. In that area, a new banate was formed, known as the Banate of Lugoj
Lugoj
and Caransebeș. In the spring of 1594, shortly after the beginning of Austro-Turkish War (1593-1606), Serbian Christians[citation needed] in Eyalet of Temeşvar started an Uprising against Turkish rule. The local Romanians
Romanians
also participated in this uprising. At first, rebels were successful. They took the city of Vršac
Vršac
and various other towns in Banat
Banat
and started negotiations with Prince of Transylvania. One of the leaders of the uprising was local Serbian Orthodox Bishop Theodore.[11] In the middle of the 17th century, the territory of Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș
Caransebeș
finally fell under Turkish rule and was incorporated into Eyalet of Temeşvar. During Austro-Turkish War (1683-1699), local Serbian uprisings broke out in various parts of Eyalet of Temeşvar. Austrian armies and Serbian militia tried to drive out sultans army from the province, but Turks succeeded in holding the fort of Temesvár. In 1689, Serbian patriarch Arsenije III sided with Austrians. His jurisdiction (including the province) was officially recognized by the charters of emperor Leopold I in 1690, 1691 and 1695. Under the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), northern parts of the Eyalet of Temeşvar
Eyalet of Temeşvar
were incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy, but the territory of Banat remained under Turkish rule.

Jurisdiction of Serbian Patriarchate in 16th and 17th century

Eyalet of Temeşvar
Eyalet of Temeşvar
and Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș
Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș
in 1568

Uprising in Banat
Uprising in Banat
in 1594

Eyalet of Temeşvar
Eyalet of Temeşvar
in the middle of the 17th century

Eyalet of Temeşvar
Eyalet of Temeşvar
and the surrounding regions in 1683

Eyalet of Temeşvar, from 1699 to 1716

Habsburg administration (1716–1867)[edit] Main articles: Habsburg Monarchy, Banat
Banat
of Temeswar, Early Modern Romania, and History of Serbia
Serbia
(1804–1918)

Banat
Banat
of Temeswar, province of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
in 1718-1739

Banat
Banat
of Temeswar, province of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
in 1739-1751

Banat
Banat
of Temeswar, province of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
in 1751–1778

