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Baltimore
Baltimore
(/ˈbɔːltɪmɔːr/, locally [ˈbɔɫmɔɻ]) is the largest city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States. Baltimore
Baltimore
was established by the Constitution of Maryland[9] and is an independent city that is not part of any county. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore
Baltimore
is the largest independent city in the United States. As of 2016, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.8 million, making it the 21st largest metropolitan area in the country.[10] Baltimore
Baltimore
is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D.C., making it a principal city in the Washington- Baltimore
Baltimore
combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth largest CSA in the nation with a calculated 2016 population of 9,665,892.[11] Founded in 1729, Baltimore
Baltimore
is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic.[12] The city's Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States
United States
and a major manufacturing center.[13] After a decline in major manufacturing, industrialization, and rail transportation, Baltimore
Baltimore
shifted to a service-oriented economy, with Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
(founded 1889) and Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
(founded 1876), now the city's top two employers.[14] With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore
Baltimore
has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods". Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, and H. L. Mencken; jazz musician James "Eubie" Blake; singer Billie Holiday; actor and filmmaker John Waters; and baseball player Babe Ruth. In the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key
Francis Scott Key
wrote The Star-Spangled Banner, which later became the American national anthem, in Baltimore.[15] Baltimore
Baltimore
has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country,[16] and is home to some of the earliest National Register
National Register
Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, and Mount Vernon, which were added to the National Register
National Register
between 1969–1971. Close to a third of the city's buildings (over 65,000) are designated as historic in the National Register, which is more than any other U.S. city.[17][18]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Before European settlement 1.3 Colonial period 1.4 Antebellum period 1.5 Civil war and after 1.6 20th century through 1968 1.7 1968 and after

1.7.1 Development and promotion

2 Geography

2.1 Cityscape

2.1.1 Architecture 2.1.2 Tallest buildings 2.1.3 Neighborhoods

2.1.3.1 Central Baltimore 2.1.3.2 North Baltimore 2.1.3.3 South Baltimore 2.1.3.4 Northeast Baltimore 2.1.3.5 East Baltimore 2.1.3.6 Southeast Baltimore 2.1.3.7 Northwest Baltimore 2.1.3.8 West Baltimore 2.1.3.9 Southwest Baltimore

2.2 Adjacent communities 2.3 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Population 3.2 Characteristics 3.3 Income and housing 3.4 Religion 3.5 Languages

4 Crime 5 Economy

5.1 Port 5.2 Tourism

6 Culture

6.1 Cuisine 6.2 Local dialect 6.3 Performing arts

7 Sports

7.1 Baseball 7.2 Football 7.3 Other teams and events

8 Parks and recreation 9 Government

9.1 City
City
government

9.1.1 Mayor 9.1.2 Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Council 9.1.3 Law enforcement 9.1.4 Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Fire Department

9.2 State government

9.2.1 State agencies

9.3 Federal government

10 Education

10.1 Colleges and universities

10.1.1 Private 10.1.2 Public

10.2 Primary and secondary schools

11 Transportation

11.1 Roads and highways 11.2 Transit systems

11.2.1 Public transit 11.2.2 Intercity rail

11.3 Airports 11.4 Pedestrians and bicycles 11.5 Port of Baltimore

12 Environment

12.1 Trash interceptors 12.2 Other water pollution control

13 Media 14 Notable people 15 Sister cities 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References

18.1 Bibliography

19 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Baltimore
History of Baltimore
and Timeline of Baltimore The city has 66 National Register
National Register
Historic Districts and 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated historic buildings in the National Register
National Register
of Historic Places listings in Baltimore, more than any other U.S. city.[17] The historical records of the government of Baltimore
Baltimore
are located at the Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Archives. Etymology[edit] The city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore,[19] (1605–1675),[20] of the Irish House of Lords
Irish House of Lords
and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland.[21][22] Baltimore
Baltimore
Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford
County Longford
on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland.[22][23] Baltimore
Baltimore
is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house."[22] Before European settlement[edit] The Baltimore
Baltimore
area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians
Paleo-Indians
first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period.[24] During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture that is called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore
Baltimore
to the Rappahannock River
Rappahannock River
in Virginia.[25] In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore
Baltimore
vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans. The Baltimore County
Baltimore County
area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannocks
Susquehannocks
living in the lower Susquehanna River
Susquehanna River
valley who "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan
Powhatan
in the Potomac region."[26] Pressured by the Susquehannocks, the Piscataway tribe
Piscataway tribe
of Algonquians stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited primarily the north bank of the Potomac River
Potomac River
in what is now Charles County and southern Prince George's County south of the Fall Line.[27][28][29] Colonial period[edit] European colonization of Maryland
Maryland
began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore
Baltimore
County,[30] with its original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground.[31][32][33] The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquhanna natives, whose numbers dwindled from casualties and smallpox.[30] In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls
Jones Falls
stream.[34] The colonial General Assembly of Maryland
Maryland
created the Port of Baltimore
Baltimore
at old Whetstone Point (now Locust Point) in 1706 for the tobacco trade. The Town
Town
of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729; with Jonestown and Fells Point
Fells Point
preexisting to the east. The three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub and in 1768 became the county seat.[35]

Baltimore
Baltimore
Town
Town
in 1752, (at "The Basin")

Baltimore
Baltimore
grew swiftly in the 18th century as a granary for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean. The profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane and the importation of food.[36] Baltimore
Baltimore
established its public market system in 1763.[37] Lexington Market, founded in 1782, continues to be known as one of the oldest continuously operating public markets in the United States
United States
today.[38] Lexington Market
Lexington Market
was also known to be a place for slave trading, which occurred all over the downtown area and was advertised in the Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun.[39] Baltimore
Baltimore
had the first Post Office System in the United States
United States
(inaugurated in 1774)[40] and the first water company chartered in the United States
United States
( Baltimore
Baltimore
Water Company, 1792).[41][42] Baltimore
Baltimore
played a key part in events leading to and including the American Revolution. City
City
leaders such as Jonathan Plowman Jr. moved the city to join the resistance to British taxes, and merchants signed agreements to not trade with Britain.[43] The Second Continental Congress met in the Henry Fite House from December 1776 to February 1777, effectively making the city the capital of the United States during this period.[44] Antebellum period[edit] The Town
Town
of Baltimore, Jonestown, and Fells Point
Fells Point
were incorporated as the City
City
of Baltimore
Baltimore
in 1796–1797. The city remained a part of surrounding Baltimore County
Baltimore County
and continued to serve as its county seat from 1768–1851, after which it became an independent city.[45]

Bombardment of Fort McHenry
Fort McHenry
by the British. Engraved by John Bower [46]

The Battle of Baltimore
Battle of Baltimore
against the British in 1814 inspired the composition of the USA's national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," and the construction of the Battle Monument
Battle Monument
which became the city's official emblem. A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments developed. Baltimore
Baltimore
acquired its moniker "The Monumental City" after an 1827 visit to Baltimore
Baltimore
by President John Quincy Adams. At an evening function Adams gave the following toast: "Baltimore: the Monumental City—May the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant."[47][48]

The Battle Monument
Battle Monument
is the official emblem of the City
City
of Baltimore.

Baltimore
Baltimore
pioneered the use of gas lighting in 1816 and its population grew rapidly in the following decades, with concomitant development of culture and infrastructure. The construction of the federally funded National Road
National Road
(which later became part of U.S. Route 40) and the private Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
(B. & O.) made Baltimore
Baltimore
a major shipping and manufacturing center by linking the city with major markets in the Midwest. By 1820 its population had reached 60,000, and its economy had shifted from its base in tobacco plantations to sawmilling, shipbuilding, and textile production. These industries benefited from war but successfully shifted into infrastructure development during peacetime.[49] Baltimore
Baltimore
suffered one of the worst riots of the antebellum South in 1835, when bad investments led to the Baltimore
Baltimore
bank riot.[50] Soon after the city created the world's first dental college, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, in 1840, and shared in the world's first telegraph line, between Baltimore
Baltimore
and Washington DC in 1844.

Sixth Regiment fighting railroad strikers, July 20, 1877[51]

Civil war and after[edit] Maryland, a slave state with abundant popular support for secession in some areas, remained part of the Union during the American Civil War, due in part to the Union's strategic occupation of the city in 1861.[52][53] Baltimore
Baltimore
saw the first casualties of the war on April 19, 1861, when Union Soldiers en route from the President Street Station to Camden Yards
Camden Yards
clashed with a secessionist mob in the Pratt Street Riot. In the midst of the Long Depression
Long Depression
which followed the Panic of 1873, the Baltimore
Baltimore
& Ohio Railroad company attempted to lower its workers' wages, leading to strikes and riots in the city and beyond. Strikers clashed with the National Guard, leaving 10 dead and 25 wounded.[54] 20th century through 1968[edit]

The Great Baltimore Fire
Great Baltimore Fire
of 1904, looking west from Pratt and Gay streets

On February 7, 1904, the Great Baltimore Fire
Great Baltimore Fire
destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours, leaving more than 70 blocks of the downtown area burned to the ground. Damages were estimated at $150 million—in 1904 dollars.[55] As the city rebuilt during the next two years, lessons learned from the fire led to improvements in firefighting equipment standards.[56] The city grew in area by annexing new suburbs from the surrounding counties through 1918, when the city acquired portions of Baltimore County and Anne Arundel County.[57] A state constitutional amendment, approved in 1948, required a special vote of the citizens in any proposed annexation area, effectively preventing any future expansion of the city's boundaries.[58] Streetcars enabled the development of distant neighborhoods areas such as Edmonson Village whose residents could easily commute to work downtown.[59] Driven by migration from the deep South and by white suburbanization, the relative size of the city's black population grew from 23.8% in 1950 to 46.4% in 1970.[60] Encouraged by real estate blockbusting techniques, recently settled white areas rapidly became all-black neighborhoods, in a rapid process which was nearly total by 1970.[61] 1968 and after[edit] The Baltimore
Baltimore
riot of 1968, coinciding with riots in other cities, followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4, 1968. Public order was not restored until April 12, 1968. The Baltimore
Baltimore
riot cost the city an estimated $10 million (US$ 70 million in 2018). A total of 11,000 Maryland
Maryland
National Guard and federal troops were ordered into the city.[62] Lasting effects of the riot can be seen on the streets of North Avenue, Howard Street, Gay Street, and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Avenue, where long stretches of the streets remain barren.[63] The city experienced challenges again in 1974 when teachers, municipal workers, and police officers conducted strikes.[64] Following the death of Freddie Gray in April 2015, the city experienced major protests and international media attention, as well as a clash between local youth and police which resulted in a state of emergency declaration and curfew.[65] Baltimore
Baltimore
has suffered from a high homicide rate for several decades, peaking in 1993, and again in 2015.[66][67] These deaths have taken a severe toll especially on the local black community.[68] Development and promotion[edit] By the beginning of the 1970s, Baltimore's downtown area known as the Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
had been neglected and was occupied by a collection of abandoned warehouses. The nickname "Charm City" came from a 1975 meeting of advertisers seeking to improve the city's reputation.[69][70] Efforts to redevelop the area started with the construction of the Maryland
Maryland
Science Center, which opened in 1976, the Baltimore World Trade Center
Baltimore World Trade Center
(1977), and the Baltimore
Baltimore
Convention Center (1979). Harborplace, an urban retail and restaurant complex, opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium, Maryland's largest tourist destination, and the Baltimore
Baltimore
Museum of Industry in 1981. During the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the United States, Baltimore City Health Department
Baltimore City Health Department
official Robert Mehl persuaded the city's mayor to form a committee to address food problems; the Baltimore-based charity Moveable Feast grew out of this initiative in 1990.[71][72][73] By 2010, the organization's region of service had expanded from merely Baltimore
Baltimore
to include all of the Eastern Shore of Maryland.[74] In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
baseball team moved from Memorial Stadium to Oriole Park at Camden Yards, located downtown near the harbor. Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
held an open-air mass at Camden Yards
Camden Yards
during his papal visit to the United States
United States
in October 1995. Three years later the Baltimore Ravens
Baltimore Ravens
football team moved into M&T Bank Stadium next to Camden Yards.[75] Baltimore
Baltimore
has seen the reopening of the Hippodrome
Hippodrome
Theatre in 2004,[76] the opening of the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American
African American
History & Culture in 2005, and the establishment of the National Slavic Museum
National Slavic Museum
in 2012. On April 12, 2012, Johns Hopkins held a dedication ceremony to mark the completion of one of the United States' largest medical complexes – the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore – which features the Sheikh Zayed Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower and The Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children's Center. The event, held at the entrance to the $1.1 billion 1.6 million-square-foot-facility, honored the many donors including Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, first president of the United Arab Emirates, and Michael Bloomberg.[77][78] On September 19, 2016 the Baltimore City Council
Baltimore City Council
approved a $660 million bond deal for the $5.5 billion Port Covington
Port Covington
redevelopment project championed by Under Armour
Under Armour
founder Kevin Plank
Kevin Plank
and his real estate company Sagamore Development. Port Covington
Port Covington
surpassed the Harbor Point development as the largest tax-increment financing deal in Baltimore's history and among the largest urban redevelopment projects in the country.[79] The waterfront development that includes the new headquarters for Under Armour, as well as shops, housing, offices, and manufacturing spaces is projected to create 26,500 permanent jobs with a $4.3 billion annual economic impact.[80] Goldman Sachs invested $233 million into the redevelopment project.[81] Geography[edit] Baltimore
Baltimore
is in north-central Maryland
Maryland
on the Patapsco River
Patapsco River
close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The city is also located on the fall line between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic Coastal Plain, which divides Baltimore
Baltimore
into "lower city" and "upper city". The city's elevation ranges from sea level at the harbor to 480 feet (150 m) in the northwest corner near Pimlico.[6] According to the 2010 Census, the city has a total area of 92.1 square miles (239 km2), of which 80.9 sq mi (210 km2) is land and 11.1 sq mi (29 km2) is water.[5] The total area is 12.1 percent water. Baltimore
Baltimore
is almost completely surrounded by Baltimore
Baltimore
County, but is politically independent of it. It is bordered by Anne Arundel County to the south. Cityscape[edit]

Panoramic view of Baltimore
Baltimore
along the Inner and Outer Harbor at dusk, as seen from the HarborView Condominium.

