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Balochi (Balochi: بلؤچی‬‎, Balòči) is a Northwestern Iranian language.[4] It is the principal language of the Baloch people, and is spoken in Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Oman.

Contents

1 Phonology

1.1 Vowels 1.2 Consonants

2 Grammar 3 Dialects 4 Writing system

4.1 The Sayad Zahurshah Hashemi ' Urdu
Urdu
Arabic
Arabic
orthography' 4.2 Balochi orthography 4.3 Balochi Newest Latin Alphabet (Ballatin) 4.4 Balochi Latin alphabet

5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Phonology[edit] Vowels[edit] The Balochi vowel system has at least eight vowels: five long vowels and three short vowels.[5] The long vowels are /aː/, /eː/, /iː/, /oː/, and /uː/. The short vowels are /a/, /i/ and /u/. The short vowels have more centralized phonetic qualities than the long vowels. Southern Balochi (at least as spoken in Karachi) also has nasalized vowels, most importantly /ẽː/ and /ãː/.[6] Consonants[edit] The following consonants are common to both Western Balochi and Southern Balochi.[7] The place of articulation of the consonants /s/, /z/, /n/, /ɾ/ and /l/ is claimed to be alveolar in Western Balochi, while at least the /ɾ/ is claimed to be dental in Southern Balochi. The stops /t/ and /d/ are claimed to be dental in both dialects.

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatoalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal

Stop p b t d

ʈ ɖ

k ɡ ʔ

Affricate

t͡ʃ d͡ʒ

Fricative

s z

ʃ ʒ[cn 1]

h[cn 2]

Tap

ɾ ɽ[cn 3]

Nasal m

n

Approximant w

l

j

Notes

^ Words with /ʒ/ are uncommon. ^ Word-initial /h/ is dropped in Balochi as spoken in Karachi. ^ The retroflex tap has a very limited distribution.

In addition, /f/ is listed for Southern Balochi, but is found in few words. /x/ (voiceless velar fricative) in some loanwords in Southern Balochi corresponding to /χ/ (voiceless uvular fricative) in Western Balochi; and /ɣ/ (voiced velar fricative) in some loanwords in Southern Balochi corresponding to /ʁ/ (voiced uvular fricative) in Western Balochi. Grammar[edit] The normal word order is subject–object–verb. Like many other Indo-Iranian languages, Balochi has split ergativity. In the present tense or future tense, the subject is marked as nominative, and the object is marked as accusative. In the past tense, however, the subject of a transitive verb is marked as oblique, and the verb agrees with the object.[8] Dialects[edit] There are two main dialects among the Balochi language, one with the Mandwani or northern tribes and the other with the Mazaris or southern tribes.[9] The differences among the Mazaris dialect from that among the Maris, the Bugtis, the Shambanis, the Kacchi Plains people and those of the Bolan Pass
Bolan Pass
are slight and as such are said to all be the same.[9] The grammatical terminations by the northern tribes are less full and distinct than those in the southern tribes.[9] Writing system[edit] Before the 19th century, Balochi was an unwritten language.[10] The official written language was Persian and Persian script was used to write Balochi where ever necessary,[10] although Balochi was still spoken at the Baloch courts. British linguists and political historians wrote Balochi with the Latin script, but following the creation of Pakistan, Baloch scholars adopted Persian alphabet. The first collection of poetry in Balochi, Gulbang by Mir Gul Khan Nasir was published in 1951 and incorporated the Urdu
Urdu
Arabic
Arabic
Script. It was much later that Sayad Zahurshah Hashemi wrote a comprehensive guidance on the usage of Urdu
Urdu
Arabic
Arabic
script and standardized it as the Balochi Orthography in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran. This earned Sayad Hashemi the title of 'the Father of Balochi'. Sayad's guidances are widely used in Eastern and Western Balochistan. In Afghanistan, however, Balochi is still written in a modified Arabic
Arabic
script based on what is used for Persian. The Sayad Zahurshah Hashemi ' Urdu
Urdu
Arabic
Arabic
orthography'[edit] ا آ ب پ ت ٹ ج چ د ڈ ر ڑ ز ژ س ش ک گ ل م ن و ھ ء ی ے Balochi orthography[edit] ا آ ب بھ پ پھ ت تھ ٹ ٹھ ث ج جھ ݘ چ چھ ح خ د دھ ڈ ڈھ ڋ ذ ڌ ڌھ ر ڑ ڑھ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط طھ ظ ع غ ف ق قھ ک کھ گ گھ ل لھ م مھ ن نھ ں ڹ و وھ ہ ھ ء ی ے ﻳﮭ ~٠ There are 47 letters in the Balochi language
Balochi language
the orthography of the Balochi script was introduced by Taimur Mengal in his Balochi pamphlet "Balochi Nama Qasim" published in 1987. The same alphabet was published in his article "Balochki Mundh Likh" in the monthly Balochi Nama, Dera Ghazi Khan, August–September 1991, Vol. 1, issue 1, Pp. 24.[11][12] Balochi Newest Latin Alphabet (Ballatin)[edit] Aa Āā Bb Čč Dd Ďď Ee Èè Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Òò Pp Rr Ss Šš Tt Ťť Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Žž[13] Balochi Latin alphabet[edit] The following Latin-based alphabet was adopted by the International Workshop on "Balochi Roman Orthography" (University of Uppsala, Sweden, May 28–30, 2000).[14] Alphabetical order: a á b c d ď e f g ĝ h i í j k l m n o p q r ř s š t ť u ú v w x y z ž ay aw (33 letters and 2 digraphs)