Banat
Banat
region in the cadastral map of the 1769-1772 census

At the beginning of the next Austro-Turkish War (1716-1718), Prince Eugene of Savoy took the Banat
Banat
region from the Turks. After the Treaty of Passarowitz (1718), the region became a province of the Habsburg Monarchy. It was not incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary. Special provincial administration was established, centered in Temesvár. In 1738, over 50 Romanian villages from Serbia
Serbia
and Banat
Banat
were destroyed and dwellers murdered by Austrians and Serb militia during a revolt of Romanians[12] Aldo governor of the province was not given the title of "ban", the region became known as the Banate of Temes or Banat
Banat
of Temeswar. It remained a separate province within the Habsburg Monarchy and under military administration until 1751, when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
reorganized the province, dividing it between military and civil administration. The Banat of Temeswar
Banat of Temeswar
province was abolished in 1778, when civilian part of the region was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and divided into counties. The southern part of the Banat
Banat
region remained within the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(Banat Krajina) until the Frontier was abolished in 1871. During the Ottoman rule, parts of Banat
Banat
had a low population density due to years of warfare, and some local residents also lost their lives during Habsburg-Ottoman wars and Prince Eugene of Savoy's conquest. Much of the area had reverted to nearly uninhabited marsh, heath and forest. Count Claudius Mercy
Claudius Mercy
(1666–1734), who was appointed governor of the Banat of Temeswar
Banat of Temeswar
in 1720, took numerous measures for the regeneration of the Banat. He recruited German artisans and especially farmers from Bavaria
Bavaria
and other southern areas as colonists, allowing them privileges such as keeping their language and religion in their settlements. Farmers brought their families and belongings on rafts down the Danube
Danube
River, and were encouraged to restore farming in the area. They cleared the marshes near the Danube and Tisa rivers, helped build roads and canals, and re-established agriculture. Trade was also encouraged.[13] Maria Theresa also took a direct interest in the Banat; she colonized the region with large numbers of German farmers, who were admired for their agricultural skills. She encouraged the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, and generally developed the measures that were introduced by Count Mercy.[13] German settlers arrived from Swabia, Alsace
Alsace
and Bavaria, as did German-speaking colonists from Austria. Many settlements in the eastern Banat
Banat
were developed by Germans
Germans
and had ethnic-German majorities. The ethnic Germans
Germans
in the Banat
Banat
region became known as the Danube
Danube
Swabians, or Donauschwaben. After years of separation from their original German provinces, their language was markedly different, preserving historic characteristics. Similarly, a minority coming from French-speaking or linguistically mixed communes in Lorraine maintained the French language for several generations, and developed a specific ethnic identity, later known as Banat
Banat
French, Français du Banat.[14] In 1779, the Banat
Banat
region was incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, and the three counties of Torontal, Temes and Karasch were created. In 1848, after the May Assembly, the western Banat
Banat
became part of the Serbian Vojvodina, a Serbian autonomous region within the Habsburg Monarchy. During the Revolutions of 1848–1849, the Banat was respectively held by Serbian and Hungarian troops. After the Revolution of 1848–1849, the Banat
Banat
(together with Syrmia and Bačka) was designated as a separate Austrian crownland known as the Voivodeship of Serbia
Serbia
and Temes Banat. In 1860 this province was abolished and most of its territory was incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. The Serbian Banat
Banat
(Western Banat) was part of Serbian Vojvodina (1848–1849) and part of the Voivodeship of Serbia
Serbia
and Temes Banat (1849–1860). After 1860, later Serbian Banat
Banat
was part of Torontal and Temes counties of Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. The center of Torontal county was Großbetschkerek (Hungarian: Nagybecskerek, Serbian: Veliki Bečkerek), the current Zrenjanin. Hungarian administration (1867–1918)[edit] Main articles: Austria- Hungary
Hungary
and Kingdom of Hungary

Folk costumes in Banat, around the 1860s

In 1867, after the Austro-Hungarian compromise the territory returned again to Hungarian administration. After 1871, the former Military Frontier, located in southern parts of the Banat, came under civil administration and was incorporated into the Banat
Banat
counties. Krassó and Szörény
Szörény
were united into Krassó-Szörény
Krassó-Szörény
in 1881.

Proclaimed borders of Serbian Vojvodina
Vojvodina
in 1848 (including Western Banat)

Voivodeship of Serbia
Serbia
and Temes Banat
Banat
(1849-1860)

Counties in Banat, Bačka
Bačka
and Syrmia
Syrmia
from 1881 to 1918

The Banat
Banat
Question at the end of First World War[edit] Main articles: Banat
Banat
Republic; Banat, Bačka
Bačka
and Baranja; Greater Romania; and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes In 1918, the Banat Republic
Banat Republic
was proclaimed in Timișoara
Timișoara
in October, and the government of Hungary
Hungary
recognized its independence. However, it was short-lived. After just two weeks, Serbian troops invaded the region and took control. From November 1918 to March 1919, western and central parts of Banat
Banat
were governed by Serbian administration from Novi Sad, as part of the Banat, Bačka and Baranja
Banat, Bačka and Baranja
province of the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
and newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes (which was later renamed as Yugoslavia). In the wake of the Declaration of Union of Transylvania
Transylvania
with Romania on December 1, 1918 and the Declaration of Unification of Banat, Bačka
Bačka
and Baranja with Serbia
Serbia
on November 25, 1918, most of the Banat was (in 1919) divided between Romania
Romania
( Krassó-Szörény
Krassó-Szörény
completely, two-thirds of Temes, and a small part of Torontál) and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes (most of Torontál, and one-third of Temes). A small area near Szeged
Szeged
was assigned to the newly independent Hungary. These borders were confirmed by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles and the 1920 Treaty of Trianon. At the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the delegates of the Romanian and some German communities voted for union with Romania;[15][16] the delegates of the Serbian, Bunjevac and other Slavic and non-Slavic communities (including some Germans) voted for union with Serbia;[citation needed] while the Hungarian minority remained loyal to the government in Budapest. Besides these declarations, no other plebiscite was held.