Architecture[edit] Baltimore
Baltimore
exhibits examples from each period of architecture over more than two centuries, and work from many famous architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, George A. Frederick, John Russell Pope, Mies van der Rohe and I. M. Pei. The city is rich in architecturally significant buildings in a variety of styles. The Baltimore Basilica
Baltimore Basilica
(1806–1821) is a neoclassical design by Benjamin Latrobe, and also the oldest Catholic cathedral in the United States. In 1813 Robert Cary Long, Sr., built for Rembrandt Peale the first substantial structure in the United States
United States
designed expressly as a museum. Restored, it is now the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, or popularly the Peale Museum. The McKim Free School was founded and endowed by John McKim, although the building was erected by his son Isaac in 1822 after a design by William Howard and William Small. It reflects the popular interest in Greece
Greece
when the nation was securing its independence, as well as a scholarly interest in recently published drawings of Athenian antiquities. The Phoenix Shot Tower
Phoenix Shot Tower
(1828), at 234.25 feet (71.40 m) tall, was the tallest building in the United States
United States
until the time of the Civil War, and is one of few remaining structures of its kind.[82] It was constructed without the use of exterior scaffolding. The Sun Iron Building, designed by R.C. Hatfield in 1851, was the city's first iron-front building and was a model for a whole generation of downtown buildings. Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in 1870 in memory of financier George Brown, has stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany and has been called "one of the most significant buildings in this city, a treasure of art and architecture" by Baltimore Magazine.[83][84] The 1845 Greek Revival-style Lloyd Street Synagogue
Lloyd Street Synagogue
is one of the oldest synagogues in the United States. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, designed by Lt. Col. John S. Billings in 1876, was a considerable achievement for its day in functional arrangement and fireproofing. I.M. Pei's World Trade Center (1977) is the tallest equilateral pentagonal building in the world at 405 feet (123 m) tall. The Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
East area has seen the addition of two new towers which have completed construction: a 24-floor tower that is the new world headquarters of Legg Mason, and a 21-floor Four Seasons Hotel complex. The streets of Baltimore
Baltimore
are organized in a grid pattern, lined with tens of thousands of brick and formstone-faced rowhouses. In The Baltimore
Baltimore
Rowhouse, Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure considered the rowhouse as the architectural form defining Baltimore
Baltimore
as "perhaps no other American city."[85] In the mid-1790s, developers began building entire neighborhoods of the British-style rowhouses, which became the dominant house type of the city early in the 19th century.[86] Formstone
Formstone
facings, now a common feature on Baltimore
Baltimore
rowhouses, were an addition patented in 1937 by Albert Knight. John Waters characterized formstone as "the polyester of brick" in a 30-minute documentary film, Little Castles: A Formstone
Formstone
Phenomenon.[87] Oriole Park at Camden Yards
Camden Yards
is considered by many to be the most beautiful baseball park in Major League Baseball, and has inspired many other cities to build their own versions of this retro style ballpark. Camden Yards
Camden Yards
along with the National Aquarium have helped revive the Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
from what once was an industrial district full of dilapidated warehouses into a bustling commercial district full of bars, restaurants and retail establishments. Today, the Inner Harbor boasts the highest, most desirable real estate in the Mid-Atlantic.[88] After an international competition, the University of Baltimore
University of Baltimore
School of Law awarded the German firm Behnisch Architekten
Behnisch Architekten
1st prize for its design, which was selected for the school's new home. After the building's opening in 2013, the design won additional honors including an ENR National "Best of the Best" Award.[89] Baltimore's newly rehabilitated Everyman Theatre was honored by the Baltimore
Baltimore
Heritage at the 2013 Preservation Awards Celebration in 2013. Everyman Theatre will receive an Adaptive Reuse and Compatible Design Award as part of Baltimore
Baltimore
Heritage's 2013 historic preservation awards ceremony. Baltimore
Baltimore
Heritage is Baltimore's nonprofit historic and architectural preservation organization, which works to preserve and promote Baltimore's historic buildings and neighborhoods.[90] Tallest buildings[edit] Main article: List of tallest buildings in Baltimore

Rank Building Height Floors Built

1 Transamerica Tower (formerly the Legg Mason
Legg Mason
Building, originally built as the U.S. Fidelity and Guarantee Co. Building)[91] 529 feet (161 m) 40 1973 [92]

2 414 Light Street (under construction, topped out in November 2017) 525 feet (160 m) 44 2018 [93]

3 Bank of America Building (originally built as Baltimore
Baltimore
Trust Building, later Sullivan, Mathieson, Md. Nat. Bank, NationsBank Bldgs.) 509 feet (155 m) 37 1929 [94]

4 William Donald Schaefer Tower
William Donald Schaefer Tower
(originally built as the Merritt S. & L. Tower) 493 feet (150 m) 37 1992 [95]

5 Commerce Place (Alex. Brown & Sons/Deutsche Bank Tower) 454 feet (138 m) 31 1992 [96]

6 100 East Pratt Street
Pratt Street
(originally built as the I.B.M. Building) 418 feet (127 m) 28 1975/1992 [97]

7 Baltimore
Baltimore
World Trade Center 405 feet (123 m) 28 1977 [98]

8 Tremont Plaza Hotel 395 feet (120 m) 37 1967 [99]

9 Charles Towers South 385 feet (117 m) 30 1969 [100]

10 Legg Mason
Legg Mason
Tower 360.5 feet (110 m) 24 2009 [101]

Neighborhoods[edit] See also: List of Baltimore
Baltimore
neighborhoods

A map of Baltimore
Baltimore
with the official city-designated Baltimore neighborhoods, by the Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Dept. of Planning

Baltimore
Baltimore
is officially divided into nine geographical regions: North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, Northwest, and Central, with each district patrolled by a respective Baltimore
Baltimore
Police Department. Interstate 83
Interstate 83
and Charles Street down to Hanover Street and Ritchie Highway
Ritchie Highway
serve as the east-west dividing line and Eastern Avenue to Route 40 as the north-south dividing line. However, Baltimore Street is north-south dividing line for the U.S. Postal Service.[102] It is not uncommon for locals to divide the city simply by East or West Baltimore, using Charles Street or I-83
I-83
as a dividing line or into North and South using Baltimore Street as a dividing line.[citation needed] Central Baltimore[edit] Central Baltimore, originally called the Middle District,[103] stretches north of the Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
up to the edge of Druid Hill Park. Downtown Baltimore
Downtown Baltimore
has mainly served as a commercial district with limited residential opportunities. However, between 2000 and 2010, the downtown population grew 130 percent as old commercial properties have been replaced by residential property.[104] Still the city's main commercial area and business district, it includes Baltimore's sports complexes: Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and the Baltimore
Baltimore
Arena; and the shops and attractions in the Inner Harbor: Harborplace, the Baltimore
Baltimore
Convention Center, the National Aquarium, Maryland
Maryland
Science Center, Pier Six Pavilion, and Power Plant Live.[102] The University of Maryland, Baltimore, the University of Maryland Medical Center, and Lexington Market
Lexington Market
are also in the central district, as well as the Hippodrome
Hippodrome
and many nightclubs, bars, restaurants, shopping centers and various other attractions.[102][103] The northern portion of Central Baltimore, between downtown and the Druid Hill Park, is home to many of the city's cultural opportunities. Maryland Institute College of Art, the Peabody Institute
Peabody Institute
(music conservatory), George Peabody Library, Enoch Pratt Free Library
Enoch Pratt Free Library
– Central Library, the Lyric Opera House, the Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, the Walters Art Museum, the Maryland
Maryland
Historical Society and its Enoch Pratt Mansion, and several galleries are located in this region.[105] North Baltimore[edit]

Sherwood Gardens, Guilford neighborhood, Baltimore

North Baltimore
Baltimore
lies directly north of Central Baltimore
Baltimore
and is bounded on the east by The Alameda and on the west by Pimlico Road. Loyola University Maryland, Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
Homewood Campus, St. Mary's Seminary and University
St. Mary's Seminary and University
and Notre Dame of Maryland University are located in this district. Baltimore
Baltimore
Polytechnic Institute high school for mathematics, science and engineering, and adjacent Western High School, the oldest remaining public girls secondary school in America, share a joint campus at West Cold Spring Lane and Falls Road.[citation needed] Several historic and notable neighborhoods are in this district: Roland Park (1891), Guilford (1913), Homeland (1924), Hampden, Woodberry, Old Goucher, and Jones Falls. Along the York Road corridor going north are the large neighborhoods of Charles Village, Waverly, and Mount Washington. The Station North Arts and Entertainment District is also located in North Baltimore.[106] South Baltimore[edit]