A/a amb (mango), angúr (grape), bagg (camel-caravan), sardar (Head man-nobleman), namb (mist)

Á/á dár (wood), abba (father), árth (flour), bahá (price), pádh (foot), áeghah (coming), áhán (them)

B/b (be) bawar (snow, ice), bám (dawn), bágpán (gardener), baktáwar (lucky)

C/c (che) cattre (umbrella), bachek (son), kánc (knife), Karácí, Kulánc, Cákar, Bálác

D/d (de) dard (pain), drad (rainshower), dárman (medicine), wádh (salt)

Ď/ď is the same as Ř/ř (ře) so this latter is preferably used to simplify the orthography.

E/e eš (this), cer (below), eraht (end of date harvest), pešraw (leader, forerunner), kamer (ploughshare)

F/f (fe) To be used only in loan words where its use is inevitable, like Fráns (France), fármaysí (pharmacy).

G/g (ge) gapp (talk), ganokh (mad), bágh (garden), bagg (herd of camels), pádagh (foot), Bagdád (Baghdad)

Ĝ/ĝ (like ĝhaen in Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script) Only in loan words and in eastern dialects: Ghair (Others), Ghali (Carpet), Ghaza (Noise)

H/h (he) hár (flood), máh (moon), koh (mountain), mahár (rein), hon (blood)

I/i (i) istál (star), ingo (here), gir (take), kirr (near)

Í/í (í) ímmán (faith), šír (milk), pakír (beggar), samín (breeze), gálí (carpet)

J/j (je) jang (war), janagh (to beat), jing (lark), ganj (treasure), sajjí (roasted meat)

K/k (ke) Kirmán (Kirman), kárc (knife), nákho (uncle), gwask (calf), kasán (small)

L/l (le) láp (stomach), gal (joy), ghall (party, organization), gull (cheek), gul (rose)

M/m (me) mát/más (mother), bám (dawn), camm (eye), mastir (leader, bigger)

N/n (ne) nán/nagan/naghan (bread), nokk (new, new moon), dann (outside), kwahn (old), nákho (uncle)

O/o (o) oštagh (to stop), ožnág (swim), roc (sun), dor (pain), socagh (to burn)

P/p (pe) Pádh (foot), šap (night), šapád (bare-footed), gapp (talk), haptád (70)

Q/q (qú) used in loan words, like Qábús.

R/r (re) Rustum (a name), rekh (sand), baragh (to take away), giragh (to get), garragh (to bray), gurrag (to roar), šarr (good), sarag (head), sarrag (a kind of donkey's braying)

Ř/ř (ře) řák (post), řukkál (famine), gařř (urial), guřř (last), guřřag (to chop)

S/s (se) sarag (head), khass (someone), kasán (little), bass (enough), ás (fire)

Š/š (še) šap (night), šád (happy), meš (sheep), šuwánag (shepherd), wašš (happy, tasty)

T/t (te) taghard (mat), tahná (alone) thás (bowl), kilítt (kay), masítt (mosque), battí (lantern)

Ť/ť (ťe) ťung (hole), ťíllo (bell), baťť (cooked rice), baťťág (eggplant)

U/u uštir (camel), šumá (you), ustád (teacher), gužn (hunger), buz (goat)

Ú/ú (ú, sounds like the "oo" in English word "root") úrt (thin), zúrag (to take), bizú (take), dúr (distant)

V/v (ve) Used in loanwords only, like in the English word service, very.

