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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Pontic Steppe

* Domestication of the horse
Domestication of the horse
* Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture

* Steppe cultures

* Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk

* Yamna

* Mikhaylovka culture
Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

* Maykop

East-Asia

* Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

* Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni

Northern Europe

* Corded ware

* Baden * Middle Dnieper
Dnieper

------------------------- Bronze Age
Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

* Chariot
Chariot
* Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

* Abashevo culture
Abashevo culture
* Andronovo * Sintashta

Europe

* Beaker * Globular Amphora culture
Globular Amphora culture
* Corded ware * Tumulus * Unetice * Urnfield * Lusatian * Nordic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* Terramare * Trzciniec

South-Asia

* BMAC * Yaz * Gandhara grave

------------------------- Iron Age
Iron Age

Steppe

* Chernoles

Europe

* Thraco-Cimmerian
Thraco-Cimmerian
* Hallstatt * Jastorf

Caucasus

* Colchian

India

* Painted Grey Ware * Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies Bronze Age
Bronze Age

* Anatolians * Armenians
Armenians
* Mycenaean Greeks
Greeks
* Indo-Iranians
Indo-Iranians

Iron Age
Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

* Indo-Aryans

Iranians

* Iranians

* Scythians
Scythians
* Persians * Medes
Medes

Europe

* Celts
Celts

* Gauls
Gauls
* Celtiberians
Celtiberians
* Insular Celts
Celts

* Hellenic peoples * Italic peoples
Italic peoples
* Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples

* Paleo-Balkans /Anatolia :

* Thracians
Thracians
* Dacians
Dacians
* Illyrians
Illyrians
* Phrygians
Phrygians

Middle Ages
Middle Ages

East-Asia

* Tocharians
Tocharians

Europe

* Balts * Slavs
Slavs
* Albanians * Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

* Medieval India

Iranian

* Greater Persia
Greater Persia

Religion and mythology Reconstructed

* Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion
* Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

------------------------- Historical

* Hittite

Indian

* Vedic

* Hinduism
Hinduism

* Buddhism
Buddhism
* Jainism
Jainism

Iranian

* Persian

* Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism

* Kurdish

* Yazidism * Yarsanism
Yarsanism

* Scythian

* Ossetian

Other

* Armenian

Europe

* Paleo-Balkans * Greek * Roman

* Celtic

* Irish * Scottish * Breton * Welsh * Cornish

* Germanic

* Anglo-Saxon * Continental * Norse

* Baltic

* Latvian * Lithuanian

* Slavic * Albanian

Practices

* Fire-sacrifice * Horse sacrifice
Horse sacrifice
* Sati * Winter solstice
Winter solstice
/ Yule
Yule

Indo-European studies
Indo-European studies
Scholars

* Marija Gimbutas
Marija Gimbutas
* J.P. Mallory

Institutes

* Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

* Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture * The Horse, the Wheel and Language
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
* Journal of Indo-European Studies * Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch * Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

* v * t * e

Map of eastern Europe in 3-4th century CE with archeological cultures identified as Baltic-speaking in purple. Their area extended from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to modern Moscow. During the Migration Period in 5-6th century CE, the area of archeological cultures identified as Baltic is becoming more fragmented. By the 7-8th century CE, only Eastern Galindians
Eastern Galindians
remain in the east within the Slavic territory.

The BALTS or BALTIC PEOPLE (Lithuanian : baltai, Latvian : balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages , a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in area east of Jutland
Jutland
peninsula in the west and Moscow
Moscow
, Oka and Volga
Volga
rivers basins in the east. One of the features of Baltic languages
Baltic languages
is the number of conservative or archaic features retained. Among the Baltic peoples are modern Lithuanians
Lithuanians
, Latvians (including Latgalians ) — all Eastern Balts
Balts
— as well as the Old Prussians
Old Prussians
, Yotvingians and Galindians — the Western Balts — whose languages and cultures are now extinct.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Proto-history * 2.3 Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* 3 List of Baltic tribes * 4 See also

* 5 References

* 5.1 English language * 5.2 Polish language

* 6 Notes * 7 External links

ETYMOLOGY

German medieval chronicler Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
in the latter part of the 11th century CE was the first writer to use the term Baltic in its modern sense to mean the sea of that name. Although he must have been familiar with the ancient name, Balcia, meaning a supposed island in the Baltic Sea, and although he may have been aware of the Baltic words containing the stem balt-, "white", as "swamp", he reports that he followed the local use of balticus from baelt ("belt") because the sea stretches to the east "in modum baltei" ("in the manner of a belt"). This is the first reference to "the Baltic or Barbarian Sea, a day's journey from Hamburg
Hamburg
."