Rowhouses, Federal Hill neighborhood, Baltimore

South Baltimore, a mixed industrial and residential area, consists of the "Old South Baltimore" peninsula below the Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
and east of the old B&O Railroad's Camden line tracks and Russell Street downtown. It is a culturally, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse waterfront area with neighborhoods such as Locust Point and Riverside around a large park of the same name.[107] Just south of the Inner Harbor, the historic Federal Hill neighborhood, is home to many working professionals, pubs and restaurants. At the end of the peninsula is historic Fort McHenry, a National Park since the end of World War I, when the old U.S. Army Hospital surrounding the 1798 star-shaped battlements was torn down.[108] The area south of the Vietnam Veterans (Hanover Street) Bridge and the Patapsco River
Patapsco River
was annexed to the city in 1919 from being independent towns in Anne Arundel County.[citation needed] Across the Hanover Street Bridge are residential areas such as Cherry Hill,[109] Brooklyn, and Curtis Bay, with Fort Armistead
Fort Armistead
bordering the city's south side from Anne Arundel County.[citation needed] Northeast Baltimore[edit] Northeast is primarily a residential neighborhood, home to Morgan State University, bounded by the city line of 1919 on its northern and eastern boundaries, Sinclair Lane, Erdman Avenue, and Pulaski Highway to the south and The Alameda on to the west. Also in this wedge of the city on 33rd Street is Baltimore City College
Baltimore City College
high school, third oldest active public secondary school in the United States, founded downtown in 1839.[110] Across Loch Raven Boulevard
Loch Raven Boulevard
is the former site of the old Memorial Stadium for the Baltimore
Baltimore
Colts and Baltimore Orioles, now replaced by a YMCA
YMCA
athletic and housing complex.[111][112] Lake Montebello is in Northeast Baltimore.[103] East Baltimore[edit] Located below Sinclair Lane and Erdman Avenue, above Orleans Street, East Baltimore
Baltimore
is mainly made up of residential neighborhoods. This section of East Baltimore
Baltimore
is home to Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine on Broadway. Notable neighborhoods include: Armistead Gardens, Broadway East, Barclay, Ellwood Park, Greenmount, and McElderry Park.[103] This area was the on-site film location for Homicide: Life on the Street, The Corner
The Corner
and The Wire.[113] Southeast Baltimore[edit] Southeast Baltimore, located below Fayette Street, bordering the Inner Harbor and the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River
Patapsco River
to the west, the city line of 1919 on its eastern boundaries and the Patapsco River
Patapsco River
to the south, is a mixed industrial and residential area. Patterson Park, the "Best Backyard in Baltimore,"[114] as well as the Highlandtown Arts District, and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
are located in Southeast Baltimore. The Shops at Canton Crossing opened in 2013.[115] The Canton neighborhood, is located along Baltimore's prime waterfront. Other historic neighborhoods include: Fells Point, Patterson Park, Butchers Hill, Highlandtown, Greektown, Harbor East, Little Italy, and Upper Fells Point.[103] Northwest Baltimore[edit] Northwestern is bounded by the county line to the north and west, Gwynns Falls Parkway
Gwynns Falls Parkway
on the south and Pimlico Road on the east, is home to Pimlico Race Course, Sinai Hospital, and the headquarters of the NAACP. Its neighborhoods are mostly residential and are dissected by Northern Parkway. The area has been the center of Baltimore's Jewish community since after World War II. Notable neighborhoods include: Pimlico, Mount Washington, and Cheswolde, and Park Heights.[116] West Baltimore[edit] West Baltimore
Baltimore
is located west of downtown and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard and is bounded by Gwynns Falls Parkway, Fremont Avenue, and West Baltimore
Baltimore
Street. The Old West Baltimore
Baltimore
Historic District includes the neighborhoods of Harlem Park, Sandtown-Winchester, Druid Heights, Madison Park, and Upton.[117][118] Originally a predominantly German neighborhood, by the last half of the 1800s, Old West Baltimore was home to a substantial section of the city's African American population. It became the largest neighborhood for the city's black community and its cultural, political, and economic center.[117] Coppin State University, Mondawmin Mall, and Edmondson Village are located in this district. The area's crime problems have provided subject material for television series, such as The Wire.[119] Local organizations, such as the Sandtown Habitat for Humanity and the Upton Planning Committee, have been steadily transforming parts of formerly blighted areas of West Baltimore
Baltimore
into clean, safe communities.[120][121] Southwest Baltimore[edit] Southwest Baltimore
Baltimore
is bound by the Baltimore County
Baltimore County
line to the west, West Baltimore Street to the north, and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Russell Street/Baltimore-Washington Parkway (Maryland Route 295) to the east. Notable neighborhoods in Southwest Baltimore include: Pigtown, Carrolton Ridge, Ridgely's Delight, Leakin Park, Violetville, Lakeland, and Morrell Park.[103] St. Agnes Hospital on Wilkens and Caton[103] avenues is located in this district with the neighboring Cardinal Gibbons High School, which is the former site of Babe Ruth's alma mater, St. Mary's Industrial School.[citation needed] Also through this segment of Baltimore
Baltimore
ran the beginnings of the historic National Road, which was constructed beginning in 1806 along Old Frederick Road
Old Frederick Road
and continuing into the county on Frederick Road into Ellicott City, Maryland.[citation needed] Other sides in this district are: Carroll Park, one of the city's largest parks, the colonial Mount Clare Mansion, and Washington Boulevard, which dates to pre-Revolutionary War days as the prime route out of the city to Alexandria, Virginia, and Georgetown on the Potomac River.[citation needed]

Belair-Edison

Woodberry

Reservoir Hill

Station North

Fells Point

Roland Park

Mount Vernon

Adjacent communities[edit] The City
City
of Baltimore
Baltimore
is bordered by the following communities, all unincorporated census-designated places.

Arbutus Baltimore
Baltimore
Highlands Brooklyn Park Catonsville Dundalk Glen Burnie Hanover Lansdowne Lochearn Overlea Parkville Pasadena Pikesville Relay Rosedale Towson Woodlawn Middle River

Climate[edit] Under the Köppen classification, Baltimore
Baltimore
lies within the humid subtropical climate zone (Cfa), with four distinct seasons, and is part of USDA plant hardiness zones 7b and 8a.[122] The 8a is found on Inner Harbor. Winters are chilly but variable, with sporadic snowfall: January has a daily average of 35.8 °F (2.1 °C),[123] though temperatures reach 50 °F (10 °C) rather often and drop below 20 °F (−7 °C) when Arctic air masses affect the area.[123] The average seasonal snowfall is 20.1 inches (51 cm),[124] but it varies greatly depending on the winter, with some seasons seeing minimal snow while others see several major Nor'easters. [a] Due to lessened urban heat island (UHI) as compared to the city proper and distance from the moderating Chesapeake Bay, the outlying and inland parts of the Baltimore
Baltimore
metro area are usually cooler, especially at night, than the city proper and the coastal towns. Thus, in the northern and western suburbs, winter snowfall is more significant, and some areas average more than 30 in (76 cm) of snow per winter.[126] It is by no means uncommon for the rain-snow line to set up in the metro area.[127] Freezing rain
Freezing rain
and sleet occurs a few times each winter in the area, as warm air overrides cold air at the low to mid-levels of the atmosphere. When the wind blows from the east, the cold air gets dammed against the mountains to the west and the result is freezing rain or sleet. Spring and autumn are warm, with spring being the wettest season in terms of the number of precipitation days. Summers are hot and humid with a daily average in July of 80.7 °F (27.1 °C),[123] and the combination of heat and humidity leads to rather frequent thunderstorms. A southeasterly bay breeze off the Chesapeake often occurs on summer afternoons when hot air rises over inland areas; prevailing winds from the southwest interacting with this breeze as well as the city proper's UHI can seriously exacerbate air quality.[128][129] In late summer and early autumn the track of hurricanes or their remnants may cause flooding in downtown Baltimore, despite the city being far removed from the typical coastal storm surge areas.[130]

Humidity can contribute to dramatic lightning storms over the Baltimore
Baltimore
area.

Extreme temperatures range from −7 °F (−22 °C) on February 9, 1934, and February 10, 1899,[b] up to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 22, 2011.[131][132] On average, 100 °F (38 °C)+ temperatures occur on 0.9 days annually, 90 °F (32 °C)+ on 37 days, and there are 10 days where the high fails to reach the freezing mark.[123]

Climate data for Baltimore
Baltimore
(1981−2010 normals)[c]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °F (°C) 42.4 (5.8) 45.7 (7.6) 53.9 (12.2) 65.5 (18.6) 75.2 (24) 85.0 (29.4) 89.0 (31.7) 87.0 (30.6) 80.3 (26.8) 68.4 (20.2) 57.7 (14.3) 46.1 (7.8) 66.4 (19.1)

Average low °F (°C) 29.2 (−1.6) 31.4 (−0.3) 38.8 (3.8) 47.6 (8.7) 56.9 (13.8) 67.1 (19.5) 72.5 (22.5) 70.9 (21.6) 63.8 (17.7) 51.8 (11) 42.9 (6.1) 32.8 (0.4) 50.5 (10.3)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.92 (74.2) 2.60 (66) 3.86 (98) 3.22 (81.8) 3.49 (88.6) 3.27 (83.1) 4.62 (117.3) 3.39 (86.1) 4.09 (103.9) 3.05 (77.5) 2.97 (75.4) 3.41 (86.6) 40.89 (1,038.5)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 6.8 (17.3) 8.0 (20.3) 1.9 (4.8) trace 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.4 (1) 3.0 (7.6) 20.1 (51.1)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.5 8.4 10.5 11.1 11.2 10.8 10.7 9.2 8.9 8.3 8.8 9.9 117.3

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.5 2.8 1.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 1.7 9.5

Average relative humidity (%) 63.2 61.3 59.2 58.9 66.1 68.4 69.1 71.1 71.3 69.5 66.5 65.5 65.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 155.4 164.0 215.0 230.7 254.5 277.3 290.1 264.4 221.8 205.5 158.5 144.5 2,581.7

Percent possible sunshine 51 54 58 58 57 62 64 62 59 59 52 49 58

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[123][133][134][135][136]

Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 13,503

1800 26,514

96.4%

1810 46,555

75.6%

1820 62,738

34.8%

1830 80,620

28.5%

1840 102,313

26.9%

1850 169,054

65.2%

1860 212,418

25.7%

1870 267,354

25.9%

1880 332,313

24.3%

1890 434,439

30.7%

1900 508,957

17.2%

1910 558,485

9.7%

1920 733,826

31.4%

1930 804,874

9.7%

1940 859,100

6.7%

1950 949,708

10.5%

1960 939,024

−1.1%

1970 905,787

−3.5%

1980 786,741

−13.1%

1990 736,016

−6.4%

2000 651,154

−11.5%

2010 620,961

−4.6%

Est. 2017 611,648 [137] −1.5%

U.S. Decennial Census[138] 1790–1960[139] 1900–1990[140] 1990–2000[141] 2010–2015[142]

According to the 2010 Census[update], there were 620,961 people living in Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
in 242,268 households. The population decreased by 4.6% since the 2000 Census. Among school-age children between 5–17 years old, there was a 23% decline.[143] Baltimore's population has declined at each census since its peak in 1950.[104] In 2011, then-Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake
Stephanie Rawlings-Blake
said her main goal was to increase the city's population by improving city services to reduce the number of people leaving the city and by passing legislation protecting immigrants' rights to stimulate growth.[143] For the first time in decades, in July 2012, the U.S. Census Bureau's census estimate showed the population grew by 1,100 residents, a 0.2% increase from the previous year.[144] Gentrification
Gentrification
has also increased since the 2000 census, primarily in East Baltimore, downtown, and Central Baltimore.[145] Downtown Baltimore
Baltimore
and its surrounding neighborhoods are seeing a resurgence of young professionals and immigrants, mirroring major cities across the country.[144] After New York City, Baltimore
Baltimore
was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000.[146][147] From the 1830 through 1850 U.S. censuses, Baltimore
Baltimore
was the second most-populous city,[147][148] before being surpassed by Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1860.[149] It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States
United States
in every census up to the 1980 census,[150] and after World War II had a population of nearly a million. Characteristics[edit] Further information: Ethnic groups in Baltimore

Map of racial distribution in Baltimore, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)

Population by Race in Baltimore
Baltimore
Maryland
Maryland
(2010)

Race Population % of Total

Total 620,961 100

African American 395,781 63

White 183,830 29

Asian 14,548 2

Two or More Races 12,955 2

Other 11,303 1

American Indian 2,270 < 1%

Three or more races 1,402 < 1%

Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander 274 < 1%

Source: 2010 Census via Maryland
Maryland
Department of Planning[151]

According to the 2010 Census[update], Baltimore's population is 63.7% Black, 29.6% White, 2.3% Asian, and 0.4%, American Indian and Alaska Native. Across races, 4.2% of the population are of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin.[142] Females made up 53.4% of the population. The median age was 35 years old, with 22.4% under 18 years old, 65.8% from 18 to 64 years old, and 11.8% 65 or older.[142] In 2005, approximately 30,778 people (6.5%) identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[152] In 2012, same-sex marriage in Maryland
Maryland
was legalized, going into effect January 1, 2013.[153] Income and housing[edit] In 2009, the median household income was $42,241 and the median income per capita was $25,707, compared to the national median income of $53,889 per household and $28,930 per capita. In Baltimore, 23.7% of the population lived below the poverty line, compared to 13.5% nationwide.[142] Housing in Baltimore
Baltimore
is relatively inexpensive for large, coastal cities of its size. The median sale price for homes in Baltimore
Baltimore
in 2012 was $95,000.[154] Despite the housing collapse, and along with the national trends, Baltimore
Baltimore
residents still face slowly increasing rent (up 3% in the summer of 2010).[155] The homeless population in Baltimore
Baltimore
is steadily increasing; it exceeded 4,000 people in 2011. The increase in the number of young homeless people was particularly severe.[156] Religion[edit]

Baltimore
Baltimore
Basilica, the first cathedral built in the U.S.

