UNESCO World Heritage Site
Town of Bamberg
Cultural: ii, iv
1993 (17th Session)
Bamberg (German pronunciation: [ˈbambɛɐ̯k]) is a town in Upper
Franconia, Germany, on the river
Regnitz close to its confluence with
the river Main. A large part of the town has been a
Heritage Site since 1993.
1.1 Historic population
2.1 The seven hills of Bamberg
6.1.3 Air transport
6.1.4 Water transport
6.1.5 Local public transport
6.2 Military bases
7.1 Mayors since 1945
7.2 Town twinning
8 Notable people
10 See also
12 External links
Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg
Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg 1245–1802
German Empire 1871–1918
Weimar Republic 1918–1933
17th century 3D-map of Bamberg.
Matthias Merian in Danckerts,
During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement,
the region afterwards included in the
Diocese of Bamberg
Diocese of Bamberg was inhabited
for the most part by Slavs. The town, first mentioned in 902, grew up
by the castle Babenberch which gave its name to the
On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house. The area was
Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, and
the land was under the spiritual authority of the
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor Henry II or Heinrich II made
family inheritance, the seat of a separate diocese. The emperor's
purpose in this was to make the
Diocese of Würzburg
Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in
size and to give Christianity a firmer footing in the districts of
Franconia, east of Bamberg. In 1008, after long negotiations with the
Würzburg and Eichstätt, who were to cede portions of
their dioceses, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined, and
Pope John XVIII granted the papal confirmation in the same year. Henry
II ordered the building of a new cathedral, which was consecrated 6
May 1012. The church was enriched with gifts from the pope, and Henry
had it dedicated in honor of him. In 1017 Henry also founded
Michaelsberg Abbey on the Michaelsberg ("Mount St. Michael"), near
Bamberg, a Benedictine abbey for the training of the clergy. The
emperor and his wife Kunigunde gave large temporal possessions to the
new diocese, and it received many privileges out of which grew the
secular power of the bishop.
Pope Benedict VIII visited
1020 to meet Henry II for discussions concerning the Holy Roman
Empire. While he was here he placed the diocese in direct dependence
on the Holy See. He also personally consecrated some of Bamberg's
churches. For a short time
Bamberg was the centre of the Holy Roman
Empire. Henry and Kunigunde were both buried in the cathedral.
Bamberg from the
Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
The Schlenkerla, one of Bamberg's breweries and taverns.
The old palace (Alte Hofhaltung)
From the middle of the 13th century onward the bishops were princes of
the Empire and ruled Bamberg, overseeing the construction of
monumental buildings. In 1248 and 1260 the see obtained large portions
of the estates of the Counts of Meran, partly through purchase and
partly through the appropriation of extinguished fiefs. The old
Bishopric of Bamberg
Bishopric of Bamberg was composed of an unbroken territory extending
Schlüsselfeld in a northeasterly direction to the Franconian
Forest, and possessed in addition estates in the Duchies of Carinthia
and Salzburg, in the Nordgau (the present Upper Palatinate), in
Thuringia, and on the Danube. By the changes resulting from the
Reformation, the territory of this see was reduced nearly one half in
extent. Since 1279 the coat of arms of the city of
Bamberg is known in
form of a seal.
The witch trials of the 17th century claimed about one thousand
victims in Bamberg, reaching a climax between 1626 and 1631, under the
rule of Prince-
Bishop Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheim. The
famous Drudenhaus (witch prison), built in 1627, is no longer standing
today; however, detailed accounts of some cases, such as that of
Johannes Junius, remain.
In 1647, the
University of Bamberg
University of Bamberg was founded as Academia
Bambrzy (Posen Bambergers) are German
Poles who are descended from
settlers from the
Bamberg area who settled in villages around Poznań
in the years 1719–1753.