Self-proclaimed Banat Republic
Banat Republic
in 1918

Situation around Banat
Banat
in 1918

Situation around Banat
Banat
in 1919-1921

Division of Banat
Banat
in 1919-1923

Romanian Banat
Banat
since the First World War[edit] Main articles: Timiș County
Timiș County
and Caraș-Severin County

Romanian king Carol II visits a village in the Romanian Banat, 1934.

Map of Romania
Romania
with Romanian Banat
Banat
highlighted

In 1938, the counties of Timiș-Torontal, Caraș, Severin, Arad and Hunedoara were joined to form ținutul Timiș, which roughly encompassed the area typically called Banat
Banat
in Romania. On 6 September 1950, the province was replaced by the Timișoara Region (formed by the present-day counties of Timiș and Caraș-Severin). In 1956, the southern half of the existing Arad Region was incorporated to the Timișoara
Timișoara
Region. In December 1960, the Timișoara
Timișoara
Region was named the Banat
Banat
Region. On 17 February 1968, a new territorial division was made and today's Timiș, Caraș-Severin and Arad counties were formed. Since 1998, Romania
Romania
has been split into eight development regions, which act as autonomous territorial divisions. The Vest development region is composed of four counties: Arad, Timiș, Hunedoara and Caraș-Severin; thus it has almost same borders as the Timiș Province (ținutul Timiș) of 1938. The Vest development region is also a part of the Danube-Criș-Mureș-Tisa Euroregion. Ethnic minorities in the region include Hungarians
Hungarians
(5.6% of the population), Serbs, Croats (Krashovans), Bulgarians, Ukrainians, and others. Serbian Banat
Banat
since the First World War[edit] Main articles: Belgrade
Belgrade
Oblast, Danube
Danube
Banovina, and Banat
Banat
(1941-1944)

Banat
Banat
between 1922 and 1929

Serbia
Serbia
and Banat
Banat
under Nazi occupation 1941-1944

Serbian Banat
Banat
within Vojvodina

The region was county of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes between 1918 and 1922 (in 1918–1919, county was part of the province of Banat, Bačka
Bačka
and Baranja) and from 1922 to 1929 it was divided between Belgrade
Belgrade
oblast and Podunavlje
Podunavlje
oblast. In 1929, most of the region was incorporated into the Danube
Danube
Banovina (Danubian Banat), a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, while the city of Pančevo
Pančevo
was incorporated into self-governed Belgrade
Belgrade
district. Between 1941 and 1944, the Serbian Banat
Banat
was occupied by the Nazi German troops. Following the Axis partition of Yugoslavia, Serbian Banat
Banat
was made a part of German-occupied Serbia, in which it enjoyed autonomy. It functioned as a virtually separate autonomous entity ruled by its German minority, who were promoted by the German occupational military authorities. During this time, numerous war crimes were committed against local Serb and Jewish population. As a consequence of a disturbed ethnic relations during the occupation, much of the local Germans
Germans
fled from the region together with defeated German army in 1944. Those Germans
Germans
who remained in the country were sent to prison camps run by the new communist authorities. After prison camps were dissolved (in 1948), most of the remaining German population left Serbia
Serbia
because of economic reasons. Many went to Germany; others emigrated to western Europe and the United States. During World War II, the Axis Powers occupied this area and partitioned it. Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
had been intent on expanding into eastern Europe to incorporate what it called the Volksdeutsche, people of ethnic German descent. They established the political entity known as Banat
Banat
in 1941. It included only the western part of the historical Banat
Banat
region, which was formerly part of Yugoslavia. It was formally under the control of the Serbian puppet Government of National Salvation in Belgrade
Belgrade
led by Milan Nedić. It theoretically had limited jurisdiction over all of the territory under German Military Administration in Serbia, but in practice the local minority of ethnic Germans
Germans
( Danube
Danube
Swabians or Shwoveh) held the political power within the Banat. The regional civilian commissioner was Josef Lapp. The head of the ethnic German group was Sepp Janko. Following the ousting of Axis forces in 1944, this German-ruled region was dissolved. Most of its territory was included in the Vojvodina, one of the two autonomous provinces of Serbia
Serbia
within the new SFR Yugoslavia. Following WWII, most ethnic Germans
Germans
were expelled from the Banat
Banat
and eastern Europe. Since 1944-1945, the Serbian Banat
Banat
(together with Bačka
Bačka
and Syrmia), has been part of the Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, first as part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and then as part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. Since 2006, it has been part of an independent Serbia. The districts of Serbia
Serbia
in Banat
Banat
are: North Banat
Banat
okrug (which also includes municipalities of Ada, Senta
Senta
and Kanjiža, which are situated in the region of Bačka), Central Banat
Banat
okrug, and South Banat
Banat
okrug. Serbian Banat
Banat
also includes the area known as Pančevački Rit, which belongs to the Belgrade
Belgrade
municipality of Palilula. See also: Geographical regions in Serbia Hungarian Banat
Banat
since the First World War[edit] The Hungarian Banat
Banat
consists of a small northern part of the region, which is part of the Csongrád County
Csongrád County
of Hungary. In addition to the Hungarian population, there's a small minority of Serbs
Serbs
(e.g. in Deszk, Szőreg). Demographics[edit]