A little under half (47%) of people in Baltimore
Baltimore
report affiliating with a religion. Catholicism is the largest religious affiliation, comprising 12% percent of the population, followed by the Baptist Church (7%), then Judaism (4.3%). Around 11.4% identify with other Christian denominations.[157][158] Languages[edit] As of 2010, 91% (526,705) of Baltimore
Baltimore
residents five years old and older spoke only English at home. Close to 4% (21,661) spoke Spanish. Other languages, such as African languages, French, and Chinese are spoken by less than 1% of the population.[159] Crime[edit] Main article: Crime in Baltimore

Patrol car of the Baltimore
Baltimore
Police Department

Crime in Baltimore, generally concentrated in areas high in poverty, has been above the national average for many years. Overall reported crime has dropped by 60% from the mid 1990s to the mid 2010s, but homicide rates remain high and exceed the national average. The worst years for crime in Baltimore
Baltimore
overall were from 1993–1996; 1995, with 96,243 crimes reported in 1995 (compare with 38,321 in 2014, albeit following a population decline of 100,000). Baltimore's 344 homicides in 2015 represented the highest homicide rate in the city's recorded history—52.5 per 100,000 people, surpassing the record set in 1993—and the second-highest for U.S. cities behind St. Louis
St. Louis
and ahead of Detroit. To put that in perspective, New York City, a city with a 2015 population of 8,491,079 recorded a total of 339 homicides in 2015. Baltimore
Baltimore
is a city with a 2015 population of 621,849; which means that in 2015 Baltimore
Baltimore
had a homicide rate 14 times higher than New York City's. Of Baltimore's 344 homicides in 2015, 321 (93.3%) of the victims were African-American.[citation needed] Chicago, which saw 762 homicides in 2016 compared to Baltimore's 318, still had a homicide rate (27.2) that was half of Baltimore's because Chicago has a population 4 times greater than Baltimore's.[citation needed] Drug use and deaths by drug use (particularly drugs used intravenously, such as heroin) are a related problem which has crippled Baltimore
Baltimore
for decades. Among cities greater than 400,000, Baltimore
Baltimore
ranked 2nd in its opiate drug death rate in the United States
United States
behind Dayton, Ohio. The DEA reported that a staggering 10% of Baltimore's population- about 64,000 people- are addicted to heroin.[160][161][162][163][164] In 2011, Baltimore
Baltimore
police reported 196 homicides, the lowest number in the city since a count of 197 homicides in 1978 and far lower than the peak homicide count of 353 slayings in 1993. City
City
leaders at the time credited a sustained focus on repeat violent offenders and increased community engagement for the continued drop, reflecting a nationwide decline in crime.[165][166] On August 8, 2014, Baltimore's new youth curfew law went into effect. It prohibits unaccompanied children under age 14 from being on the streets after 9 p.m. and those aged 14–16 from being out after 10 p.m. during the week and 11 p.m. on weekends and during the summer. The goal is to keep children out of dangerous places and reduce crime.[167]

The city's rate of homicide, one of the highest among cities of its size in the United States, has earned it the nickname "Bodymore, Murderland".[2]

Crime in Baltimore
Crime in Baltimore
reached another peak in 2015 when the year's tally of 344 homicides was second only to the record 353 in 1993, when Baltimore
Baltimore
had about 100,000 more residents. The killings in 2015 were on pace with recent years in the early months of 2015 but skyrocketed after the unrest and rioting of late April. In five of the next eight months, killings topped 30 or 40 a month. Nearly 90 percent of 2015's homicides were the result of shootings, renewing calls for new gun laws. In 2016, according to annual crime statistics released by the Baltimore
Baltimore
Police Department, there were 318 murders in the city.[168] This total marked a 7.56 percent decline in homicides from 2015. On September 8, 2017, the Baltimore Sun
Baltimore Sun
reported that Baltimore's annual homicide count was on track to exceed that of New York City
New York City
for the first time on record.[169] In an interview in The Guardian, on November 2, 2017,[170] David Simon, himself a former police reporter for The Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun, ascribed the most recent surge in murders to the high-profile decision by Baltimore
Baltimore
state’s attorney, Marilyn Mosby, to charge six city police officers following the death of Freddie Gray after he fell into a coma while in police custody in April 2015. “What Mosby basically did was send a message to the Baltimore
Baltimore
police department: ‘I’m going to put you in jail for making a bad arrest.’ So officers figured it out: ‘I can go to jail for making the wrong arrest, so I’m not getting out of my car to clear a corner,’ and that’s exactly what happened post-Freddie Gray.” In Baltimore
Baltimore
arrest numbers have plummeted from more than 40,000 in 2014, the year before Freddie Gray’s death and the subsequent charges against the officers, to about 18,000 in 2017 (primo November). This happened even as homicides soared from 211 in 2014 to 344 in 2015 – an increase of 63%.[170] Economy[edit] Once a predominantly industrial town, with an economic base focused on steel processing, shipping, auto manufacturing (General Motors Baltimore
Baltimore
Assembly), and transportation, the city experienced deindustrialization which cost residents tens of thousands of low-skill, high-wage jobs.[171] The city now relies on a low-wage service economy, which accounts for 31% of jobs in the city.[172][173] Around the turn of the century, Baltimore
Baltimore
was the leading US manufacturer of rye whiskey and straw hats. It also led in refining of crude oil, brought to the city by pipeline from Pennsylvania.[174] As of March 2015 the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics calculates Baltimore's unemployment rate at 8.1%[175] while one quarter of Baltimore
Baltimore
residents (and 37% of Baltimore
Baltimore
children) live in poverty.[176] The 2012 closure of a major steel plant at Sparrows Point is expected to have a further impact on employment and the local economy.[177] The Census Bureau reported in 2013 that 207,000 workers commute into Baltimore
Baltimore
city each day.[178] Downtown Baltimore
Downtown Baltimore
is the primary economic asset within Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
and the region with 29.1 million square feet of office space. The tech sector is rapidly growing as the Baltimore
Baltimore
metro ranks 8th in the CBRE Tech Talent Report among 50 U.S. metro areas for high growth rate and number of tech professionals.[179] Forbes ranked Baltimore
Baltimore
fourth among America's "new tech hot spots".[180]

Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
Panorama.

Panoramic view of the Baltimore
Baltimore
Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
and Harbor Point waterfront development as seen from the Domino Sugar
Domino Sugar
factory.

The city is home to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Other large companies in Baltimore
Baltimore
include Under Armour,[181] BRT Laboratories, Cordish Company,[182] Legg Mason, McCormick & Company, T. Rowe Price, and Royal Farms.[183] A sugar refinery owned by American Sugar Refining
American Sugar Refining
is one of Baltimore's cultural icons. Nonprofits based in Baltimore include Lutheran Services in America
Lutheran Services in America
and Catholic Relief Services. Almost a quarter of the jobs in the Baltimore
Baltimore
region were in science, technology, engineering and math as of mid 2013, in part attributed to the city's extensive undergraduate and graduate schools; maintenance and repair experts were included in this count.[184] Port[edit] The center of international commerce for the region is the World Trade Center Baltimore. It houses the Maryland
Maryland
Port Administration and U.S. headquarters for major shipping lines. Baltimore
Baltimore
is ranked 9th for total dollar value of cargo and 13th for cargo tonnage for all U.S. ports. In 2014, total cargo moving through the port totaled 29.5 million tons, down from 30.3 million tons in 2013. The value of cargo traveling through the port in 2014 came to $52.5 billion, down from $52.6 billion in 2013. The Port of Baltimore
Port of Baltimore
generates $3 billion in annual wages and salary, as well as supporting 14,630 direct jobs and 108,000 jobs connected to port work. In 2014, the port also generated more than $300 million in taxes. It serves over 50 ocean carriers making nearly 1,800 annual visits. Among all U.S. ports, Baltimore
Baltimore
is first in handling automobiles, light trucks, farm and construction machinery; and imported forest products, aluminum, and sugar. The port is second in coal exports. The Port of Baltimore's cruise industry, which offers year-round trips on several lines supports over 500 jobs and brings in over $90 million to Maryland's economy annually. Growth at the port continues with the Maryland
Maryland
Port Administration plans to turn the southern tip of the former steel mill into a marine terminal, primarily for car and truck shipments, but also for anticipated new business coming to Baltimore
Baltimore
after the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project.[185] Tourism[edit] Baltimore's history and attractions have allowed the city to become a strong tourist destination on the East Coast. In 2014, the city hosted 24.5 million visitors, who spent $5.2 billion.[186] The Baltimore Visitor Center, which is operated by Visit Baltimore, is located on Light Street in the Inner Harbor. Much of the city's tourism centers around the Inner Harbor, with the National Aquarium being Maryland's top tourist destination. Baltimore
Baltimore
Harbor's restoration has made it "a city of boats", with several historic ships and other attractions on display and open for the public to visit. The USS Constellation, the last Civil War-era vessel afloat, is docked at the head of the Inner Harbor; the USS Torsk, a submarine that holds the Navy's record for dives (more than 10,000); and the Coast Guard cutter Taney, the last surviving U.S. warship that was in Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
during the Japanese attack on December 7, 1941, and which engaged Japanese Zero aircraft during the battle.[187] Also docked is the lightship Chesapeake, which for decades marked the entrance to Chesapeake Bay; and the Seven Foot Knoll Lighthouse, the oldest surviving screw-pile lighthouse on Chesapeake Bay, which once marked the mouth of the Patapsco River
Patapsco River
and the entrance to Baltimore. All of these attractions are owned and maintained by the Historic Ships in Baltimore
Baltimore
organization. The Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
also is the home port of Pride of Baltimore
Baltimore
II, the state of Maryland's "goodwill ambassador" ship, a reconstruction of a famous Baltimore
Baltimore
Clipper ship.[187] Other popular tourist destinations throughout the city include Oriole Park at Camden Yards, Fort McHenry, the Mount Vernon and Fells Point neighborhoods, and museums such as the Walters Art Museum, the Baltimore
Baltimore
Museum of Industry, and the B&O Railroad Museum. Baltimore, and more specifically, the Baltimore Convention Center
Baltimore Convention Center
is home to BronyCon, the world's largest convention for fans of My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic. The convention had over 6,300 attendees in 2017, and 10,011 attendees during its peak in 2015.[citation needed]

Baltimore
Baltimore
Visitor Center in Inner Harbor

Fountain near visitor center in Inner Harbor

Sunset views from Baltimore's Inner Harbor

Baltimore
Baltimore
is the home of the National Aquarium, one of the world's largest.

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Baltimore See also: List of people from Baltimore, Music of Baltimore, and List of museums in Baltimore

The Washington Monument

Historically a working-class port town, Baltimore
Baltimore
has sometimes been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods", with 72 designated historic districts[188] traditionally occupied by distinct ethnic groups. Most notable today are three downtown areas along the port: the Inner Harbor, frequented by tourists due to its hotels, shops, and museums; Fells Point, once a favorite entertainment spot for sailors but now refurbished and gentrified (and featured in the movie Sleepless in Seattle); and Little Italy, located between the other two, where Baltimore's Italian-American community is based – and where former U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
grew up. Further inland, Mount Vernon is the traditional center of cultural and artistic life of the city; it is home to a distinctive Washington Monument, set atop a hill in a 19th-century urban square, that predates the more well-known monument in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
by several decades. Baltimore
Baltimore
also has a significant German American population,[189] and was the second largest port of immigration to the United States, behind Ellis Island in New York and New Jersey. Between 1820 and 1989, almost 2 million who were German, Polish, English, Irish, Russian, Lithuanian, French, Ukrainian, Czech, Greek and Italian came to Baltimore, most between the years 1861 to 1930. By 1913, when Baltimore
Baltimore
was averaging forty thousand immigrants per year, World War I closed off the flow of immigrants. By 1970, Baltimore's heyday as an immigration center was a distant memory. There also was a Chinatown dating back to at least the 1880s which consisted of no more than 400 Chinese residents. A local Chinese-American association remains based there, but only one Chinese restaurant as of 2009.

