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The Baloch or Baluch ( bal, بلۏچ, Balòc) are an Iranian people who live mainly in the
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand du ...
region, located at the southeasternmost edge of the Iranian plateau, encompassing the countries of
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries by population, fifth-most populous country with a popul ...
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...
and
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the eas ...
. There are also Baloch diaspora communities in neighbouring regions, including in
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
,
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ;), also known as Turkmenia, is a sovereign country in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afgh ...
and the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landfo ...
. The Baloch people mainly speak Balochi, a Northwestern Iranian language, despite their contrasting location on the southeastern side of the Persosphere. The vast majority of Baloch reside within Pakistan. About 50% of the total ethnic Baloch population live in the Pakistani province of
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand du ...
, while 40% are settled in Sindh and a significant albeit smaller number reside in Pakistani Punjab. They make up nearly 3.6% of Pakistan's total population, and around 2% of the populations of both Iran and Afghanistan.


Etymology

The exact origin of the word 'Baloch' is unclear. * Rawlinson (1873) believed that it is derived from the name of the Babylonian king and god Belus. * Dames (1904) believed that it is derived from the Persian term for cockscomb, said to have been used as a crest on the helmets of Baloch troops in 6th century BCE. * Herzfeld (1968) proposed that it is derived from the
Median In statistics and probability theory, the median is the value separating the higher half from the lower half of a Sample (statistics), data sample, a statistical population, population, or a probability distribution. For a data set, it may be tho ...
term ''brza-vaciya'', which describes a loud or aggressive way of speaking. * Naseer Dashti (2012) presents another possibility, that of being derived from the name of the ethnic group 'Balaschik' living in Balasagan, between the Caspian Sea and Lake Van in present-day Turkey and Azerbaijan, who are believed to have migrated to Balochistan during the Sasanian Empire, Sasanian times. The remnants of the original name such as 'Balochuk' and 'Balochiki' are said to be still used as ethnic names in Balochistan. Some writers suggest a derivation from Sanskrit language, Sanskrit words ''bal'', meaning strength, and ''och'' meaning high or magnificent. An earliest Sanskrit reference to the Baloch might be the Gwalior inscription of the Gurjara-Pratihara ruler Mihira Bhoja (r. 836–885), which says that the dynasty's founder Nagabhata I repelled a powerful army of ''Valacha Mlecchas'', translated as "Baluch foreigners" by D. R. Bhandarkar. The army in question is that of the Umayyad Caliphate after the conquest of Sindh.


History

According to Baloch lore, their ancestors hail from Aleppo in what is now Syria. They claim to be descendants of Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Ameer Hamza, uncle of the prophet Muhammad, who settled in Halab (present-day Aleppo). After the fight against second Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad Caliph Yazid I at Karbala (in which Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Ameer Hamza's descendants supported and fought alongside Husayn ibn Ali) in 680, descendants of Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Ameer Hamza migrated to east or southeast of the central Caspian Sea, Caspian region, specially toward Sistan, Iran, remaining there for nearly 500 years until they fled to the Makran region following a deception against the Sistan leader Badr-ud-Din. Dayaram Gidumal writes that a Balochi legend is backed up by the medieval Qarmatians. The fact that the Kalmati, Karmatians were ethnic Baluchis is also confirmed by the Persian historian in the 16th century Muhammad Qasim Ferishta. According to another historian ''Ali Sher Kanei'', the author of Tuhfatul Kiram, in his history written in 1774 a.d, he believes that only the Rind (tribe), Rind tribe from Jalal Khan, a descendant of Muhammad ibn Harun, nicknamed Makurani, is a direct descendant of Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Hamza. Based on an analysis of the linguistic connections of the Balochi language, which is one of the Western Iranian languages, the original homeland of the Balochi tribes was likely to the east or southeast of the central Caspian Sea, Caspian region. The Baloch began migrating towards the east in the late Sasanian period. The cause of the migration is unknown but may have been as a result of the generally unstable conditions in the Caspian area. The migrations occurred over several centuries. By the 9th century, Arab people, Arab writers refer to the Baloch as living in the area between Kerman, Greater Khorasan, Khorasan, Sistan, and Makran in what is now eastern Iran. Although they kept flocks of sheep, the Baloches also engaged in plundering travellers on the desert routes. This brought them into conflict with the Buyids, and later the Ghaznavids and the Seljuqs. Adud al-Dawla of the Buyid dynasty launched a punitive campaign against them and defeated them in 971–972. After this, the Baloch continued their eastward migration towards what is now Balochistan province of Pakistan, although some remained behind and there are still Baloch in eastern part of the Iranian Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Sistan-Baluchestan and Kerman province, Kerman provinces. By the 13th–14th centuries waves of Baloch were moving into Sindh, and by the 15th century into the Punjab. According to Dr. Akhtar Baloch, professor at University of Karachi, the Balochis migrated from Balochistan region, Balochistan during the Little Ice Age and settled in Sindh and Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab. The Little Ice Age is conventionally defined as a period extending from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, (noted in Grove 2004:4). or alternatively, from about 1300Miller ''et al''. 2012. "Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks" ''Geophysical Research Letters'' 39, 31 January
abstract (formerly on AGU website)
(accessed via wayback machine 11 July 2015); se
press release on AGU website
(accessed 11 July 2015).
to about 1850. Although climatologists and historians working with local records no longer expect to agree on either the start or end dates of this period, which varied according to local conditions. According to Professor Baloch, the climate of Balochistan was very cold and the region was inhabitable during the winter so the Baloch people migrated in waves and settled in Sindh and Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab. The area where the Baloch tribes settled was disputed between the Persian people, Persian Safavids and the Mughal emperors. Although the Mughals managed to establish some control over the eastern parts of the area, by the 17th century, a tribal leader named Mir Hasan established himself as the first "Khan of the Baloch". In 1666, he was succeeded by Ahmad I (Kalat), Mir Aḥmad Khan Qambarani who established the Balochi Khanate of Kalat under the Ahmadzai dynasty. Originally in alliance with the Mughals, the Khanate lost its autonomy in 1839 with the signing of a treaty with the British Raj, British colonial government and the region effectively became part of British Raj.