The Germanics, however, preferred some form of "East Sea" (in different languages) until after about 1600, when they began to use forms of "Baltic Sea." Around 1840 the German nobles of the Governorate of Livonia devised the term "Balts" to mean themselves, the German upper classes of Livonia, excluding the Latvian and Estonian lower classes. They spoke an exclusive dialect, Baltic German. For all practical purposes that was the Baltic language until 1919. Scandinavians begin settling in Western Baltic lands in Lithuania
Lithuania
and Latvia
Latvia
during Vendel Age and with interruptions their presence in Baltic lands continued most of Viking Age
Viking Age
.

In 1845 Georg Heinrich Ferdinand Nesselmann proposed a distinct language group for Latvian and Lithuanian to be called Baltic. It found some credence among linguists but was not generally adopted until the creation of the Baltic states
Baltic states
as part of the settlement of World War I
World War I
in 1919. Gradually the non-Baltic Estonian was excluded from the linguistic meaning of Baltic, as was Livonian , a now extinct Finnic language in present-day Latvia, while Old Prussian
Old Prussian
— long recognized as close to Lithuanian and Latvian — was added. Estonia and Finland
Finland
(the states of Baltic Finns
Baltic Finns
), however, also became counted among the Baltic states
Baltic states
in the geopolitical sense. (Finland was dropped from this definition after World War II
World War II
, though Estonia remains within the definition.)

HISTORY

ORIGINS

The Balts
Balts
or Baltic peoples, defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, are descended from a group of Indo-European tribes who settled the area between the lower Vistula and southeast shore of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and upper Daugava and Dnieper
Dnieper
rivers. Because the thousands of lakes and swamps in this area contributed to the Balts' geographical isolation, the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
retain a number of conservative or archaic features.

It is possible that around 3,500–2,500 B.C., there was massive migration of peoples representing the Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
. They came from the southeast and spread all across Eastern and Central Europe, reaching even southern Finland. It is believed that Corded Ware culture peoples were Indo-European ancestors of many Europeans, including Balts. It is thought that those Indo-European newcomers were quite numerous and in the Eastern Baltic assimilated earlier indigenous cultures (Europidic cultures – Narva culture and Neman culture ). Over time the new people formed the Baltic peoples and they spread in the area from the Baltic sea in the west to the Volga
Volga
in the east.

Some of the major authorities on Balts, such as Būga , Vasmer , Toporov and Trubachov, in conducting etymological studies of eastern European river names, were able to identify in certain regions names of specifically Baltic provenance, which most likely indicate where the Balts
Balts
lived in prehistoric times. This information is summarized and synthesized by Marija Gimbutas
Marija Gimbutas
in The Balts
Balts
(1963) to obtain a likely proto-Baltic homeland. Its borders are approximately: from a line on the Pomeranian coast eastward to include or nearly include the present-day sites of Berlin
Berlin
, Warsaw
Warsaw
, Kiev
Kiev
, and Kursk
Kursk
, northward through Moscow
Moscow
to the River Berzha, westward in an irregular line to the coast of the Gulf of Riga, north of Riga
Riga
.

PROTO-HISTORY

A possible early reference to a Baltic people occurs in 98 CE, when Tacitus
Tacitus
names a tribe living near the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
(Mare Svebicum) as the Aesti (Aestiorum gentes) and describes them as amber gatherers. However, it is not clear if the Aesti mentioned by Tacitus
Tacitus
were: (1) a (now-extinct) Baltic people (possibly synonymous with the Brus/Prūsa ), or; (2) a Finno-Ugric people (e.g. modern Estonians
Estonians
). The Aesti appear to have inhabited the Sambian peninsula (in or near the present Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
.

Over time, the area of Baltic habitation shrank, due to assimilation by other groups, and invasions. According to one of the theories which has gained considerable traction over the years, one of the western Baltic tribes, the Galindians , Galindae , or Goliad, migrated to the Eastern end of Baltic realm around the 4th century CE, and settled around modern day Moscow, Russia. Finally, according to Slavic chronicles of the time, they warred with Slavs
Slavs
, and perhaps, were defeated and assimilated some time in the 11th to 13th centuries.

Balts
Balts
became differentiated into Western and Eastern Balts
Balts
in the late centuries BCE. The eastern Baltic region was inhabited by ancestors of the Western Balts: Brus/Prūsa ("Old Prussians"), Sudovians / Jotvingians , Scalvians , Nadruvians , and Curonians
Curonians
. The Eastern Balts, including the hypothesised Dniepr Balts , were living in modern-day Belarus, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia.

Subsequent Germanic and Gothic domination in the first half of the first millennium CE in Northern and Eastern Europe, as well as later Slavic expansion, caused large migrations of the Balts
Balts
— first, the Galindae or Galindians towards the east, and later, Eastern Balts towards the west — until, in the 13th and 14th centuries, they reached the general area that the present-day Balts
Balts
inhabit. Many other Eastern and Southern Balts
Balts
either assimilated with other Balts, or Slavs
Slavs
in the 4th–7th centuries and were gradually slavicized.