W/w (we) warag (food, to eat), wardin (provision), dawár (abode), wádh (salt), kawwás (learned), hawa (wind)

X/x (khe) Xudá (God)

Y/y (ye) yád (remembrance), yár (friend), yárah (eleven), biryání (meat in rice), raydyo (radio), yakk (one)

Z/z (ze) zarr (monay), zí (yesterday), muzz (wages), moz (banana), nazzíkk (nearby), bazgar (tenant), Zor (power)

Ž/ž (že) žand (tired), zindaghi (life), žáng (bells), pažm (wool), gažžag (to swell), gužnag (hungry), Mauz (waves)

Ay/ay (h)ayrán (surprise), ayrát (distribution), say (3), may (our), kay (who), šumay (your)

Aw/aw kawr (river), hawr (rain), kissaw (story), dawl (sort), dawr (jump), awlád (off-spring), kawl (promise), gawk (neck)

References[edit]

Asia portal Languages portal

^ Hamid Ali Baloch. "SOCIOLINGUISTIC CONTACT AND THE PROVIDENCE OF THE BALOCHI LANGUAGE IN MODERN TIMES". academia.edu. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Balochic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Eastern Iranian languages". Encyclopedia Iranica. "Baluchi, a North-Western Iranian language, is spoken chiefly in Pakistan, in the south-eastern corner of the Iranophone area." ^ See Farrell (1990) for Southern Balochi (as spoken in Karachi, Pakistan, and Axenov (2006) for Western Balochi as spoken in Turkmenistan. ^ Farrell (1990). ^ See Axenov (2006) and Farrell (1990), respectively. ^ "Balochi" at National Virtual Translation Center."Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 18, 2007. Retrieved June 20, 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b c Dames, Mansel Longworth (1922). A text book of the Balochi language. Lahore: Government Print of Punjab. p. 1.  ^ a b Dames, Mansel Longworth (1922). A text book of the Balochi language. Lahore: Government Print of Punjab. p. 3.  ^ Mir Qasim Qaisrani Baloch (August/September 1991) Balochki Mundh Likh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan, Monthly Balochi Nama, Vol. 1, Issue: 1, Pp. 24-25 ^ "Security Check Required".  ^ Baluchi learn Regulated By VTG ^ "Baluchi Roman ORTHOGRAPHY -". www.phrasebase.com. Retrieved 2015-10-23. 

Further reading[edit]