Balochi culture

Gold ornaments such as necklaces and bracelets are an important aspect of Baloch women's traditions and among their most favoured items of jewellery are ''dorr'', heavy earrings that are fastened to the head with gold chains so that the heavy weight will not cause harm to the ears. They usually wear a gold brooch (''tasni'') that is made by local jewellers in different shapes and sizes and is used to fasten the two parts of the dress together over the chest. In ancient times, especially during the pre-Islamic era, it was common for Baloch women to perform Persian dance, dances and sing Balochi music, folk songs at different events. The tradition of a Baloch mother singing lullabies to her children has played an important role in the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation since ancient times. Apart from the dressing style of the Baloch, indigenous and local traditions and customs are also of great importance to the Baloch. Baloch Culture Day is celebrated by the Balochi people annually on 2 March with festivities to celebrate their rich culture and history.


Baloch tribes


Tradition

Traditionally, Jalal Khan was the ruler and founder of the first Balochi confederacy in 12th century. (He may be the same as Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire.) Jalal Khan left four sons – Rind Khan, Lashar Khan, King Hoth Baloch, Hoth Khan, Kora Khan and a daughter, Bibi Jato, who married his nephew Murad.


Divisions

As of 2008 it was estimated that there were between eight and nine million Baloch people living in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. They were subdivided between over 130 tribes. Some estimates put the figure at over 150 tribes, though estimates vary depending on how subtribes are counted. The tribes, known as ''taman'', are led by a tribal chief, the tumandar. Subtribes, known as paras, are led by a muquaddam. Five Baloch tribes derive their eponymous names from Khan's children. Many, if not all, Baloch tribes can be categorized as either Rind or Lashari based on their actual descent or historical tribal allegiances that developed into cross-generational relationships. This basic division was accentuated by a war lasting 30 years between the Rind and Lashari tribes in the 15th century.


Pakistan

There are 180,000 Bugti based in Dera Bugti District. They are divided between the Rahija Bugti, Masori Bugti, Kalpar Bugti,Marehta Bugti and other sub-tribes. Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti led the Bugti as Tumandar until his death in 2006. Talal Akbar Bugti was the tribal leader and President of the Jamhoori Watan Party from 2006 until his death in 2015. There are 98,000 Marri (tribe), Marri based in Kohlo district, who further divide themselves into Gazni Marri, Bejarani Marri, and Zarkon Marri. Hyrbyair Marri has led the Balochistan Liberation Army since his brother's death in 2007.