Emerson Bromo-Seltzer Tower, built in 1911. The 15 stories of the Bromo Seltzer Tower have been transformed into studio spaces for visual and literary artists

Baltimore
Baltimore
has quite a history when it comes to making beer, an art that thrived in Baltimore
Baltimore
from the 1800s to the 1950s with over 100 old breweries in the city's past.[190] The best remaining example of that history is the old American Brewery Building on North Gay Street and the National Brewing Company
National Brewing Company
building in the Brewer's Hill neighborhood. In the 1940s the National Brewing Company
National Brewing Company
introduced the nation's first six-pack. National's two most prominent brands, were National Bohemian
National Bohemian
Beer colloquially "Natty Boh" and Colt 45. Listed on the Pabst website as a "Fun Fact", Colt 45 was named after running back #45 Jerry Hill of the 1963 Baltimore
Baltimore
Colts and not the .45 caliber handgun ammunition round. Both brands are still made today, albeit outside of Maryland, and served all around the Baltimore
Baltimore
area at bars, as well as Orioles and Ravens games.[191] The Natty Boh logo appears on all cans, bottles, and packaging; and merchandise featuring him can still easily be found in shops in Maryland, including several in Fells Point. Each year the Artscape takes place in the city in the Bolton Hill neighborhood, due to its proximity to Maryland
Maryland
Institute College of Art. Artscape styles itself as the "largest free arts festival in America".[192] Each May, the Maryland
Maryland
Film Festival takes place in Baltimore, using all five screens of the historic Charles Theatre
Charles Theatre
as its anchor venue. Many movies and television shows have been filmed in Baltimore. The Wire
The Wire
was set and filmed in Baltimore. House of Cards and Veep
Veep
are set in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
but filmed in Baltimore.[193] Baltimore
Baltimore
has cultural museums in many areas of study. The Baltimore Museum of Art, and the Walters Art Museum
Walters Art Museum
are internationally renowned for its collection of art. The Baltimore Museum of Art
Baltimore Museum of Art
has the largest holding of works by Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
in the world.[194] The National Great Blacks in Wax Museum is the first African American
African American
wax museum in the country, featuring more than 150 life-size and lifelike wax figures.[41] Cuisine[edit] Baltimore
Baltimore
is known for its Maryland
Maryland
blue crabs, crab cake, Old Bay Seasoning, pit beef, and the "chicken box." The city has many restaurants in or around the Inner Harbor. The most known and acclaimed are the Charleston, Woodberry Kitchen, and the Charm City Cakes bakery featured on the Food Network's Ace of Cakes. The Little Italy
Italy
neighborhood's biggest draw is the food. Fells Point
Fells Point
also is a foodie neighborhood for tourists and locals and is where the oldest continuously running tavern in the country, "The Horse You Came In On Saloon," is located.[195] Many of the city's upscale restaurants can be found in Harbor East. Five public markets are located across the city. The Baltimore
Baltimore
Public Market System is the oldest continuously operating public market system in the United States.[196] Lexington Market is one of the longest-running markets in the world and longest running in the country, having been around since 1782. The market continues to stand at its original site. Baltimore
Baltimore
is the last place in America where one can still find arabbers, vendors who sell fresh fruits and vegetables from a horse-drawn cart that goes up and down neighborhood streets.[197] Food- and drink-rating site Zagat ranked Baltimore
Baltimore
second in a list of the 17 best food cities in the country in 2015.[198] Local dialect[edit] Main article: Baltimore
Baltimore
dialect One thing visitors quickly notice is that some locals refer to their city as "Balmer", dropping the "t". The traditional local accent, particular to some working-class areas of the city, has long been noted and celebrated as "Baltimorese" or "Bawlmorese". While in other parts of the city, locals refer to their city as "Baldamore". Baltimore's dialect is a member of the Atlantic midland English dialect group, and shares many characteristics with Philadelphia's, such as the addition of an "eh" sound before a long "o". Its influence distinguishes Baltimore, especially with words containing "oi" flattened into an "aw" sound.[199] The Baltimore
Baltimore
accent, however is noted for sounding more southern than Philadelphia's. Glide deletion in the accent is present, with the long "i" sound being flattened to "ah" among certain speakers before voiced, liquid and nasal consonants. Due to its combination of rhoticity and glide deletion, the word "iron" is pronounced somewhat like "arn" and the word "fire" like "far".[citation needed] Baltimore
Baltimore
native John Waters parodies the city and its dialect extensively in his films. Most of them are filmed and/or set in Baltimore, including the 1972 cult classic Pink Flamingos, as well as Hairspray and its Broadway musical remake. See also: List of films shot in Baltimore Performing arts[edit]

Hippodrome
Hippodrome
Baltimore

Baltimore
Baltimore
has three state-designated arts and entertainment (A & E) districts. The Station North Arts and Entertainment District, Highlandtown
Highlandtown
Arts District, and the Bromo Arts & Entertainment District. The Baltimore
Baltimore
Office of Promotion & The Arts, a non-profit organization, produces events and arts programs as well as manages several facilities. It is the official Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Arts Council. BOPA coordinates Baltimore's major events including New Year's Eve and July 4 celebrations at the Inner Harbor, Artscape which is America's largest free arts festival, Baltimore
Baltimore
Book Festival, Baltimore
Baltimore
Farmers' Market & Bazaar, School 33 Art Center's Open Studio Tour and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Parade.[200] The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an internationally renowned orchestra, founded in 1916 as a publicly funded municipal organization. The current Music Director is Marin Alsop, a protégé of Leonard Bernstein. Centerstage is the premier theater company in the city and a regionally well-respected group. The Lyric Opera House is the home of Lyric Opera Baltimore, which operates there as part of the Patricia and Arthur Modell Performing Arts Center. The Baltimore Consort has been a leading early music ensemble for over twenty-five years. The France-Merrick Performing Arts Center, home of the restored Thomas W. Lamb-designed Hippodrome
Hippodrome
Theatre, has afforded Baltimore
Baltimore
the opportunity to become a major regional player in the area of touring Broadway and other performing arts presentations. Renovating Baltimore's historic theatres have become widespread throughout the city such as the Everyman, Centre, Senator and most recent Parkway theatre. Other buildings have been reused such as the former Mercantile Deposit and Trust Company bank building. It is now the Chesapeake Shakespeare Company Theater. Baltimore
Baltimore
also boasts a wide array of professional (non-touring) and community theater groups. Aside from Center Stage, resident troupes in the city include Everyman Theatre, Single Carrot Theatre, and Baltimore
Baltimore
Theatre Festival. Community theaters in the city include Fells Point
Fells Point
Community Theatre and the Arena Players Inc., which is the nation's oldest continuously operating African American
African American
community theater.[201] In 2009, the Baltimore
Baltimore
Rock Opera Society, an all-volunteer theatrical company, launched its first production.[202] Baltimore
Baltimore
is home to the Pride of Baltimore
Baltimore
Chorus, a three-time international silver medalist women's chorus, affiliated with Sweet Adelines International. The Maryland
Maryland
State Boychoir is located in the northeastern Baltimore
Baltimore
neighborhood of Mayfield. Baltimore
Baltimore
is the home of non-profit chamber music organization Vivre Musicale. VM won a 2011–2012 award for Adventurous Programming from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers
and Chamber Music America.[203] The Peabody Institute, located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood, is the oldest conservatory of music in the United States.[204] Established in 1857, it is one of the most prestigious in the world,[204] along with Juilliard, Eastman, and the Curtis Institute. The Morgan State University
Morgan State University
Choir is also one of the nation's most prestigious university choral ensembles.[205] The city is home to the Baltimore
Baltimore
School for the Arts, a public high school in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore. The institution is nationally recognized for its success in preparation for students entering music (vocal/instrumental), theatre (acting/theater production), dance, and visual arts. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Baltimore Baseball[edit]

Oriole Park at Camden Yards

Further information: List of World Series champions
List of World Series champions
and American League Championship Series Baltimore
Baltimore
has a long and storied baseball history, including its distinction as the birthplace of Babe Ruth
Babe Ruth
in 1895. The original 19th century Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
were one of the most successful early franchises, featuring numerous hall of famers during its years from 1882 to 1899. As one of the eight inaugural American League franchises, the Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
played in the AL during the 1901 and 1902 seasons. The team moved to New York City
New York City
before the 1903 season and was renamed the New York Highlanders, which later became the New York Yankees. Ruth played for the minor league Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
team, which was active from 1903 to 1914. After playing one season in 1915 as the Richmond Climbers, the team returned the following year to Baltimore, where it played as the Orioles until 1953.[206] The team currently known as the Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
has represented Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
locally since 1954 when the St. Louis
St. Louis
Browns moved to the city of Baltimore. The Orioles advanced to the World Series in 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1979 and 1983, winning three times (1966, 1970 and 1983), while making the playoffs all but one year (1972) from 1969 through 1974. In 1995, local player (and later Hall of Famer) Cal Ripken, Jr.
Cal Ripken, Jr.
broke Lou Gehrig's streak of 2,130 consecutive games played, for which Ripken was named Sportsman of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine.[citation needed] Six former Orioles players, including Ripken (2007), and two of the team's managers have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Since 1992, the Orioles' home ballpark has been Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which has been hailed as one of the league's best since it opened.[citation needed] Football[edit] Further information: History of the Baltimore Colts
History of the Baltimore Colts
and History of the Baltimore
Baltimore
Ravens

M&T Bank Stadium

Prior to an NFL team moving to Baltimore, there had been several attempts at a professional football team prior to the 1950s. Most were minor league or semi-professional teams. The first major league to base a team in Baltimore
Baltimore
was the All-America Football Conference (AAFC), which had a team named the Baltimore
Baltimore
Colts. The AAFC Colts played for three seasons in the AAFC (1947, 1948, and 1949), and when the AAFC folded following the 1949 season, moved to the NFL for a single year (1950) before going bankrupt. Three years later, the NFL's Dallas Texans would itself fold, and its assets and player contracts purchased by an ownership team headed by Baltimore
Baltimore
businessman Carroll Rosenbloom, who moved the team to Baltimore, establishing a new team also named the Baltimore
Baltimore
Colts. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Colts were one of the NFLs more successful franchises, led by Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Johnny Unitas
Johnny Unitas
who set a then-record of 47 consecutive games with a touchdown pass. The Colts advanced to the NFL Championship twice (1958 & 1959) and Super Bowl
Super Bowl
twice (1969 & 1971), winning all except Super Bowl
Super Bowl
III in 1969. After the 1983 season, the team left Baltimore
Baltimore
for Indianapolis in 1984, where it became the Indianapolis Colts. The NFL returned to Baltimore
Baltimore
when the former Cleveland
Cleveland
Browns moved to Baltimore
Baltimore
to become the Baltimore Ravens
Baltimore Ravens
in 1996. Since then, the Ravens won a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
championship in 2000 and 2012, four AFC North division championships (2003, 2006, 2011 and 2012), and appeared in four AFC Championship Games (2000, 2008, 2011 and 2012). Other teams and events[edit] The first professional sports organization in the United States, The Maryland
Maryland
Jockey Club, was formed in Baltimore
Baltimore
in 1743. Preakness Stakes, the second race in the United States
United States
Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, has been held every May at Pimlico Race Course
Pimlico Race Course
in Baltimore
Baltimore
since 1873. College lacrosse is a popular sport in the spring, as the Johns Hopkins Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has won 44 national championships, the most of any program in history. In addition, Loyola University won its first men's NCAA lacrosse championship in 2012. The Baltimore Blast
Baltimore Blast
are a professional arena soccer team that play in the Major Arena Soccer League
Major Arena Soccer League
at the Royal Farms
Royal Farms
Arena. The Blast have won 8 championships in various leagues, including the MASL. A previous entity of the Blast played in the Major Indoor Soccer League from 1980 to 1992, winning 1 championship. The FC Baltimore
FC Baltimore
1729 is a semi-professional soccer club playing for NPSL league, with the goal of bringing a community-oriented competitive soccer experience to the city of Baltimore. Their inaugural season will start May 11, 2018, and they will play their home games at CCBC Essex Field. The Baltimore Blues
Baltimore Blues
are a semi-professional rugby league club which began competition in the USA Rugby League
USA Rugby League
in 2012.[207] The Baltimore Bohemians are an American soccer club. They compete in the USL Premier Development League, the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid. Their inaugural season started in the spring of 2012. The Baltimore Grand Prix
Baltimore Grand Prix
debuted along the streets of the Inner Harbor section of the city's downtown on September 2–4, 2011. The event played host to the American Le Mans Series
American Le Mans Series
on Saturday and the IndyCar Series on Sunday. Support races from smaller series were also held, including Indy Lights. After three consecutive years, on September 13, 2013, it was announced that the event would not be held in 2014 or 2015 due to scheduling conflicts.[208] The athletic equipment company, Under Armour
Under Armour
is also based out of Baltimore. Founded in 1996 by Kevin Plank, a University of Maryland alumnus, the company's headquarters are located in Tide Point, adjacent to Fort McHenry
Fort McHenry
and the Domino Sugar
Domino Sugar
factory. The Baltimore Marathon is the flagship race of several races. The marathon begins at the Camden Yards
Camden Yards
sports complex and travels through many diverse neighborhoods of Baltimore, including the scenic Inner Harbor waterfront area, historic Federal Hill, Fells Point, and Canton, Baltimore. The race then proceeds to other important focal points of the city such as Patterson Park, Clifton Park, Lake Montebello, the Charles Village
Charles Village
neighborhood and the western edge of downtown. After winding through 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi) of Baltimore, the race ends at virtually the same point at which it starts. Parks and recreation[edit] The City
City
of Baltimore
Baltimore
boasts over 4,900 acres (1,983 ha) of parkland.[209] The Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Department of Recreation and Parks manages the majority of parks and recreational facilities in the city including Patterson Park, Federal Hill Park, and Druid Hill Park.[210] The city is also home to Fort McHenry
Fort McHenry
National Monument and Historic Shrine, a coastal star-shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812. As of 2015[update], The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, ranks Baltimore
Baltimore
40th among the 75 largest U.S. cities.[209] Government[edit] Baltimore
Baltimore
is an independent city, and not part of any county. For most governmental purposes under Maryland
Maryland
law, Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
is treated as a county-level entity. The United States
United States
Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States, and treats Baltimore
Baltimore
as a county equivalent for those purposes. Baltimore
Baltimore
has been a Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government. In virtually all elections, the Democratic primary is the real contest.[211] No Republican has won election to the city council since 1939, and no Republican has won the mayor's race since 1963. The city hosted the first six Democratic National Conventions, from 1832 through 1852, and hosted the DNC again in 1860, 1872, and 1912.[212][213] City
City
government[edit] Mayor[edit]

For a full list of mayors, see List of Baltimore
Baltimore
Mayors.