MIDDLE AGES

In the 12th and the 13th centuries, internal struggles, as well as invasions by Ruthenians
Ruthenians
and Poles
Poles
and later the expansion of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
resulted in an almost complete annihilation of the Galindians, Curonians, and Yotvingians. Gradually Old Prussians
Old Prussians
became Germanized or some Lithuanized during period from the 15th to the 17th centuries, especially after the Reformation in Prussia
Prussia
. The cultures of the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Latgalians/ Latvians survived and became the ancestors of the populations of the modern countries of Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
.

Old Prussian
Old Prussian
was closely related to the other extinct Western Baltic languages , Curonian , Galindian and Sudovian . It is more distantly related to the surviving Eastern Baltic languages
Baltic languages
, Lithuanian and Latvian . Compare the Prussian word seme (zemē), the Latvian zeme, the Lithuanian žemė (land in English).

Old Prussian
Old Prussian
contained a few borrowings specifically from Gothic (e.g., Old Prussian
Old Prussian
ylo "awl," as with Lithuanian ýla, Latvian īlens) and even North Germanic .

LIST OF BALTIC TRIBES

Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE . The Eastern Balts
Balts
are shown in brown hues while the Western Balts
Balts
are shown in green. The boundaries are approximate.

REGIONS TRIBES AND NATIONS LOCALITIES

Eastern Balts† Eastern Galindians
Eastern Galindians
Moscow
Moscow
region

Dniepr Balts Dnieper
Dnieper
basin

Eastern (Middle) Balts Latvians Latgalians

Lithuanians
Lithuanians
Aukštaitians ("highlanders")

Samogitians ("lowlanders")

Prussian Lithuanians
Lithuanians

Transitional Balts† Selonians Toponomastic only.

Semigallians
Semigallians
Toponomastic only.

Curonians
Curonians
, Curonian Kings Toponomastic only.

Western Balts† Yotvingians or Sudovians Historic region

Prussians Sambians

Scalvians

Nadruvians

Natangians

Bartians

Pomesanians

Pogesanians

Western Galindians

Warmians or Varmians

Sasnans

Lubavians

Pomeranian Balts Pomerania
Pomerania

†Extinct

SEE ALSO

* Latvia
Latvia
portal * Lithuania
Lithuania
portal

* Aesti * Neuri * Eastern Baltic languages
Baltic languages
* Western Baltic languages
Baltic languages

REFERENCES

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

* Bojtár, Endre (1999). Foreword to the Past: A Cultural History of the Baltic People. Budapest and New York: Central European University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-963-9116-42-9 . * Gimbutas, Marija (1963). The Balts. London: Thames & Hudson. * "Lithuanians". 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica (1 ed.). 1911.

POLISH LANGUAGE

* "Bałtowie". Encyklopedia Internetowa PWN (in Polish). Archived from the original on April 26, 2005. Retrieved May 25, 2005. * Antoniewicz, Jerzy ; Aleksander Gieysztor (1979). Bałtowie zachodni w V w. p. n. e. – V w. n. e. : terytorium, podstawy gospodarcze i społeczne plemion prusko-jaćwieskich i letto-litewskich (in Polish). Olsztyn
Olsztyn
- Białystok
Białystok
: Pojezierze. ISBN 83-7002-001-1 . * Kosman, Marceli (1981). Zmierzch Perkuna czyli ostatni poganie nad Bałtykiem (in Polish). Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. * "Bałtowie". Wielka Encyklopedia PWN (in Polish) (1 ed.). 2001. * Okulicz-Kozaryn, Łucja (1983). Życie codzienne Prusów i Jaćwięgów w wiekach średnich (in Polish). Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy . * Čepiene, Irena (2000). Historia litewskiej kultury etnicznej (in Polish). Kaunas
Kaunas
, "Šviesa". ISBN 5-430-02902-5 .

NOTES

* ^ Bojtár page 18. * ^ A B Bojtár page 9. * ^ Balcia, Abalcia, Abalus, Basilia, Balisia. The linguistic problem with these names is that Balcia cannot become Baltia by known rule. * ^ Latvian : balti; Lithuanian : baltai; Latgalian : bolti, lit. "white". * ^ Bojtár cites Bremensis I,60 and IV,10. * ^ Bojtár page 10. * ^ Butler, Ralph (1919). The New Eastern Europe. London: Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 3, 21, 22, 23, 24. * ^ Schmalstieg, William R. (Fall 1987). "A. Sabaliauskas. Mes Baltai (We Balts)". Lituanus: Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts and Sciences. Lituanus Foundation Incorporated. 33 (3). Archived from the original on 7 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-06. Book
Book
review. * ^ "Death of a language: last ever speaker of Livonian passes away aged 103". June 5, 2013. * ^ Mikkels Klussis. Bāziscas prûsiskai-laîtawiskas wirdeîns per tālaisin laksikis rekreaciônin Donelaitis.vdu.lt (Lithuanian version of Donelaitis.vdu.lt). * ^ Bojtár page 207.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Gimbutas, Marija (1963). The Balts. London, New York:

.