Dictionaries and Lexicographical Works -Gilbertson, George W. 1925. English-Balochi colloquial dictionary. Hertford: Stephen Austin & Sons. -Ahmad, K. 1985. Baluchi Glossary: A Baluchi-English Glossary: Elementary Level. Dunwoody Press. -Baksh, M., Farrell, T. and Razzaq, A. ? Balochi Ganj: A Balochi to Balochi and English Dictionary. ? -Badal Khan, S. 1990. Mán Balócíá Darí Zubánání Judá. Labzánk Vol. 1(3): pp. 11–15. -Abdulrrahman Pahwal. 2007. Balochi Gálband: Balochi/Pashto/Dari/English Dictionary. Peshawar: Al-Azhar Book Co. p. 374. -Mír Ahmad Dihání. 2000. Mír Ganj: Balócí/Balócí/Urdú. Karácí: Balóc Ittihád Adabí Akedimí. p. 427. -Bruce, R. I. 1874. Manual and Vocabulary of the Beluchi Dialect. Government Civil Secretariat Press, Lahore vi 154 p. -Ishák Xámúś. 2014. Balochi Dictionary: Balochi/Urdu/English. Karachi: Aataar Publications. p. 444. -Nágumán. 2011. Balócí Gál: Ambáre Nókáz (Balochi/English/Urdu). Básk. p. 245. -Nágumán. 2014. Jutgál. Makkurán: Nigwar Labzánkí Majlis. p. 64. -Ghulám Razá Azarlí. 2016. Farhange Kúcak: Pársí/Balúcí. Pársí Anjuman. -Dames, M. L. 1891. A Text-book of the Balochi Language, consisting of miscellaneous stories, legends, poems, legends, poems, and a Balochi-English vocabulary. Lahore. -Hashmi, S. Z. S. 2000. Sayad Ganj: Balochi-Balochi Dictionary. Karachi: Sayad Hashmi Academy. P. 887. -Ulfat Nasím. 2005. Tibbí Lughat. Balócí Akademí. p. 260. -Gulzár Xán Marí. 2005. Gwaśtin. Balócí Akedimí. p. 466. -Raśíd Xán. 2010. Batal, Guśtin, Puźdánk, Ghanŧ. Tump: Wafá Labzání Majlis. p. 400. -Śe Ragám. 2012. Batal, Gwaśtin u Gálband. Balócí Akademí. p. 268. -Abdul Azíz Daolatí Baxśán. 1388. Nám u Ném Nám: Farhang Námhá Balúcí. Tihrán: Pázína. p. 180. -Nazeer Dawood. 2007. Balochi into English Dictionary. Gwádar: Drad Publications. p. 208. -Abdul Kaiúm Balóc. 2005. Balócí Búmíá. Balócí Akademí. p. 405. -Ján Mahmad Daśtí. 2015. Balócí Labz Balad [Balochi/Balochi Dictionary]. Balócí Akademí. p. 1255. -Korn, A. 2006. Counting Sheep and Camels in Balochi // Indoiranskoe jazykoznanie i tipologija jazykovyx situacij. Sbornik statej k 75-letiju professora A. L. Gryunberga, éds. Mixail N. BOGOLJUBOV et al. St. Pétersbourg (Nauka). pp. 201–212. -Marri, M. K. and Marri, S. K. 1970. Balúcí-Urdú Lughat. Quetta: Balochi Academy. 332 p. -Mayer, T. J. L. 1900. English-Baluchi Dictionary. Government Press Lahore. -Wáhid Buzzdár. 2004. Balócí Gálband. Balócí Akademí. p. 218. Orthography -Jahani, Carina. 1990. Standardization and orthography in the Balochi language. Studia Iranica Upsaliensia. Uppsala, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell Internat. -Axenov, S. 2000. Balochi Orthography in Turkmenistan. pp. 71–78. In Language in society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi. Sweden: Uppsala University. -Elfenbein, J. 2000. Unofficial and Official Efforts to Promote Balochi in Roman Script. pp. 79–88. In: Jahani, C. (ed.). Language in Society: Eight Sociolinguistic Essays on Balochi Sweden: Uppsala University. -Sayad Háśumí. 1964. Balócí Syáhag u Rást Nibíssag. Dabai: Sayad Háśumí Balóc. p. 144. -Ghaos Bahár. 1998. Balócí Lékwaŕ. Balócí Akademí. p. 227. -Ziá Balóc. 2015. Balócí Rást Nibíssí. Raísí Cáp u Śingjáh. p. 264. -Axtar Nadím. 1997. Nibiśta Ráhband. Balócí Akedimí. p. 206. -Táj Balóc. 2015. Sarámad (Roman Orthography). Bahren: Balóc Kalab. p. 110. Courses and Study Guides -Barker, Muhammad A. and Aaqil Khan Mengal. 1969. A course in Baluchi. Montreal: McGill University. -Collett, Nigel A. 1986. A Grammar, Phrase-book, and Vocabulary of Baluchi (As Spoken in the Sultanate of Oman). Abingdon: Burgess & Son. -Farrell, Tim. 1990. Basic Balochi: An introductory course. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici. - Natawa, T. 1981. Baluchi (Asian and African Grammatical Manuals 17b). Tokyo. 351 p. -Munazzih Batúl Baóc. 2008. Ásán Balúcí Bólcál. Balócí Akademí. p. 152. -Abdul Azíz Jázimí. Balócí Gappe Káidaián. p. 32. -Muhammad Zarrín Nigár. Dastúr Tatbíkí Zabáne Balúcí bá Fársí. Íránśahr: Bunyáde Naśre Farhange Balóc. p. 136. -Gilbertson, George W. 1923. The Balochi language. A grammar and manual. Hertford: Stephen Austin & Sons. -Xer Muhammad Nadwí. 1981. Balócí Muallim. Karácí: Saogát. p. 192. -Ahmadzai, N. K. B. M. 1988. Bólcál: Inglish, Urdú, Balócí, Bráhúí, Kurdí. Quetta: Balochi Academy. 2, 188 p. -Bugti, A. M. 1978. Balócí-Urdú Bólcál. Quetta: Kalat Publications. -Ayyúb Ayyúbí. 1381. Dastúr Zabán Fársí bih Balúcí. Íránśahr: Intiśárát Asátír. p. 200. -Farrell, T. 1990. Basic Balochi: An Introductory Course. Baluchistan Monograph Series, 1. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orietale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici. 90 p. -Hitturam, R. B. 1881. Biluchi Nameh: A Text-book of the Biluchi Language. Lahore. Etymological and Historical Studies -Elfenbein, J. 1985. Balochi from Khotan. In: Studia Iranica. Vol. XIV (2): 223-238. -Gladstone, C. E. 1874. Biluchi Handbook. Lahore. -Hashmi, S. Z. S. 1986. Balúcí Zabán va Adab kí Táríx [The History of Balochi language