In 1759, the possessions and jurisdictions of the diocese situated in
Austria were sold to that state. When the secularization of church
lands took place (1802) the diocese covered 3,305 km2
(1,276 sq mi) and had a population of 207,000.
lost its independence in 1802, becoming part of
Bavaria in 1803.
Bamberg was first connected to the German rail system in 1844, which
has been an important part of its infrastructure ever since. After a
communist uprising took control over
Bavaria in the years following
World War I, the state government fled to
Bamberg and stayed there for
almost two years before the Bavarian capital of
Munich was retaken by
Freikorps units (see Bavarian Soviet Republic). The first republican
Bavaria was passed in Bamberg, becoming known as the
Bamberger Verfassung (
In February 1926
Bamberg served as the venue for the Bamberg
Conference, convened by
Adolf Hitler in his attempt to foster unity
and to stifle dissent within the then-young Nazi party.
chosen for its location in Upper Franconia, reasonably close to the
residences of the members of the dissident northern Nazi faction but
still within Bavaria.
In 1973, the town celebrated the 1,000th anniversary of its founding.
Largest groups of foreign residents
Bamberg is located in Franconia, 63 km (39 mi) north of
Nuremberg by railway and 101 km (63 mi) east of Würzburg,
also by rail. It is situated on the
Regnitz river, 3 km
(1.9 mi) before it flows into the Main river.
Its geography is shaped by the
Regnitz and by the foothills of the
Steigerwald, part of the German uplands. From northeast to southwest,
the town is divided into first the
Regnitz plain, then one large and
several small islands formed by two arms of the
and finally the part of town on the hills, the "Hill Town"
The seven hills of Bamberg
Bamberg extends over seven hills, each crowned by a beautiful church.
This has led to
Bamberg being called the "Franconian Rome" —
although a running joke among Bamberg's tour guides is to refer to
Rome instead as the "Italian Bamberg". The hills are Cathedral Hill,
Michaelsberg, Kaulberg/Obere Pfarre, Stefansberg, Jakobsberg,
Altenburger Hill and Abtsberg.
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and
there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate
Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast
Climate/Oceanic climate), with a certain continental influence as
indicated by average winter nighttime temperatures well below zero.
Climate data for
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
In 2013 (latest data available) the GDP per inhabitant was €56,723.
This places the district 10th out of 96 districts (rural and urban) in
Bavaria(overall average: €39,691).
Bamberg Horseman, a local symbol.
Town hall (Rathaus), details
The old town of
Bamberg is listed as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site,
primarily because of its authentic medieval appearance. The town
established a documentation centre in 2005 to support World Heritage
activities. Some of the main sights are:
Bamberg Cathedral (1237), with the tombs of Emperor Henry II and Pope
Alte Hofhaltung, residence of the bishops in the 16th and 17th
Neue Residenz, residence of the bishops after the 17th century
Bamberg State Library
Bamberg State Library in the New Residence
Old town hall (1386), built in the middle of the
accessible by two bridges
Klein-Venedig ("Little Venice"), a colony of fishermen's houses from
the 19th century along one bank of the river Regnitz
Michaelsberg Abbey, built in the 12th century on one of Bamberg's
Altenburg, castle, former residence of the bishops
Bamberg Cathedral is a late Romanesque building with four towers. It
was founded in 1004 by Emperor Henry II, finished in 1012 and
consecrated on 6 May 1012. It was later partially destroyed by fire in
1081. The new cathedral, built by Saint Otto of Bamberg, was
consecrated in 1111 and in the 13th century received its present
The cathedral is 94 m (308 ft) long, 28 m (92 ft)
wide, 26 m (85 ft) high, and the four towers are each about
81 m (266 ft) high. It contains many historic works of art,
such as the marble tomb of the founder and his wife, considered one of
the greatest works of the sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider, and carved
between 1499 and 1513. Another treasure of the cathedral is an
equestrian statue known as the
Bamberg Horseman (Der Bamberger
Reiter). This statue, possibly depicting the emperor Conrad III,
most likely dates to the second quarter of the 13th century. The
statue also serves as a symbol of the town of Bamberg.