Ethnic map of Banat
Banat
in 1743

Ethnic map of Banat
Banat
in 1774

Romanians
Romanians
in Timișoara
Timișoara
in 1860

The Banat Swabians
Banat Swabians
are an ethnic German population, part of the Danube Swabians in 1940

Serbs
Serbs
in Izbište

Ethnic map of Serbian Banat
Banat
(2002 census)

Main articles: Demographic history of Romania, Demographic history of Serbian Banat, and Demographic history of Vojvodina The whole Banat[edit] 1660–1666[edit] In 1660–1666, Serbs
Serbs
lived in western (flat) part of the Banat, while Romanians
Romanians
lived in the eastern (mountainous) part.[17] 1743–1753[edit] In 1743–1753, ethnic composition of Banat
Banat
looked as follows:[18]

Three eastern districts had a Romanian population: Lugoj, Caransebeș and Orșova. Three western districts had a Serbian population: Veliki Bečkerek, Pančevo
Pančevo
and Velika Kikinda. Six central districts had a mixed Serb-Romanian population: Timișoara, Lipova, Vršac, Nova Palanka, Ciacova
Ciacova
and Cenad.

Ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
were almost totally absent from the region in the first half of the 18th century.[19] They were considered politically unreliable, but in 1730 some Catholic Hungarians
Hungarians
were allowed to settle down in the Banat.[20] 1774[edit] According to 1774 data, the population of the Banat
Banat
of Temeswar numbered 375,740 people and was composed of:[21]

220,000 (58.55%) Romanians 100,000 (26.61%) Serbs
Serbs
and Greeks 53,000 (14.11%) Germans 2,400 (0.64%) Hungarians
Hungarians
and Bulgarians 340 (0.09%) Jews

1840[edit] Banat
Banat
had in 1840 a population of over a million which included:[20]

570,000 (55.34%) Romanians 200,000 (19.42%) Germans 200,000 (19.42%) Serbs 60,000 (5.83%) Hungarians

1900[edit] In 1900, the population of Banat
Banat
numbered 1,431,329 people, including:[22]

578,789 (40.4%) Romanians 362,487 (25.3%) Germans 251,938 (17.6%) Serbs 170,124 (11.9%) Hungarians

1910[edit] According to the 1910 census, the population of the Banat
Banat
region (counties of Torontál, Temes and Krassó-Szörény) numbered 1,582,133 people, including:[23][24][25] (*)

592,049 (37.42%) Romanians 387,545 (24.50%) Germans 284,329 (17.97%) Serbs 242,152 (15.31%) Hungarians smaller numbers of other ethnic groups such as the Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Rusyns, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, etc.

