BALLROOM DANCE is a set of partner dances , which are enjoyed both socially and competitively around the world. Because of its performance and entertainment aspects, ballroom dance is also widely enjoyed on stage , film , and television .
There are also a number of historical dances, and local or national dances, which may be danced in ballrooms or salons. Sequence dancing, in pairs or other formations, is still a popular style of ballroom dance.
* 1 Definitions and history
* 1.1 Early Modern Age * 1.2 19th century * 1.3 Early 20th century
* 2 Competitive dancing
* 2.1 Elements of competition * 2.2 Medal evaluations
* 3 Collegiate Ballroom * 4 Dances
* 5 Competitive Dances
* 6.1 International Style competition dances
* 6.1.1 Standard
* 6.2 American Style competition dances (only in the U.S. ">
In 1650 the
Toward the latter half of the 17th century,
The waltz with its modern hold took root in England in about 1812; in
Carl Maria von Weber
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Modern ballroom dance has its roots early in the 20th century, when several different things happened more or less at the same time. The first was a movement away from the sequence dances towards dances where the couples moved independently. This had been pre-figured by the waltz, which had already made this transition. The second was a wave of popular music, such as jazz , much of which was based on the ideas of black musicians in the USA. Since dance is to a large extent tied to music, this led to a burst of newly invented dances. There were many dance crazes in the period 1910–1930. Vernon and Irene Castle , early ballroom dance pioneers, c. 1910–18
The third event was a concerted effort to transform some of the dance
crazes into dances which could be taught to a wider dance public in
the US and Europe. Here
Vernon and Irene Castle were important, and so
was a generation of English dancers in the 1920s, including Josephine
Later, in the 1930s, the on-screen dance pairing of
Competitions, sometimes referred to as
Dancesport , range from world
championships, regulated by the
World Dance Council (WDC), to less
advanced dancers at various proficiency levels. Most competitions are
divided into professional and amateur, though in the USA pro-am
competitions typically accompany professional competitions. The
International Olympic Committee
Ballroom dancing competitions in the former USSR also included the Soviet Ballroom dances , or Soviet Programme. Australian New Vogue is danced both competitively and socially. In competition there are 15 recognised New Vogue dances, which are performed by the competitors in sequence. These dance forms are not recognised internationally, neither are the US variations such as American Smooth, and Rhythm. Such variations in dance and competition methods are attempts to meets perceived needs in the local market-place.
Formation dance is another style of competitive dance recognised by the IDSF. In this style, multiple dancers (usually in couples and typically up to 16 dancers at one time) compete on the same team, moving in and out of various formations while dancing.
ELEMENTS OF COMPETITION
Intermediate level international style
In competitive ballroom, dancers are judged by diverse criteria such as poise, the hold or frame, posture, musicality and expression, timing, body alignment and shape, floor craft, foot and leg action, and presentation. Judging in a performance-oriented sport is inevitably subjective in nature, and controversy and complaints by competitors over judging placements are not uncommon. The scorekeepers—called scrutineers—will tally the total number recalls accumulated by each couple through each round until the finals, when the Skating system is used to place each couple by ordinals, typically 1–6, though the number of couples in the final may vary. Sometimes, up to 8 couples may be present on the floor during the finals.
Competitors dance at different levels based on their ability and experience. The levels are split into two categories, syllabus and open. The syllabus levels are newcomer/pre-bronze, bronze, silver, and gold—with gold the highest syllabus level and newcomer the lowest. In these levels, moves are restricted to those written in syllabus, and illegal moves can lead to disqualification. Each level, bronze, silver, and gold, has different moves on their syllabus, increasing in difficulty. There are three levels in the open category; novice, pre-champ, and champ in increasing order of skill. At those levels, dancers no longer have restrictions on their moves, so complex routines are more common.
Medal evaluations for amateurs enable dancers' individual abilities
to be recognized according to conventional standards. In medal
evaluations, which are run by bodies such as the Imperial Society of
Teachers of Dancing (ISTD) and the
United Kingdom Alliance (UKA) ,
each dancer performs two or more dances in a certain genre in front of
a judge. Genres such as Modern Ballroom or
People on the dance floor waiting to dance and compete.
There is a part of the ballroom world dedicated to college students.