The Neue Residenz (New Residence) (1698–1704) was initially occupied
by the prince-bishops, and from 1864 to 1867 by the deposed King Otto
of Greece. Its Rosengarten (Rose Garden) overlooks the town. It has
over 4500 roses.
The Altenburg is located on the highest of Bamberg's seven hills. It
was mentioned for the first time in 1109. Between 1251 and 1553 it
was the residence of Bamberg's bishops. Destroyed in 1553 by Albert
Alcibiades, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, it was used, after
scanty repairs, only as a prison, and increasingly decayed.
In 1801, A. F. Marcus bought the castle and completely repaired it.
His friend, the famous German writer E.T.A. Hoffmann, who was very
impressed by the building, lived there for a while. The next owner,
Anton von Greifenstein, in 1818 founded an association to save the
castle. This society still maintains the whole property today. The
Altenburg today houses a restaurant.
Other churches are the Jakobskirche, an 11th-century Romanesque
basilica; the St. Martinskirche; the Marienkirche or Obere Pfarrkirche
(1320–1387), which has now been restored to its original pure Gothic
style. The Michaelskirche, 12th century Romanesque (restored), on the
Michaelsberg, was formerly the church of the Benedictine Michaelsberg
Abbey secularized in 1803 and now contains the Bürgerspital, or
almshouse, and the museum and municipal art collections.
Of the bridges connecting the sections of the lower town the Obere
Brücke was completed in 1455. Halfway across this, on an island, is
the Rathaus or town hall (rebuilt 1744-1756). The lyceum, formerly a
Jesuit college, contains a natural history museum. The old palace
(Alte Hofhaltung) was built in 1591 on the site of an old residence of
the counts of Babenberg. Monuments include the Maximilian fountain
(1880), with statues of King Maximilian I of Bavaria, the emperor
Henry II and his wife, Conrad III and Saint Otto, bishop of
There are also underground tunnels beneath the town. These were
originally constructed as mines which supplied sandstone which could
be used for construction or as an abrasive cleaner. Mining came to an
end in 1920 but a 7.5-mile (12.1 km) tunnel network remained. The
tunnels were used as an air raid shelter during World War II. A part
of the network can be visited on a guided tour.
Bamberg is known for its smoked
Rauchbier and is home to nine
breweries, Brauerei Fässla, Brauerei Greifenklau, Brauerei
Heller-Trum (Schlenkerla), Brauerei Kaiserdom, Keesmann Bräu,
Klosterbräu, Mahrs Bräu and Brauerei Spezial, and one brewpub,
Ambräusianum. Every August there is a five-day Sandkerwa, a kirmess
celebrated with beers.
The University of Bamberg, named Otto-Friedrich University, offers
higher education in the areas of social science, business studies and
the humanities, and is attended by more than 13,000 students. The
University of Applied Sciences
Bamberg offers higher education in the
areas of public health.
Bamberg is also home to eight secondary
There are also numerous other institutes for primary, secondary,
technical, vocational and adult education.
InterCityExpress main line #28 (
Berlin / Hamburg) runs through
Bamberg station on the
Bamberg and the Bamberg–Hof lines. It takes less than
two hours to
Munich on the train and with the Nuremberg–Erfurt
high-speed railway through the Thuringian mountains finished in 2017
less than three hours to Berlin.
East-west connections are poorer.
Bamberg is connected to other towns
Upper Franconia such as Bayreuth, Coburg, and
the Bamberg–Hof line with trains usually running at least every
hour. Connections on the Würzburg–
Bamberg line to the west are
hourly regional trains to Würzburg, which is fully connected to the
ICE network. Tourists arriving at
Frankfurt International Airport
Frankfurt International Airport can
take advantage of the new direct connection from Frankfurt main
Bamberg is not near any of the major (i.e. single-digit) autobahns.