(*) Note: according to the 1910 census, the population of Romanian Banat
Banat
included 52.6% Romanians, 25.6% Germans, 12.2% Hungarians, and 4.9% Serbs, while population of Serbian Banat
Banat
included 40.53% Serbs, 22.14% Germans, 19.18% Hungarians, 12.94% Romanians, and 2.86% Slovaks. In Serbia
Serbia
the majority of the Banat
Banat
Swabian or Shwovish population fled from the region together with the defeated German army in the Fall of 1944, as one can see in the population Table below, where the German - speaking Shwovish population dropped from about 120,000 in 1931 to about 17,000 in 1948. Those who remained in the country were sent to prison camps run by the new communist authorities, where many died from hunger, disease and cold, but many also escaped. After the prison camps were dissolved (in 1948), most of the remaining German population left Serbia
Serbia
and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
because of economic reasons. Their flight was mainly a consequence of wartime events and Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, but partly also a consequence of the economic situation in the post-war years. In Romania
Romania
ethnic Germans
Germans
mostly emigrated after 1989 for economic reasons. Population table[edit] The historical population of the Banat
Banat
region in different time periods:

Year Total

1717 85,166

1743 125,000

1753 210,992

1774 375,740

1797 667,912

1900 1,431,329

1910 1,582,133

Romanian Banat[edit] The historical population of the Romanian Banat
Banat
(the Timiș,[26][27] and Caraș-Severin,[28][29] counties) was as following:

Year Total Romanians Hungarians Germans Serbs Roma

1880 744,367 426,368 (57.3%) 37,586 (5.0%) 202,698 (27.2%) 46,983 (6.3%) n/a

1890 812,799 446,816 (55.0%) 50,899 (6.3%) 233,006 (29.9%) 41,356 (5.1%) n/a

1900 871,598 468,508 (53.8%) 78,656 (9.0%) 243,582 (27.9%) 41,960 (4.8%) n/a

1910 902,210 474,787 (52.6%) 109,873 (12.2%) 231,391 (25.6%) 44,598 (4.9%) n/a

1920 822,639 450,817 (54.8%) 79,955 (9.7%) 208,774 (25.4%) n/a n/a

1930 878,877 473,781 (53.9%) 91,421 (10.4%) 215,031 (24.5%) 37,113 (4.2%) 16,471 (1.9%)

1941 898,262 505,448 (56.3%) 80,575 (9.0%) 213,840 (23.8%) n/a n/a

1956 896,668 589,369 (65.7%) 85,790 (9.6%) 137,697 (15.4%) 40,018 (4.5%) 9,309 (1.0%)

1966 966,322 674,062 (69.8%) 85,358 (8.8%) 133,197 (13.8%) 38,535 (4.0%) 6,769 (0.7%)

1977 1,082,461 796,007 (73.5%) 86,763 (8.0%) 119,972 (11.1%) 29,514 (2.7%) 15,755 (1.5%)

1992 1,076,380 886,958 (82.4%) 70,742 (6.6%) 38,658 (3.6%) 25,029 (2.3%) 22,612 (2.1%)

2002 1,011,145 859,690 (85.0%) 56,380 (5.6%) 20,323 (2.0%) 19,355 (1.9%) 23,998 (2.4%)

Serbian Banat[edit]

Year Total Serbs Hungarians Germans Romanians Slovaks

1910 566,400 229,568 (40.5%) 108,622 (19.2%) 125,374 (22.1%) 73,303 (12.9%) 16,223 (2,9%)

1921 559,096 235,148 (42.1%) 98,463 (17.6%) 126,519 (22.6%) 66,433 (11,9%) 17,595 (3,2%)

1931 585,579 261,123 (44,6%) 95,867 (16,4%) 120,541 (20,6%) 62,365 (10,7%) 17,900 (2,1%)

1948 601,626 358,067 (59,6%) 110,446 (18,4%) 17,522 (2,9%) 55,678 (9,3%) 20,685 (2,4%)

1953 617,163 374,258 (60,6%) 112,683 (18,4%) n/a 55,094 (8,9%) 21,299 (3,4%)

1961 655,868 423,837 (64,6%) 111,944 (17,1%) n/a 54,447 (8,3%) 22,306 (3,4%)