Catherine Pugh became the Democratic nominee for mayor in 2016 and won the mayoral election in 2016 with 57.1% of the vote; Pugh took office as mayor on December 6, 2016.[214] Stephanie Rawlings-Blake
Stephanie Rawlings-Blake
assumed the office of Mayor on February 4, 2010, when Dixon's resignation became effective.[215] Rawlings-Blake had been serving as City
City
Council President at the time. She was elected to a full term in 2011, defeating Pugh in the primary election and receiving 84% of the vote.[216] Sheila Dixon
Sheila Dixon
became the first female mayor of Baltimore
Baltimore
on January 17, 2007. As the former City
City
Council President, she assumed the office of Mayor when former Mayor Martin O'Malley
Martin O'Malley
took office as Governor of Maryland.[217] On November 6, 2007, Dixon won the Baltimore
Baltimore
mayoral election. Mayor Dixon's administration ended less than three years after her election, the result of a criminal investigation that began in 2006 while she was still City
City
Council President. She was convicted on a single misdemeanor charge of embezzlement on December 1, 2009. A month later, Dixon made an Alford plea
Alford plea
to a perjury charge and agreed to resign from office; Maryland, like most states, does not allow convicted felons to hold office.[218][219]

Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Hall

Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Council[edit] Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), backed the effort.[220] The Baltimore City Council
Baltimore City Council
is now made up of 14 single-member districts and one elected at-large council president. Bernard C. "Jack" Young has been the council president since February 2010, when he was unanimously elected by the other council members to replace Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, who had become mayor.[221] Edward Reisinger, the 10th district representative, is the council's current vice president.[222] Law enforcement[edit] The Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Police Department, founded 1784 as a "Night City Watch" and day Constables system and later reorganized as a City Department in 1853, with a following reorganization under State of Maryland
Maryland
supervision in 1859, with appointments made by the Governor of Maryland
Maryland
after a disturbing period of civic and elections violence with riots in the later part of the decade, is the current primary law enforcement agency serving the citizens of the City
City
of Baltimore. Campus and building security for the city's public schools is provided by the Baltimore City Public Schools
Baltimore City Public Schools
Police, established in the 1970s. The Maryland
Maryland
Transportation Authority Police under the Maryland Department of Transportation, (originally established as the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Police" when opened in 1957) is the primary law enforcement agency on the Fort McHenry
Fort McHenry
Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 95), the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Thruway
Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Thruway
(Interstate 895), which go under the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River, and Interstate 395, which has three ramp bridges crossing the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River which are under MdTA jurisdiction, the Baltimore-Washington International Airport, (BWI) and have limited concurrent jurisdiction with the Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Police Department under a "memorandum of understanding".

Courthouse east is a historic combined post office and Federal courthouse located in Battle Monument
Battle Monument
Square.

Law enforcement on the fleet of transit buses and transit rail systems serving Baltimore
Baltimore
is the responsibility of the Maryland
Maryland
Transit Administration Police, which is part of the Maryland
Maryland
Transit Administration of the state Department of Transportation. The MTA Police also share jurisdiction authority with the Baltimore
Baltimore
City Police, governed by a memorandum of understanding.[223] As the enforcement arm of the Baltimore
Baltimore
circuit and district court system, the Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Sheriff's Office, created by state constitutional amendment in 1844, is responsible for the security of city courthouses and property, service of court-ordered writs, protective and peace orders, warrants, tax levies, prisoner transportation and traffic enforcement. Deputy Sheriffs are sworn law enforcement officials, with full arrest authority granted by the constitution of Maryland, the Maryland
Maryland
Police and Correctional Training Commission and the Sheriff of the City
City
of Baltimore.[224] The United States
United States
Coast Guard, operating out of their shipyard and facility (since 1899) at Arundel Cove on Curtis Creek, (off Pennington Avenue extending to Hawkins Point Road/Fort Smallwood Road) in the Curtis Bay section of southern Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
and adjacent northern Anne Arundel County. The U.S.C.G. also operates and maintains a presence on Baltimore
Baltimore
and Maryland
Maryland
waterways in the Patapsco River
Patapsco River
and Chesapeake Bay. "Sector Baltimore" is responsible for commanding law enforcement and search & rescue units as well as aids to navigation. Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Fire Department[edit] Main article: Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Fire Department The city of Baltimore
Baltimore
is protected by the over 1,800 professional firefighters of the Baltimore City Fire Department
Baltimore City Fire Department
(BCFD), which was founded in December 1858 and began operating the following year. Replacing several warring independent volunteer companies since the 1770s and the confusion resulting from a riot involving the "Know-Nothing" political party two years before, the establishment of a unified professional fire fighting force was a major advance in urban governance. The BCFD operates out of 37 fire stations located throughout the city and has a long history and sets of traditions in its various houses and divisions. State government[edit] See also: Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Delegation Since the legislative redistricting in 2002, Baltimore
Baltimore
has had six legislative districts located entirely within its boundaries, giving the city six seats in the 47-member Maryland
Maryland
Senate and 18 in the 141-member Maryland
Maryland
House of Delegates.[225][226] During the previous 10-year period, Baltimore
Baltimore
had four legislative districts within the city limits, but four others overlapped the Baltimore
Baltimore
County line.[227] As of January 2011, all of Baltimore's state senators and delegates were Democrats.[225] Approval of the next redistricting plan is expected to become effective in time for Maryland's 2012 congressional primary election on February 14, 2012.[228] State agencies[edit] See also: List of state agencies headquartered in Baltimore Federal government[edit] Further information: Maryland's 2nd congressional district, Maryland's 3rd congressional district, and Maryland's 7th congressional district See also: United States
United States
Senate election in Maryland, 2006

Presidential Elections Results[229]

Year Republican Democratic Third Parties

2016 10.5% 25,205 84.7% 202,673 4.8% 11,524

2012 11.1% 28,171 87.2% 221,478 1.7% 4,356

2008 11.7% 28,681 87.2% 214,385 1.2% 2,902

2004 17.0% 36,230 82.0% 175,022 1.1% 2,311

2000 14.1% 27,150 82.5% 158,765 3.4% 6,489

1996 15.5% 28,467 79.3% 145,441 5.1% 9,415

1992 16.6% 40,725 75.8% 185,753 7.6% 18,613

1988 25.4% 59,089 73.5% 170,813 1.1% 2,465

1984 28.2% 80,120 71.2% 202,277 0.6% 1,766

1980 21.9% 57,902 72.5% 191,911 5.7% 14,962

1976 31.4% 81,762 68.6% 178,593

1972 45.2% 119,486 53.4% 141,323 1.5% 3,843

1968 27.7% 80,146 61.6% 178,450 10.8% 31,288

1964 24.0% 76,089 76.0% 240,716

1960 36.1% 114,705 63.9% 202,752

1956 55.9% 178,244 44.1% 140,603

1952 47.6% 166,605 51.0% 178,469 1.4% 4,784

1948 43.7% 110,879 53.0% 134,615 3.3% 8,396

1944 40.8% 112,817 59.2% 163,493

1940 35.6% 112,364 63.2% 199,715 1.2% 3,917

1936 31.5% 97,667 67.9% 210,668 0.6% 1,959

1932 31.9% 78,954 64.8% 160,309 3.2% 7,969

1928 51.4% 135,182 47.9% 126,106 0.7% 1,770

1924 42.6% 69,588 36.9% 60,222 20.5% 33,442

1920 57.0% 125,526 39.4% 86,748 3.6% 7,872

1916 44.3% 49,805 53.6% 60,226 2.1% 2,382

1912 15.7% 15,597 48.4% 48,030 35.9% 35,695

1908 49.8% 51,528 47.5% 49,139 2.7% 2,756

1904 48.6% 47,444 49.1% 47,901 2.3% 2,192

1900 52.1% 58,880 46.0% 51,979 1.9% 2,149

Three of the state's eight congressional districts include portions of Baltimore: the 2nd, represented by Dutch Ruppersberger; the 3rd, represented by John Sarbanes; and the 7th, represented by Elijah Cummings. All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Baltimore
Baltimore
in Congress since John Boynton Philip Clayton Hill represented the 3rd District in 1927, and has not represented any of Baltimore
Baltimore
since the Eastern Shore-based 1st District lost its share of Baltimore
Baltimore
after the 2000 census; it was represented by Republican Wayne Gilchrest
Wayne Gilchrest
at the time. Maryland's senior Senator, Ben Cardin, is from Baltimore. He is one of three people in the last four decades to have represented the 3rd District before being elected to the Senate. Paul Sarbanes
Paul Sarbanes
represented the 3rd from 1971 until 1977, when he was elected to the first of five terms in the Senate. Sarbanes was succeeded by Barbara Mikulski, who represented the 3rd from 1977 to 1987. Mikulski was succeeded by Cardin, who held the seat until handing it to John Sarbanes
John Sarbanes
upon his election to the Senate in 2007.[230] The Postal Service's Baltimore
Baltimore
Main Post Office is located at 900 East Fayette Street in the Jonestown area.[231] The national headquarters for the United States
United States
Social Security Administration is located in Woodlawn, just outside of Baltimore. Education[edit] See also: List of high schools in Maryland Colleges and universities[edit] Baltimore
Baltimore
is the home of numerous places of higher learning, both public and private. 100,000 college students from around the country attend Baltimore
Baltimore
City's 12 accredited two-year or four-year colleges and universities.[232][233] Among them are: Private[edit]

Keyser Quadrangle in Spring at the Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
the first research university in the United States.

Interior of the George Peabody Library
George Peabody Library
at the Peabody Institute
Peabody Institute
of Johns Hopkins University. It is considered one of the most beautiful libraries in the world.[234]

The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore
Baltimore
International College Loyola University Maryland Maryland
Maryland
Institute College of Art St. Mary's Seminary and University Notre Dame of Maryland
Maryland
University The Peabody Institute
Peabody Institute
of Johns Hopkins University Stratford University
Stratford University
( Baltimore
Baltimore
campus)

Public[edit]

Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Community College Coppin State University Morgan State University University of Baltimore University of Maryland, Baltimore

Primary and secondary schools[edit] The city's public schools are managed by Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Public Schools and include schools that have been well known in the area: Carver Vocational-Technical High School, the first African American vocational high school and center that was established in the state of Maryland; Digital Harbor High School, one of the secondary schools that emphasizes information technology; Lake Clifton Eastern High School, which is the largest school campus in Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
of physical size; the historic Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
High School, which is the second oldest African American
African American
high school in the United States;[235] Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
College, the third oldest public high school in the country;[236] and Western High School, the oldest public all-girls school in the nation.[237] Baltimore City College
Baltimore City College
(also known as "City") and Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
(also known as "Poly") share the nation's second-oldest high school football rivalry.[238] See also: List of private and parochial schools in Baltimore Transportation[edit] Roads and highways[edit]

The Baltimore Light Rail
Baltimore Light Rail
provides service to Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Airport and the Baltimore
Baltimore
area. Here, a train stops at Convention Center ( Baltimore Light Rail
Baltimore Light Rail
station), just west of the Baltimore Convention Center
Baltimore Convention Center
on Pratt Street.