But it is nevertheless well connected to the network in all
directions: the A70 from
Schweinfurt (connecting to the A7 there) to
Bayreuth (connecting to the A9) runs along the northern edge of the
town. The A73 on the eastern side of town connects
Nuremberg (connecting to the A9) and Thuringia, ending at Suhl.
Bamberg is served by Bamberg-Breitenau Airfield. Mostly public
aircraft operate there. It used to be a military airport. (IATA-Code:
ZCD, ICAO-Code: EDQA) It is also possible to charter public flights to
and from this airport.
Most international tourists who travel by plane arrive at Frankfurt
International Airport or
Munich Airport. The nearest major airport is
Nuremberg Airport which can be reached within half an hour by car or
one hour by train and subway.
Both the Rhine-Main-
Danube Canal and its predecessor, the Ludwig
Canal, begin near Bamberg. The
Ludwig Canal was opened in 1846 but
closed in 1950 after damage during the second world war. With the
completion of the Rhine-Main-
Danube Canal in 1992, uninterrupted water
transport was again made possible between the
North Sea and the Black
Local public transport
Local public transport within
Bamberg relies exclusively on buses.
More than 20 routes connect the outlying quarters and some villages in
the vicinity to the central bus station. In addition, there are
several "Night Lines" (the last of these, though, tend to run around
midnight) and some park-and-ride lines from parking lots on the
periphery to the town centre.
A short-lived tram system existed in the 1920s.
Bamberg was an important base for the Bavarian, German and then
American military stationed at Warner Barracks. Warner Barracks was
closed in the fall of 2014, with the last battalion leaving being the
54th Engineer Battalion and returned to the German government. In
2016, a large part of the facility was taken over by the German
Federal Police for training purposes. Muna Kasserne was a small base
occupied by the 504th Maintenance Company, 71st Maintenance Bn. It was
part of Warner Barracks although located separately.
Bamberg is an urban district, or kreisfreie Stadt. Its town council
(Stadtrat) and its mayor (Oberbürgermeister) are elected every six
years, though not in the same year. Thus, the last municipal election
for the town council was in 2014, for the mayor in 2012. As an
exception to the six-year term, the term starting in 2012 will take
eight years to synchronize the elections with those in the rest of
As of the elections of 16 March 2014, the 44 member strong town
council comprises 12 CSU councillors, 10 SPD councillors, 8 Green
councillors, 4 councillors of the Bamberger Bürger-Block and 4 of the
Freie Wähler (Free Voters), both local political movements. These
five parties achieved the number of councillors necessary to form a
parliamentary group. In addition, there are 3 councillors of the
Bamberger Unabhängige Bürger and the 1 councillor each of the
Bamberger Realisten, the FDP and the Bamberger Linke Liste.
The previous council, elected on 2 March 2008, was composed of 15 CSU
councillors, 10 SPD councillors, 7 Green councillors, 5 councillors of
the Bamberger Bürger-Block and 3 of the Freie Wähler (Free Voters),
both local political movements. These five parties achieved the number
of councillors necessary to form a parliamentary group. In addition,
there were 2 councillors of the Bamberger Realisten and one of the FDP
and the Republikaner, making them ineligible for caucus status.