Tribalism

Violent intertribal competition has prevented any credible attempt at Baloch nationalism, creating a nation-state. A myriad of militant secessionist movements, each loyal to their own tribal leader, threatens regional security and political stability. Nationalist groups like the Baloch Students Organization, composed of armed rebels, and the Baloch Council of North America, made up of educated expatriates living in the United States, have simultaneously denounced Balochistan's traditional rulers and Pakistan's national government. In 2020, a separatist movement attacked but failed to gain entry to the Pakistan Stock Exchange, which was 40% owned by China. Baloch tribes are markedly less Egalitarianism, egalitarian, as are the Pashtun tribes.


Religion

The majority of the Baloch people in Pakistan are Sunni Muslims, with 64.78% belonging to the Deobandi movement, 33.38% to the Barelvi movement, and 1.25% to the Ahl-i Hadith movement. Shia Muslims comprise 0.59% of Balochs. Although Baloch leaders, backed by traditional scholarship, have held that the Baloch people are secular, Christine Fair and Ali Hamza found during their recent (2017) empirical study that, when it comes to Islamism, "contrary to the conventional wisdom, Baloch are generally indistinguishable from other Pakistanis in Balochistan or the rest of Pakistan". There are virtually no statistically significant or substantive differences between Balochi Muslims and other Muslims in Pakistan in terms of religiosity, support for a sharia-compliant Pakistan state, liberating Muslims from oppression, etc. A small number of Balochs are non-Muslims, particularly in the Bugti clan which has Hindu and Sikh members. There are a few Hindus in the Bugti, Bezenjo, Marri, Rind and other Baloch tribes. The Bhagnaris are a Hindu Baloch community living in India who trace their origin to southern Balochistan but migrated to India during the Partition of India, Partition.


Baloch people from Pakistan

* Mir Jafar Khan Jamali, a veteran politician from All-India Muslim League, Muslim League and a tribal leader from Balochistan. He was a close friend of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. * Zafarullah Khan Jamali, the 15th prime minister of Pakistan. * Musa Khan, a former commander in chief of the Pakistan army. * Asif Ali Zardari, the 11th president of Pakistan. * Asif Saeed Khan Khosa, the 26th chief justice of Pakistan. * Sardar Usman Buzdar, the current chief minister of Punjab province. * Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, the current chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party. * Shireen Mazari, the federal minister for human rights and a member of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf. * Farooq Leghari, the 8th president of Pakistan. * Sardar Mohammad Ayub Khan Gadhi, a Member of the Provincial Assembly and Ex-Minister for Counter Terrorism Punjab. * Kiran Baluch, Kiran Maqsood Baluch, a Pakistani Women's cricket, women cricketer. * Aftab Baloch, a former Pakistani cricketer. * Zulfiqar Ali Khosa, a former governor of Punjab province. * Mir Hazar Khan Khoso, a former Chief Justice of the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan. * Latif Khosa, a former Governor of Punjab. * Muhammad Muqeem Khan Khoso, a former Chief Sardar of the Khoso Tribe and former Member of the Provincial Assembly from PS-14 Jacobabad. * Sarfraz Bugti, a former home minister of Balochistan. Currently a member of the senate. * Jam Kamal Khan, the current chief minister of Balochistan. * Sanaullah Khan Zehri, the 15th chief minister of Balochistan. * Siraj Raisani, a member of Balochistan Awami Party. He is also a recipient of the Sitara-e-Shujaat (star of bravery). * Sardar Mir Balakh Sher Mazari, the interim prime minister of Pakistan in a 1993 caretaker government. * Abdul Qadir Baloch, a retired General in the Pakistan army. Currently a Pakistani politician. * Khair Bakhsh Marri was a Baloch politician from the province of Balochistan (Pakistan), Balochistan in Pakistan. *Akbar Bugti, the former Tumandar of the Bugti tribe and Minister of State of Balochistan Province. *Karima Baloch, an activist for human rights and Balochistani independence who gained asylum in Canada.


See also

* Baloch people in the United Arab Emirates * Jalal Khan * King Hoth Baloch * Baloch of Turkmenistan * Balochistan conflict * Al Balushi * Firoud * Kai Khosrow * Baloch cuisine * Indo-Iranian peoples * Baloch nationalism * Hinglaj Mata mandir * Kalat Kali Temple * Rostam Aziz


Notes


References


Bibliography

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Further reading

* *


External links


Iran
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. * * {{Authority control Baloch people, Iranian ethnic groups Social groups of Balochistan, Pakistan Social groups of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Ethnic groups in Afghanistan Ethnic groups in Oman Ethnic groups in Pakistan Ethnic groups in Iran Ethnic groups in South Asia Ethnic groups in the Middle East Nimruz Province Sistan and Baluchestan Province Ethnic groups divided by international borders