The Interstate highways serving Baltimore
Baltimore
are I-70, I-83
I-83
(the Jones Falls Expressway), I-95
I-95
(the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway north of the city), I-395, I-695 (the Baltimore
Baltimore
Beltway), I-795 (the Northwest Expressway), I-895 (the Harbor Tunnel Thruway), and I-97. The city's mainline Interstate highways—I-95, I-83, and I-70—do not directly connect to each other, and in the case of I-70 end at a park and ride lot just inside the city limits, because of freeway revolts in Baltimore. These revolts were led primarily by Barbara Mikulski, a former United States
United States
senator for Maryland, which resulted in the abandonment of the original plan. There are two tunnels traversing Baltimore
Baltimore
Harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (serving I-95) and the two-bore Harbor Tunnel (serving I-895). The Baltimore
Baltimore
Beltway crosses south of Baltimore
Baltimore
Harbor over the Francis Scott Key
Francis Scott Key
Bridge. The only U.S. Highways in the city are US 1, which bypasses downtown, and US 40, which crosses downtown from east to west. Both run along major surface streets; however, US 40 utilizes a small section of a freeway cancelled in the 1970s in the west side of the city originally intended for Interstate 170. State routes in the city also travel along surface streets, with the exception of Maryland
Maryland
Route 295, which carries the Baltimore–Washington Parkway. The Baltimore
Baltimore
City
City
Department of Transportation (BCDOT) is responsible for several functions of the road transportation system in Baltimore, including repairing roads, sidewalks, and alleys; road signs; street lights; and managing the flow of transportation systems.[239] In addition, the agency is in charge of vehicle towing and traffic cameras.[240][241] BCDOT maintains all streets within the city of Baltimore. These include all streets that are marked as state and U.S. highways as well as the portions of I-83
I-83
and I-70 within the city limits. The only highways within the city that are not maintained by BCDOT are I-95, I-395, I-695, and I-895; those four highways are maintained by the Maryland
Maryland
Transportation Authority.[242] Transit systems[edit] Public transit[edit]

Charm City Circulator
Charm City Circulator
Van Hool A330 #1101 on the Orange Line

Public transit in Baltimore
Baltimore
is mostly provided by the Maryland
Maryland
Transit Administration (abbreviated "MTA Maryland") and Charm City
City
Circulator. MTA Maryland
Maryland
operates a comprehensive bus network, including many local, express, and commuter buses, a light rail network connecting Hunt Valley in the north to BWI Airport
BWI Airport
and Cromwell (Glen Burnie) in the south, and a subway line between Owings Mills and Johns Hopkins Hospital.[243] A proposed rail line, known as the Red Line, which would link the Social Security Administration to Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and perhaps the Canton and Dundalk communities, was cancelled as of June 2015 by Governor Larry Hogan; a proposal to extend Baltimore's existing subway line to Morgan State University, known as the Green Line, is in the planning stages.[244] The Charm City Circulator
Charm City Circulator
(CCC), a shuttle bus service operated by Veolia Transportation for the Baltimore
Baltimore
Department of Transportation, began operating in the downtown area in January 2010. Funded partly by a 16 percent increase in the city's parking fees, the circulator provides free bus service seven days a week, picking up passengers every 15 minutes at designated stops during service hours.[245][246] The CCC's first bus line, the Orange route, travels between Hollins Market and Harbor East. Its Purple route, launched June 7, 2010, operates between Penn Station and Federal Hill. The Green route runs between Johns Hopkins and City
City
Hall.[246][247] The Charm City Circulator operates a fleet of diesel and hybrid vehicles built by DesignLine, Orion, and Van Hool.[245] Baltimore
Baltimore
also has a water taxi service, operated by Baltimore
Baltimore
Water Taxi. The water taxi's six routes provide service throughout the city's harbor, and was purchased by Under Armour
Under Armour
CEO Kevin Plank's Sagamore Ventures in 2016.[248] In June 2017, The BaltimoreLink started operating; it is the redesign of the region's initial bus system. The BaltimoreLink runs through downtown Baltimore
Baltimore
every 10 minutes via color-coded, high-frequency CityLink routes.[249] Intercity rail[edit]

Baltimore
Baltimore
Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Station

Baltimore
Baltimore
is a top destination for Amtrak
Amtrak
along the Northeast Corridor. Baltimore's Penn Station is one of the busiest in the country. In FY 2014, Penn Station was ranked the seventh-busiest rail station in the United States
United States
by number of passengers served each year.[250] The building sits on a raised "island" of sorts between two open trenches, one for the Jones Falls
Jones Falls
Expressway and the other for the tracks of the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
(NEC). The NEC approaches from the south through the two-track, 7,660-foot Baltimore
Baltimore
and Potomac Tunnel, which opened in 1873 and whose 30 mph limit, sharp curves, and steep grades make it one of the NEC's worst bottlenecks. The NEC's northern approach is the 1873 Union Tunnel, which has one single-track bore and one double-track bore. Just outside the city, Baltimore/Washington International (BWI) Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Airport Rail Station is another popular stop. Amtrak's Acela Express, Palmetto, Carolinian, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Vermonter, Crescent, and Northeast Regional
Northeast Regional
trains are the scheduled passenger train services that stop in the city. Additionally, MARC commuter rail service connects the city's two main intercity rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station, with Washington, D.C.'s Union Station as well as stops in between. The MARC consists of 3 lines; the Brunswick, Camden and Penn. On December 7, 2013 the Penn Line began weekend service.[251] Airports[edit]

The interior of Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Baltimore's major commercial airport

Baltimore
Baltimore
is served by two airports, both operated by the Maryland Aviation Administration, which is part of the Maryland
Maryland
Department of Transportation.[252] Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, generally known as "BWI," lies about 10 miles (16 km) to the south of Baltimore
Baltimore
in neighboring Anne Arundel County. The airport is named after Thurgood Marshall, a Baltimore native who was the first African American
African American
to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. In terms of passenger traffic, BWI is the 22nd busiest airport in the United States.[253] As of calendar year 2014, BWI is the largest, by passenger count, of three major airports serving the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area. It is accessible by I-95
I-95
and the Baltimore–Washington Parkway
Baltimore–Washington Parkway
via Interstate 195, the Baltimore
Baltimore
Light Rail, and Amtrak
Amtrak
and MARC Train
MARC Train
at BWI Rail Station. Baltimore
Baltimore
is also served by Martin State Airport, a general aviation facility, to the northeast in Baltimore
Baltimore
County. Martin State Airport is linked to downtown Baltimore
Baltimore
by Maryland
Maryland
Route 150 (Eastern Avenue) and by MARC Train
MARC Train
at its own station. Pedestrians and bicycles[edit] Baltimore
Baltimore
has a comprehensive system of bicycle routes in the city. These routes are not numbered, but are typically denoted with green signs sporting a silhouette of a bicycle upon an outline of the city's border, and denote the distance to destinations, much like bicycle routes in the rest of the state. The roads carrying bicycle routes are also labelled with either bike lanes, sharrows, or Share the Road signs. Many of these routes pass through the downtown area. The network of bicycle lanes in the city continues to expand, with over 140 miles added between 2006 and 2014.[254] Alongside bike lanes, Baltimore
Baltimore
has also built bike boulevards, starting with Guilford Avenue in 2012. Baltimore
Baltimore
currently has three major trail systems within the city. The Gwynns Falls Trail
Gwynns Falls Trail
runs from the Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
to the I-70 Park and Ride, passing through Gwynns Falls Park
Gwynns Falls Park
and possessing numerous branches. There are also many pedestrian hiking trails traversing the park. The Jones Falls
Jones Falls
Trail currently runs from the Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
to the Cylburn Arboretum; however, it is currently undergoing expansion. Long term plans call for it to extend to the Mount Washington Light Rail Stop, and possibly as far north as the Falls Road stop to connect to the Robert E. Lee boardwalk north of the city. It will also incorporate a spur alongside Western Run. The two aforementioned trails carry sections of the East Coast Greenway
East Coast Greenway
through the city. There is also the Herring Run Trail, which runs from Harford Road east to its end beyond Sinclair Lane, utilizing Herring Run Park; long term plans also call for its extension to Morgan State University
Morgan State University
and north to points beyond. Other major bicycle projects include a protected cycle track installed on both Maryland
Maryland
Avenue and Mount Royal Avenue, expected to become the backbone of a downtown bicycle network. Installation for the cycletracks is expected in 2014 and 2016, respectively. In addition to the bicycle trails and cycletracks, Baltimore
Baltimore
has the Stony Run Trail, a walking path that will eventually connect from the Jones Falls
Jones Falls
north to Northern Parkway, utilizing much of the old Ma and Pa Railroad corridor inside the city. In 2011, the city undertook a campaign to reconstruct many sidewalk ramps in the city, coinciding with mass resurfacing of the city's streets. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Baltimore
Baltimore
the 14th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[255] Port of Baltimore[edit] Main article: Helen Delich Bentley
Helen Delich Bentley
Port of Baltimore

Eastward view Baltimore's Inner Harbor

Baltimore
Baltimore
harbor in 1849 with the prominent Washington Monument in the background north of the city

Francis Scott Key
Francis Scott Key
Bridge over the Baltimore
Baltimore
harbor.

The port was founded in 1706, preceding the founding of Baltimore. The Maryland
Maryland
colonial legislature made the area near Locust Point as the port of entry for the tobacco trade with England. Fells Point, the deepest point in the natural harbor, soon became the colony's main ship building center, later on becoming leader in the construction of clipper ships.[256] After Baltimore's founding, mills were built behind the wharves. The California Gold Rush
California Gold Rush
led to many orders for fast vessels; many overland pioneers also relied upon canned goods from Baltimore. After the Civil War, a coffee ship was designed here for trade with Brazil. At the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for immigrants. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
made the port a major transshipment point.[257]:17,75 Currently the port has major roll-on/roll-off facilities, as well as bulk facilities, especially steel handling.[258] Water taxis also operate in the Inner Harbor. Governor Ehrlich participated in naming the port after Helen Delich Bentley
Helen Delich Bentley
during the 300th anniversary of the port.[259] In 2007, Duke Realty
Duke Realty
Corporation began a new development near the Port of Baltimore, named the Chesapeake Commerce Center. This new industrial park is located on the site of a former General Motors plant. The total project comprises 184 acres (0.74 km2) in eastern Baltimore
Baltimore
City, and the site will yield 2,800,000 square feet (260,000 m2) of warehouse/distribution and office space. Chesapeake Commerce Center has direct access to two major Interstate highways ( I-95
I-95
and I-895) and is located adjacent to two of the major Port of Baltimore
Port of Baltimore
terminals. The Port of Baltimore
Port of Baltimore
is one of two seaports on the U.S. East Coast with a 50-foot (15 m) dredge to accommodate the largest shipping vessels.[260] Along with cargo terminals, the port also has a passenger cruise terminal, which offers year-round trips on several lines, including Royal Caribbean's Grandeur of the Seas and Carnival's Pride. Overall five cruise lines have operated out of the port to the Bahamas and the Caribbean, while some ships traveled to New England and Canada. The terminal has become a popular embarkation point where passengers have the rare opportunity to park and board next to the ship visible from Interstate 95.[261] Passengers from Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey make up a third of the volume, with travelers from Maryland, Virginia, the District and even Ohio and the Carolinas making up the rest.[262] Environment[edit] Baltimore's Inner Harbor, known for its skyline waterscape and its tourist-friendly areas, was horribly polluted. The waterway was often filled with garbage after heavy rainstorms, failing its 2014 water quality report card. The Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore
Baltimore
took steps to remediate the waterways, in hopes that the harbor would be fishable and swimmable once again. Trash interceptors[edit]

The "Mr. Trash Wheel" trash interceptor at the mouth of the Jones Falls River in Baltimore's Inner Harbor