1971 666,559 434,810 (65,2%) 103,090 (15.5%) n/a 49,455 (7,4%) 22,173 (3,3%)

1981 672,884 424,765 (65,7%) 90,445 (14,0%) n/a 43,474 (6,7%) 21,392 (3,3%)

1991 648,390 423,475 (65,1%) 76,153 (11.7%) n/a 35,935 (5,5%) 19,903 (3.1%)

2002 665,397 477,890 (71.8%) 63,047 (9.5%) 908 (0,1%) 27,661 (4,1%) 17,994 (2,7%)

Symbols[edit] The traditional heraldic symbol of the Banat
Banat
is a lion, which is nowadays present in both the coat of arms of Romania
Romania
and the coat of arms of Vojvodina. Cities[edit] The largest cities in the Banat
Banat
are:

Romania:

Timișoara
Timișoara
(330,279) Reșița
Reșița
(73,282) Lugoj
Lugoj
(37,700) Caransebeș
Caransebeș
(28,301)

Serbia
Serbia
(Vojvodina):

Zrenjanin
Zrenjanin
(76,511) Pančevo
Pančevo
(76,203) Kikinda
Kikinda
(38,065) Vršac
Vršac
(35,701)

Serbia
Serbia
( Belgrade
Belgrade
City District):

Borča
Borča
(46,086)

Tourist spots[edit]

Museum of Banat Huniade Castle Mühle House Cetate Synagogue Fabric Synagogue Iosefin Synagogue Timișoara
Timișoara
Orthodox Cathedral St. George's Cathedral, Timișoara Millennium Church Sveti Đurađ monastery Theresia Bastion Capitoline Wolf Statue Cheile Nerei-Beușnița National Park Semenic-Cheile Carașului National Park Domogled-Valea Cernei National Park

Gallery[edit]

Timișoara

Zrenjanin

Pančevo

Reșița

Vršac

Kikinda

Borča

Lugoj

Caransebeș

See also[edit]

Romania
Romania
portal Serbia
Serbia
portal Hungary
Hungary
portal

Vojvodina Banat
Banat
Krajina Banat
Banat
Bulgarians Banat
Banat
Swabians Danube
Danube
Swabians Treaty of Karlowitz Military Frontier

References[edit]

^ " Banat
Banat
– NVBNT". nvbnt.wordpress.com (in Romanian). Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ "EXCLUSIV A fost conceput primul steag al Banatului: o cruce albă pe fundal verde". m.adevarul.ro. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ SRL, SC Webforyou. "Sfântul Gheorghe - calendar intercultural". www.calendarintercultural.ro. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ Bălan, Titus. "Avem sau nu avem nevoie de un steag al Banatului?". www.banatulazi.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ Călin, Drd. Claudiu (2016). "Prezența călugărilor greci la Cenad în sec. al XI-lea și transferarea lor la Oroszlámos/Banatsko Aranđelovo. O pseudo-dispută". Morisena.  ^ a b "Temesköz". MAGYAR NÉPRAJZI LEXIKON (Hungarian Ethnographic Lexicon). Akademiai Kiado (1977-1982).  ^ "Temesköz". Magyar Katolikus Lexikon (Hungarian Catholic Lexicon).  ^ Palffy, Geza (2001). "The Impact of the Ottoman rule on Hungary" (PDF). Hungarian Studies Review. XXVIII (1-2): 109–132. Retrieved 10 December 2015.  ^ a b Madgearu, Alexandru - Geneza și evoluția voievodatului bănățean din secolul al X-lea.(Origins and evolution of Banat
Banat
duchy in the 19th century). Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medie, 16, 1998, p. 191-207 ^ Victor Spinei, The Romanians
Romanians
and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube
Danube
Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century. (East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 450–1450, Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009 p.59, ISBN 9789004175365, ^ Ćirković 2004, p. 141-142. ^ Picot, Emile, Les serbes de Hongrie, leur histoire, leurs privileges, leur église, leur état politique et social. Prague. Grégr & Dattel libraires éditeurs. 1873. p.113 ^ a b  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Banat". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Smaranda Vultur, De l’Ouest à l’Est et de l’Est à l’Ouest : les avatars identitaires des Français du Banat, Texte presenté a la conférence d'histoire orale: Visibles mais pas nombreuses : les circulations migratoires roumaines, Paris, 2001 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-27. Retrieved 2011-01-13.  ^ Dr. Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 2, Novi Sad, 1990. ^ Dr. Dušan J. Popović (see above) ^ Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin - By Károly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsisné Hodosi, page 140. ^ a b Judy Batt, Kataryna Wolczuk. Region State and Identity in Central and Eastern Europe ^ Miodrag Milin, Vekovima zajedno (iz istorije srpsko-rumunskih odnosa), Temišvar, 1995. ^ Banatul.com - History and Information about Banat, Serbia
Serbia
and Banat, Romania
Romania
Archived 2006-02-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Torontál
Torontál
County ^ Temes County
Temes County
Archived March 9, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Krassó-Szörény
Krassó-Szörény
County ^ Ethnic composition of the Timiș County
Timiș County
(1850-1992) ^ Recensământ 2002, Census 2002: Timiș County
Timiș County
Archived 2007-06-26 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ethnic composition of the Caraș-Severin County
Caraș-Severin County
(1850-1992) ^ Recensământ 2002, Census 2002: Caraș-Severin County
Caraș-Severin County
Archived June 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.