Mayors since 1945
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Bamberg is twinned with:
Bedford, United Kingdom
Prague, Czech Republic
Fredonia, New York, United States
Nagaoka, Niigata, Japan
Louis-Alexandre Berthier 1808
Annette von Aretin (1920–2006), first television announcer of the
Carl Adam Bader (de), (1789 in Bamberg; † 1870 in Berlin),
Dorothee Bär (born 1978), Member of Parliament (CSU), State Secretary
of the Federal Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure
Wilhelm Batz, (1916–1988), Luftwaffe, ace
Louis-Alexandre Berthier, (1753–1815), Chief of Staff to Napoleon
Joachim Camerarius (1500–1574), humanist, polymath and poet
Claudia Ciesla, (born 1987), Polish-German actress
Pope Clement II, (died 1047), bishop of
Bamberg from 1040–46
Christopher Clavius, (1538–1612), mathematician, astronomer and
Conrad III of Germany, (1093-1152), king of Germany
Cunigunde of Luxembourg, (c. 975-1040), empress consort, regent of the
Roman Empire and wife of Henry II
Stefan Dassler (born 1962), non-fiction author
Günther Denzler (born 1948), former district administrator of Bamberg
Karlheinz Deschner (1924–2014), writer and critic of religion and
Gottfried Diener (de) (1907–1987), philologist and Goethe
Ignaz Dollinger (1770–1841), physician
Ignaz von Dollinger
Ignaz von Dollinger (1799–1890), important Catholic theologian and
Curt Echtermeyer, also known as Curt Bruckner (1896–1971), painter
Erich Ebermayer (1900–1970), writer
Hans Ehard (1887–1980), lawyer and politician
Günter Faltin (born 1944), university teacher
Heinrich Finck (1444–1527), conductor and composer
Klaus-Dieter Fritsche (born 1953), jurist and politician (CSU),
Karl von Gareis
Karl von Gareis (1844–1923), a lawyer and author, member of the
Nora-Eugenie Gomringer, (born 1980), poet and writer
Thomas Gottschalk (born 1950), moderator, TV-presenter, actor
Lukas Görtler (born 1994), football player
Hans Grassmann (born 1960), physicist and author
Joseph Heller (de) (1798–1849), collector, today Helleriana in
Bamberg State Library
Karl Höller (1907–1987), composer
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, (1770–1831), German philosopher
Henry II, (973-1024), Holy Roman Emperor
E. T. A. Hoffmann, (1776-1822), German author and composer
Joachim Jung (de) (born 1951), artist
Harry Koch (born 1969), football player
Lorenz Krapp (de) (1882–1947), lawyer, poet and politician
Dieter Kunzelmann (born 1939), communard and left-wing activiste
Paul Lautensack (1478–1558), painter and organist
Emil Marschalk von Ostheim
Emil Marschalk von Ostheim 1903
Paul Maar, (born 1937), German writer and illustrator
Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria, actually Duke Maximilian Joseph in
Bavaria (1808–1888), promoter of Bavarian folk music in the 19th
Emil Marschalk von Ostheim
Emil Marschalk von Ostheim (1841–1903), historian and collector
Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria, actually Duke Maximilian Joseph in
Bavaria (1808–1888), promoter of Bavarian folk music in the 19th
Willy Messerschmitt (1898–1978), German aircraft designer,
Christina Morhaubt, convicted of witchcraft and sentenced to death by
burning in 1627 during the
Bamberg witch trials
Martin Münz (1785–1848), anatomist and professor
Ida Noddack-Tacke, (1896-1978), chemist and physicist; she discovered
element 75, rhenium
Christopher Park (de) (born 1987), pianist
Bernd Redmann (born 1965), composer and musicologist
Mike Rose, (1932-2006), painter, set designer and writer
Gerd Schaller (born 1965), conductor
Rainer Schaller (born 1969), entrepreneur and founder of
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (1907–1944), German officer who
attempted to assassinate German dictator
Adolf Hitler in the July 20
Berthold Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
Berthold Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (born 1934), former
General of the Bundeswehr
Josh Shipp, (1986–Present), Professional basketball player for Brose
Tom Schütz (born 1988), football player
Sven Schultze (born 1978), basketball player
Karsten Tadda (born 1988), basketball player
Andrew Wooten (born 1989), German-American soccer player
Karl Friedrich Gottlob Wetzel, (1779-1819), writer and illustrator
Fränkischer Merkur (de)
Old town hall
Old town hall with both bridges
Close-up of "Little Venice"
St Martin and Green Market
Neue Residenz (the "New Residence" of the prince-bishops)
The Rose Garden at the Neue Residenz
Rose Garden detail
Church of St Jacob
Bamberg roof tops from the Rose Garden
Music pavilion in park Hain, Bamberg
Bamberg (potato) (named after the town)
Bamberg Symphony Orchestra
^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt
für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.