Main article: Trash interceptor
Trash interceptor
§ Baltimore's Mr. Trash Wheel Installed in May 2014, the water wheel trash interceptor known as Mr. Trash Wheel sits at the mouth of the Jones Falls
Jones Falls
River in Baltimore's Inner Harbor. A February 2015 agreement with a local waste-to-energy plant is believed to make Baltimore
Baltimore
the first city to use reclaimed waterway debris to generate electricity.[263] Mr. Trash Wheel is the world's first permanent water wheel trash interceptor to clean up the city's polluted Inner Harbor.[264] The Jones Falls
Jones Falls
river watershed drains fifty-eight square miles of land outside of Baltimore
Baltimore
and is a significant source of trash that enters the harbor. Garbage collected by Mr. Trash Wheel could come from anywhere in the Jones Falls
Jones Falls
Watershed area.[265] The wheel moves continuously, removing garbage and dumping it into an attached dumpster using only hydro and solar renewable power to keep its wheel turning. It has the capability to collect 50,000 pounds of trash per day, and has removed more than 350 tons of litter from Baltimore's landmark and tourist attraction in its first 18 months, estimated as consisting of approximately 200,000 bottles, 173,000 potato chip bags and 6.7 million cigarette butts.[266][267] The Water Wheel has been very successful at trash removal, visibly decreasing the amount of garbage that collects in the harbor, especially after a rainfall. After the success of Mr. Trash Wheel, the Waterfront Partnership raised money to build a second Water Wheel at the end of Harris Creek, an entirely piped stream that flows beneath Baltimore's Canton neighborhood and empties into the Baltimore
Baltimore
Harbor. Harris Creek is known to carry tons of trash every year.[268][269][270] The planned new Water Wheel was inaugurated in December 2016, and dubbed "Professor Trash Wheel".[271] Professor Trash Wheel prevents waste from exiting the Harbor and accessing the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
and Atlantic Ocean. A number of additional projects are going on in Baltimore
Baltimore
City and County that should result in better water quality scores. These projects include the Blue Alleys project, expanded street sweeping, and stream restoration.[264] Other water pollution control[edit] In August 2010, the National Aquarium assembled, planted, and launched a floating wetland island designed by Biohabitats in Baltimore's Inner Harbor.[272] Hundreds of years ago Baltimore's harbor shoreline would have been lined with tidal wetlands. Floating wetlands provide many environmental benefits to water quality and habitat enhancement, which is why the Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore
Baltimore
has included them in their Healthy Harbor Initiative pilot projects.[273] Biohabitats also developed a concept to transform a dilapidated wharf into a living pier that cleans Harbor water, provides habitat and is an aesthetic attraction. Currently under design, the top of the pier will become a constructed tidal wetland.[274] Media[edit] Main article: Media in Baltimore Baltimore's main newspaper is The Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun. It was sold by its Baltimore
Baltimore
owners in 1986 to the Times Mirror Company,[275] which was bought by the Tribune Company
Tribune Company
in 2000.[276] The Baltimore News-American, another long-running paper that competed with the Sun, ceased publication in 1986.[277] The city is home to the Baltimore
Baltimore
Afro-American, an influential African American
African American
newspaper founded in 1892.[278][279] In 2006, The Baltimore Examiner was launched to compete with The Sun. It was part of a national chain that includes The San Francisco Examiner and The Washington Examiner. In contrast to the paid subscription Sun, The Examiner was a free newspaper funded solely by advertisements. Unable to turn a profit and facing a deep recession, The Baltimore Examiner ceased publication on February 15, 2009. Despite being located 40 miles northeast of Washington, D.C., Baltimore
Baltimore
is a major media market in its own right, with all major English language television networks represented in the city. WJZ-TV 13 is a CBS
CBS
owned and operated station, and WBFF
WBFF
45 is the flagship of Sinclair Broadcast Group, the largest station owner in the country. Other major television stations in Baltimore
Baltimore
include WMAR-TV
WMAR-TV
2 (ABC), WBAL-TV
WBAL-TV
11 (NBC), WUTB
WUTB
24 (MyNetworkTV), WNUV
WNUV
54 (CW), and WMPB
WMPB
67 (PBS). Nielsen ranked Baltimore
Baltimore
as the 26th-largest television market for the 2008–2009 viewing season and the 27th-largest for 2009–2010.[280] Arbitron's Fall 2010 rankings identified Baltimore
Baltimore
as the 22nd largest radio market.[281] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Baltimore Sister cities[edit] Baltimore
Baltimore
has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: [282][283]

Ashkelon, Israel
Israel
(2005) Bremerhaven, Germany
Germany
(2007) Gbarnga, Liberia
Liberia
(1973) Genoa, Italy
Italy
(1985) Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan
Japan
(1978) Luxor, Egypt
Egypt
(1982) Odessa, Ukraine
Ukraine
(1974) Piraeus, Greece
Greece
(1982) Rotterdam, Netherlands
Netherlands
(1985) Xiamen, China
China
(1985)

See also[edit]

Baltimore
Baltimore
portal Maryland
Maryland
portal North America portal United States
United States
portal Geography portal

Baltimore
Baltimore
Development Corporation Baltimore
Baltimore
in fiction Bluegrass in Baltimore: The Hard Drivin' Sound and its Legacy (Book on the history of the Appalachian migrants move into the city in the 20th Century) Cemeteries in Baltimore, Maryland History of the Germans in Baltimore, Maryland

Notes[edit]

^ Officially, seasonal snowfall accumulation has ranged from 0.7 in (1.8 cm) in 1949–50 to 77.0 in (196 cm) in 2009–10. See North American blizzard of 2009#Snowfall
North American blizzard of 2009#Snowfall
(December 19–20, 2009), February 5–6, 2010 North American blizzard#Snowfall, and February 9–10, 2010 North American blizzard#Impact. The February storms contributed to a monthly accumulation of 50.0 in (127 cm), the most for any month.[124] If no snow fell outside of February that winter, 2009–10 would still rank as 5th snowiest.[125] ^ Since 1950, when the National Weather Service
National Weather Service
switched to using the suburban and generally much cooler BWI Airport
BWI Airport
as the official Baltimore
Baltimore
climatology station, this extreme has repeated three times: January 29, 1963, January 17, 1982, and January 22, 1984. ^ Temperature, precipitation normals are recorded at Maryland
Maryland
Science Center in downtown; the National Weather Service
National Weather Service
does not yet record snowfall at this location, so the snow normals for BWI Airport, at an elevation of 156 ft (47.5 m) about 10 mi (16 km) south of downtown, are shown. Likewise humidity and sun duration normals were recorded at BWI Airport.

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Brooks, Neal A. & Eric G. Rockel (1979). A History of Baltimore County. Towson, Maryland: Friends of the Towson Library, Inc. ISBN 0-960232-61-3. Dorsey, John, & James D. Dilts (1997).A Guide to Baltimore Architecture. Third Edition. Centreville, Maryland: Tidewater Publishers. (First edition published in 1973.) ISBN 0-87033-477-8. Hall, Clayton Coleman (1912). Baltimore: Its History and Its People. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. Vol. 1. Orser, Edward W. (1994). Blockbusting
Blockbusting
in Baltimore: the Edmonston Village Story. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-1870-0. Scharf, J. Thomas (1879). History of Maryland
Maryland
from the Earliest Period to the Present Day. Baltimore: John B. Piet. Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3. Townsend, Camilla (2000). Tales of Two Cities: Race and Economic Culture in Early Republican North and South America: Guyaquil, Ecuador, and Baltimore, Maryland. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-78167-9.

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Annapolis Cambridge Cumberland Frederick Hagerstown Rockville Salisbury Westminster

Independent municipality

City
City
of Baltimore

Towns

Bel Air Centreville Chestertown Denton Easton Elkton La Plata Leonardtown Oakland Princess Anne Snow Hill Upper Marlboro

CDPs

Ellicott City Prince Frederick Towson

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 State of Maryland

Annapolis (capital)

Topics

Index Cities Government History Media

Newspapers Radio TV

People Congressional delegations Congressional maps Tourist attractions

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics Sports

Regions

Allegheny Mountains Atlantic coastal plain Baltimore–Washington metro area Blue Ridge Chesapeake Cumberland Valley Delaware
Delaware
Valley Delmarva Peninsula Eastern Shore Piedmont Ridge and Valley Southern Maryland Western Maryland Western Shore

Cities

Aberdeen Annapolis Baltimore Bowie Brunswick Cambridge College Park Cumberland Frederick Gaithersburg Greenbelt Hagerstown Havre de Grace Laurel Rockville Salisbury Takoma Park Westminster

Towns

Bel Air Denton Easton Elkton Ocean City Port Deposit

CDPs

Arbutus Arnold Aspen Hill Baltimore
Baltimore
Highlands Bethesda Camp Springs Carney Catonsville Chillum Clinton Cockeysville-Hunt Valley Colesville Columbia Crofton Dundalk Edgewood Eldersburg Elkridge Ellicott City Essex Fairland Ferndale Fort Washington Germantown Glen Burnie Green Haven Hillcrest Heights Landover Langley Park Lanham Lansdowne Lochearn Lutherville Middle River Milford Mill Montgomery Village Odenton Olney Owings Mills Oxon Hill Parkville Perry Hall Pikesville Potomac Randallstown Redland Reisterstown Rosedale St. Charles Severn Severna Park Silver Spring South Gate Suitland Timonium Towson Urbana Waldorf Wheaton-Glenmont White Oak Woodlawn

Counties

Allegany Anne Arundel Baltimore Calvert Caroline Carroll Cecil Charles Dorchester Frederick Garrett Harford Howard Kent Montgomery Prince George's Queen Anne's St. Mary's Somerset Talbot Washington Wicomico Worcester

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All-America City
City
Award: Hall of Fame

Akron, Ohio Anchorage, Alaska Asheville, North Carolina Baltimore Boston Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus, Ohio Dayton, Ohio Des Moines, Iowa Edinburg, Texas Fayetteville, North Carolina Fort Wayne, Indiana Fort Worth, Texas Gastonia, North Carolina Grand Island, Nebraska Grand Rapids, Michigan Hickory, North Carolina Independence, Missouri Kansas City, Missouri Laurinburg, North Carolina New Haven, Connecticut Peoria, Illinois Philadelphia Phoenix, Arizona Roanoke, Virginia Rockville, Maryland Saint Paul, Minnesota San Antonio Seward, Alaska Shreveport, Louisiana Tacoma, Washington Toledo, Ohio Tupelo, Mississippi Wichita, Kansas Worcester, Massachusetts

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Location of the capital of the United States
United States
and predecessors

1774   First Continental Congress

Philadelphia

1775–81   Second Continental Congress

Philadelphia → Baltimore → Lancaster → York → Philadelphia

1781–89   Congress of the Confederation

Philadelphia → Princeton → Annapolis → Trenton → New York City

1789–present   Federal government of the United States

New York City → Philadelphia → Washington, D.C.

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The 100 most populous metropolitan statistical areas of the United States of America

   

New York, NY Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Dallas, TX Houston, TX Washington, DC Philadelphia, PA Miami, FL Atlanta, GA Boston, MA San Francisco, CA Phoenix, AZ Riverside-San Bernardino, CA Detroit, MI Seattle, WA Minneapolis, MN San Diego, CA Tampa, FL Denver, CO St. Louis, MO

Baltimore, MD Charlotte, NC San Juan, PR Orlando, FL San Antonio, TX Portland, OR Pittsburgh, PA Sacramento, CA Cincinnati, OH Las Vegas, NV Kansas City, MO Austin, TX Columbus, OH Cleveland, OH Indianapolis, IN San Jose, CA Nashville, TN Virginia
Virginia
Beach, VA Providence, RI Milwaukee, WI

Jacksonville, FL Memphis, TN Oklahoma City, OK Louisville, KY Richmond, VA New Orleans, LA Hartford, CT Raleigh, NC Birmingham, AL Buffalo, NY Salt Lake City, UT Rochester, NY Grand Rapids, MI Tucson, AZ Honolulu, HI Tulsa, OK Fresno, CA Bridgeport, CT Worcester, MA Albuquerque, NM

Omaha, NE Albany, NY New Haven, CT Bakersfield, CA Knoxville, TN Greenville, SC Oxnard, CA El Paso, TX Allentown, PA Baton Rouge, LA McAllen, TX Dayton, OH Columbia, SC Greensboro, NC Sarasota, FL Little Rock, AR Stockton, CA Akron, OH Charleston, SC Colorado Springs, CO

Syracuse, NY Winston-Salem, NC Cape Coral, FL Boise, ID Wichita, KS Springfield, MA Madison, WI Lakeland, FL Ogden, UT Toledo, OH Deltona, FL Des Moines, IA Jackson, MS Augusta, GA Scranton, PA Youngstown, OH Harrisburg, PA Provo, UT Palm Bay, FL Chattanooga, TN

United States
United States
Census Bureau population estimates for July 1, 2012

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Northeast megalopolis

Major metropolitan areas (over 1,000,000)

New York

city

Philadelphia

city

Washington

city

Boston

city

Baltimore

city

Providence

city

Hartford

city

Other cities (over 100,000)

Newark Jersey City Yonkers Worcester Springfield Alexandria Paterson Bridgeport Elizabeth New Haven Stamford Allentown Manchester Waterbury Cambridge Lowell

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Northeastern United States

Topics

Culture Geography Government History

States

Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Maryland Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Maine Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont

Major cities

Allentown Baltimore Boston Bridgeport Buffalo Burlington Cambridge Elizabeth Erie Hartford Jersey City Lowell Manchester New Haven New York City Newark Paterson Philadelphia Pittsburgh Portland Providence Quincy Reading Rochester Scranton Springfield Stamford Syracuse Washington, D.C. Waterbury Wilmington Worcester

State capitals

Albany Annapolis Augusta Boston Concord Dover Hartford Harrisburg Montpelier Providence Trenton

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235452840 LCCN: n79006530 ISNI: 0000 0004 0420 2224 GND: 4004380-0 BNF:

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