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and Literature: A Survey]. Karachi: Sayad Hashmi Academy. -Korn, A. 2005. Towards a Historical Grammar of Balochi. Studies in Balochi Historical Phonology and Vocabulary [Beiträge zur Iranistik 26]. Wiesbaden (Reichert). -Korn, A. 2009. The Ergative System in Balochi from a Typological Perspective // Iranian Journal for Applied Language Studies I. pp. 43–79. -Korn, A. 2003. The Outcome of Proto-Iranian *ṛ in Balochi // Iran : Questions et connaissances. Actes du IVe congrès européen des études iraniennes, organisé par la Societas Iranologica Europaea, Paris, 6-10 septembre 1999. III : Cultures et sociétés contemporaines, éd. Bernard HOURCADE [Studia Iranica Cahier 27]. Leuven (Peeters). pp. 65–75. -Korn, A. 2003. Balochi and the Concept of North-West Iranian // The Baloch and Their Neighbours: Ethnic and Linguistic Contact in Balochistan
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in Historical and Modern Times, éds. Carina JAHANI, Agnes KORN. Wiesbaden (Reichert). pp. 49–60. -Mengal, A. K. 1990. A Persian-Pahlavi-Balochi Vocabulary I (A-C). Quetta: Balochi Academy. -Morgenstiene, G. 1932. Notes on Balochi Etymology. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap. p. 37-53. -Moshkalo, V. V. 1988. Reflections of the Old Iranian Preverbs on the Baluchi Verbs. Naples: Newsletter of Baluchistan Studies. No. 5: pp. 71–74. -Moshkalo, V. V. 1991. Beludzskij Jazyk. In: Osnovy Iranskogo Jazykozanija. Novoiranskie Jazyki I. Moscow. p. 5-90. -Paul, L. 2003. The Position of Balochi Among Western Iranian Languages. In: The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 61-71. -Rossi, A. V. 1998. Ossetic and Balochi in V. I. Abaev’s Slovar. pp. 373-431. In: Studia Iranica et Alanica. Rome: Instituto per l’Africa e l’Orientale. 540 pp. -Rossi, A. V. 2000 (Forthcoming). An Etymological-Comparative Dictionary of the Balochi Language. Dialectology and Language Contact -Pierce, E. 1874. A Description of the Mekranee-Beloochee Dialect. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. XI: 1-98. -Pierce, E. 1875. Makrani Balochi. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. 11: N. 31. -Baranzai, A. N. 2003. The Sarawani Dialect of Balochi and Persian Influence on it. In “The Baloch and Their Neighbours.” Jahani C. and Korn A. eds. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden. pp. 75–111. -Dames, M. L. 1881. A Sketch of the Northern Balochi Language. Calcutta: The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. -Elfenbein, J. 1963. A Vocabulary of Marw Baluchi. Naples. -Elfenbein, J. 1966. The Baluchi Language. A Dialectology with Text. London. -Filipone, E. 1990. Organization of Space: Cognitive Models and Baluchi Dialectology. Newsletter of Baluchistan Studies. Naples. Vol. 7: pp. 29–39. -Gafferberg, E. G. 1969. Beludzhi Turkmenskoi. SSR: Ocherki Khoziaistva Material’oni Kultuy I Byta. sn. -Geiger, W. 1889. Dialectspaltung in Baluchi. Abhandlungen der I. Classe derKoniglich Bayersichen Akaemie der Wissenschaften XVIII/I p. 65-92. -Geiger, W. 1889. Etymologie des Baluci. Abhandlungen der I. Classe derKoniglich Bayersichen Akaemie der Wissenschaften. Vol. XIX(I): pp. 105–53. -Gren-Eklund, G. 2003. Language Contact in Balochistan
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Western Balochi test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Southern Balochi test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Eastern Balochi test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Wikivoyage has phrasebook for Balochi.

Media related to Balochi language
Balochi language
at Wikimedia Commons

Collett, N. A. A grammar, phrase book and vocabulary of Baluchi: (as spoken in the Sultanate of Oman). 2nd ed. [Camberley]: [N.A. Collett], 1986. Dames, Mansel Longworth. A sketch of the northern Balochi language, containing a grammar, vocabulary and specimens of the language. Calcutta: Asiatic Society, 1881. Mumtaz Ahmad. Baluchi glossary: a Baluchi-English glossary: elementary level. Kensington, Md.: Dunwoody Press, 1985. EuroBalúči online translation tool – translate Balochi words to or from English, Persian, Spanish, Finnish and Swedish iJunoon English to Balochi Dictionary UCLA Language Materials Project: Baluchi – a general overview of Balochi with societal context and history of the language Balochi language – a website about the language EuroBalúči – Baluchi alphabet, grammar and music  "Baluchi". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. 

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