^ a b c d e One or more of the preceding
sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public
domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bamberg". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ Dengler-Schreibe, Karin.
Bamberg – For Newcomers and old friends.
Reference to the visit to
Pope Benedict VIII in 1020.
Heinrichs-Verlag GmbH, Bamberg. p. 7.
^ "Im Bund mit dem Teufel". Anfang des 17. Jahrhunderts wurden in
Bamberg binnen 20 Jahren tausend Menschen verbrannt, weil sie
angeblich einen Bund mit dem Teufel geschlossen hatten.
^ "The Witch Persecution at Bamberg". Hanover College. Archived from
the original on 19 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-26. On Wednesday,
June 28, 1628, was examined without torture Johannes Junius,
Burgomaster at Bamberg, on the charge of witch-craft: how and in what
fashion he had fallen into that vice. Is fifty-five years old, and was
born at Niederwaysich in the Wetterau. Says he is wholly innocent,
knows nothing of the crime has never in his life renounced God: says
that he is wronged hefore God and the world, would like to hear of a
single human being who has seen him at such gatherings [as the
^ See generally Kershaw, Ian (1999). Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 274–78.
ISBN 0-393-04671-0. See also Toland, John (1976). Adolf
Hitler. New York: Doubleday & Company. pp. 213–18.
Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
Weatherbase. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
^ "VGR der Länder, Kreisergebnisse für Deutschland -
Bruttoinlandsprodukt, Bruttowertschöpfung in den kreisfreien Städten
und Landkreisen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2000 bis 2013
(German)". Statistische Ämter der Länder und des Bundes. Retrieved 1
^ "The World's 10 Most Beautiful Gardens Revealed". onlineread.org.
Retrieved 30 November 2016.
^  Archived April 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Bamberg: Underground tour holds deeper understanding of city's
history - Travel - Stripes". archive.org. 23 January 2015. Retrieved
15 March 2018.
Bamberg Archived 2013-08-23 at the Wayback Machine.
Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Bamberg". Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bamberg.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bamberg.
Official municipal website
Official tourist website
Schlenkerla Brewery website
Bamberg beer, official website
Urban and rural districts in the Free State of
Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim
Neustadt an der Waldnaab
World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites in Germany
For official site names, see each article or the List of World
Heritage Sites in Germany.
Fagus Factory in Alfeld
Berlin Modernism Housing Estates
Museum Island), Berlin
Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin
Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen
Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of
Goslar and Upper Harz Water
Speicherstadt and Kontorhaus District with
Chilehaus in Hamburg
St. Mary's Cathedral and St. Michael's Church at Hildesheim
Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Historic Centres of
Stralsund and Wismar
Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz
Dresden Elbe Valley
Dresden Elbe Valley (delisted in 2009)
Luther Memorials in
Eisleben and Wittenberg
Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski1
Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg
Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl
Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey
Upper Middle Rhine Valley
Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen
Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier (Weissenhof Estate)
Town of Bamberg
Frontiers of the Roman Empire:2 Upper Germanic & Rhaetian Limes
Maulbronn Monastery Complex
Margravial Opera House
Old Town of
Regensburg with Stadtamhof
Monastic Island of Reichenau
Pilgrimage Church of Wies
Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura
Ancient Beech Forests4
Messel Pit Fossil Site
1 Shared with Poland
2 Shared with the United Kingdom
3 Shared with Austria, France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland
4 Shared with Slovakia and Ukraine
5 Shared with the Netherlands and Denmark