Sources[edit]

Dušan Belča, Mala istorija Vršca, Vršac, 1997. Milojko Brusin, Naša razgraničenja sa susedima 1919–1920, Novi Sad, 1998. Branislav Bukurov, Bačka, Banat
Banat
i Srem, Novi Sad, 1978. Miodrag Milin, Vekovima zajedno (Iz istorije srpsko-rumunskih odnosa), Temišvar, 1995. Jovan M. Pejin, Iz prošlosti Kikinde, Kikinda, 2000. Milan Tutorov, Mala Raška a u Banatu, istorika Zrenjanina i Banata, Zrenjanin, 1991. Milan Tutorov, Banatska rapsodija, istorika Zrenjanina i Banata, Novi Sad, 2001. Josef Wolf, Entwicklung der ethnischen Struktur des Banats 1890–1992 (Atlas Ost- und Südosteuropa / Hrsg.: Österreichisches Ost- und Südosteuropa-Institut; 2: Bevölkerung; 8 = H/R/YU 1, Ungarn/Rumänien/Jugoslawien), Berlin – Stuttgart, 2004. Tiberiu Schatteles, EVREII DIN TIMISOARA IN PERSPECTIVA ISTORICA Editura "HASEFER" Bucuresti, 2013 Fodor, Pál; Dávid, Géza, eds. (2000). Ottomans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest. BRILL.  Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.  Ingrao, Charles; Samardžić, Nikola; Pešalj, Jovan, eds. (2011). The Peace of Passarowitz, 1718. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.  Spinei, Victor (2009). The Romanians
Romanians
and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube
Danube
Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century. leiden and Boston: Brill. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Banat.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Banat.

Banat
Banat
social networking website banatul.com (in English) / (in Romanian) backabanat.com (in Serbian) Development of Ethnic Structure in the Banat
Banat
1890 - 1992 Regions Banat
Banat
(in English) / (in Romanian) / (in French) /(in German) Návštěva Svaté Heleny, reportáž z expedice Roadtrip 2007 - návštěva Banátu (Svaté Heleny) (in Czech) Penka Peykovska, Írás-olvasástudás és analfabetizmus a többnemzetiségű Bánságban (in Hungarian) Smaranda Vultur, De l’Ouest à l’Est et de l’Est à l’Ouest : les avatars identitaires des Français du Banat
Banat
(in French) Remembering Molidorf (in English) / (in Romanian) / (in French) /(in German) Family Books of the Banat
Banat
(in English) / (in Romanian) / (in French) /(in German) Danube
Danube
Swabian Resources (in English) / (in Romanian) /(in German) Donauschwaben Villages Helping Hands Nonprofit (in English) Danube
Danube
Swabians in Banat
Banat
(in English) Stanko Trifunović (1997). "Slovenska naselja V-VIII veka u Bačkoj i Banatu". Novi Sad: Muzej Vojvodine. 

v t e

Historical regions in Romania

Banat
Banat
(1918–)a

Banatf

Dobruja
Dobruja
(1878–)

Northern Dobruja Southern Dobruja
Dobruja
(1913–16; 1919–40)

Moldavia
Moldavia
(1859–)b

Bessarabia
Bessarabia
(1918–40; 1941–44)c Bukovinad Hertza (1859–1940; 1941–44) Western Moldavia Bugeac

Transylvania
Transylvania
(1918–)ae

Crișanaf Maramureșg Transylvaniah

Wallachia
Wallachia
(1859–)b

Muntenia Oltenia

aDe jure since 1920 bDe jure since 1862 cCahul, Bolgrad and Ismail in Romania
Romania
(1859–78) dSouthern Bukovina
Bukovina
in Romania
Romania
(1918–); Northern Bukovina
Bukovina
in Romania (1918–40; 1941–44) eNorthern Transylvania
Transylvania
in Hungary
Hungary
(1940–44) fOnly the eastern part gOnly the southern part h Transylvania
Transylvania
proper

v t e

Geographical regions of Serbia

Azbukovica Bačka Banat Belica Binačko Pomoravlje* Braničevo Deliblatska Peščara Dobrič Drenica* Goljak Gora* Gornje Livade Gornji Breg Gruža Homolje Ibarski Kolašin* Izmornik* Jablanica Jadar Jasenica Kačer Kolubara Komarani Kopaonik Kosanica Kosmaj Kosovo* Kosovo field* Kosovsko Pomoravlje* Kozjačija Kučaj Lepenica Lešnica Levač Ljig Lugomir Lugovi* Lužnica Mačva Malo Kosovo* Metohija* Metohijski Podgor* Mlava Morava Valley Moravac Negotinska Krajina Obica* Opolje* Pančevački Rit Pčinja Pešter Pocerina Podlužje Podrimlje Podrinje Podunavlje Polimlje Pomoravlje Pomorišje Posavina Potisje Prekoruplje* Preševo Valley Prizenski Has* Prizrenski Podgor* Rađevina Rasina Raška Rugovo* Sandžak Šajkaška Sirinićka župa* Šopluk Sredačka župa* Srem Stari Vlah Stig Šumadija Šumadijska Kolubara Svrljig Tamnava Telečka Temnić Timočka Krajina Toplica Užička Crna Gora Valjevska Kolubara Veliki Rit Visok Vlasina Zaglavak Zlatibor

(*) indicates location within Kosovo

v t e

Geographical regions of Hungary

West-Hungarian Borderland

Alpokalja Kőszeg Mountains Sopron Mountains Vas Hills Balfi Hills

Little Hungarian Plain

Hanság Fertőzug Neusiedl Basin Rábaköz Szigetköz Marcali Basin Moson Plain Komárom-Esztergom Plain

Transdanubia

Baranya Zala Hills Inner Somogy Outer Somogy Zselic Völgység Szekszárd Hills Baranya Hills Villány Mountains

Transdanubian Mountains

Keszthely Mountains Tapolca Basin Balaton Uplands Bakony Bakonyalja Sokoró Vértesalja Velence Hills Gerecse Mountains Buda Hills Pilis Mountains Visegrád Mountains Vértes Mountains

Transdanubian Hills

Mecsek Outer Somogy Inner Somogy Tolna-Baranya Hills Balaton Basin

North Hungarian Mountains

Börzsöny Cserhát Mátra Mátralába Bükk Zemplén Mountains

Great Hungarian Plain

Bácska Bánát Mezőföld Sárrét Sárköz Drávamellék Kunság Kiskunság Jászság Pest Plain Heves Plain Borsodi-Mezőség Bodrogköz Tiszahát Szatmár Plain Maros-Körös köze Körös-vidék Nagykunság Hortobágy Hajdúság Nyírség Tiszántúl

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247776

.