These chapters are typically clubs or teams that have an interest in
ballroom dancing. Teams hold fundraisers, social events, and ballroom
Victor Fung and Anna Mikhed dancing a tango in 2006. The couple, dancing for the USA, came third in the Professional World Championship 2009.
"Ballroom dance" refers most often to the ten dances of INTERNATIONAL BALLROOM (or Standard) and INTERNATIONAL LATIN, though the term is also often used interchangeably with the five International Ballroom dances. Sequence dancing , which is danced predominantly in the United Kingdom, and its development New Vogue in Australia and New Zealand, are also sometimes included as a type of Ballroom dancing.
In the United States and Canada, the AMERICAN STYLE (AMERICAN SMOOTH
and AMERICAN RHYTHM) also exists. The dance technique used for both
International and American styles is similar, but International
Ballroom allows only closed dance positions , whereas American Smooth
allows closed, open and separated dance movements. In addition,
different sets of dance figures are usually taught for the two styles.
Other dances sometimes placed under the umbrella "ballroom dance"
include Nightclub Dances such as
Lindy Hop ,
West Coast Swing
Ballroom/Smooth dances are normally danced to Western music (often from the mid-twentieth century), and couples dance counter-clockwise around a rectangular floor following the line of dance . In competitions, competitors are costumed as would be appropriate for a white tie affair, with full gowns for the ladies and bow tie and tail coats for the men; though in American Smooth it is now conventional for the men to abandon the tailsuit in favor of shorter tuxedos , vests, and other creative outfits.
Latin/Rhythm dances are commonly danced to contemporary Latin
American music and (in case of Jive) Western music. With the exception
of a few traveling dances like Samba and
Viennese waltz originated in Provence area in France in 1559, and is recognized as the oldest of all ballroom dances. It was introduced in England as German waltz in 1812 and became popular throughout the 19th century by the music of Josef and Johann Strauss. It is often referred to as the classic “old-school” ballroom. Viennese Waltz music is quite fast. Slight shaping of the body moves towards the inside of the turn and shaping forward and up to lengthen the opposite side from direction. Reverse turn is used to travel down long side and is overturned. While natural turn is used to travel short side and is underturned to go around the corners. Viennese waltz is performed for both International Standard and American Smooth.
The foxtrot is a true American dance, credited by a vaudeville performer Harry Fox in 1914. Fox was rapidly trotting step to ragtime music ( an original form of jazz). The dance was originally named as the “Fox’s trot”.The foxtrot can be danced at slow, medium, or fast tempos depending on the speed of the jazz or big band music. The partners are facing one another and frame rotates from one side to another, changing direction after a measure. The dance is flat, with no rise and fall like the waltz. The walking steps are taken as slow for the two beats per steps and quick for one beat per step. Foxtrot is performed for both International Standard and American Smooth.
The quickstep was invented in the 1920s as a combination of faster tempo of foxtrot and the Charleston. It is a fast moving dance so men are allowed to close their feet and the couples move in short syncopated steps. Quick step includes the walks, runs, chasses and turns, of the original foxtrot dance, with some other fast figures such as locks, hops, and skips can be added. Quick step is performed as an International Standard dance.
Samba is the national dance of Brazil. The rhythm of samba and its
name originated from West African slaves. In 1905, samba became known
to the rest of the countries during an exhibition in Paris. Eventually
in 1940s, samba was introduced in America due to a movie star named
Carmen Miranda.The modern ballroom samba dance differs compared to the
traditional Brazilian samba as it was modified as a partner dance.
Samba is danced with a slight bounce which is created through the
bending and straightening the knee. Samba is performed as an
The cha-cha was originally called the “cha-cha-cha.” The term
came from Haiti and resembled the sound the bells made when rubbed. It
was evolved from the rumba and mambo in the 1950s. Since mambo music
was quite fast and difficult for some to dance to, a Cuban composer
Enrique Jorrin slowed the music down and cha-cha was
established.Cha-cha is a very flirtatious dance with many hip
rotations and partners synchronizing their movements. The dance
includes bending and straightening of the knee giving it a touch of
Cuban motion. Cha-cha is performed for both International
Rumba is known to be the most romantic and passionate of all dances.
In the early 1920s, the dance came to the United States from Cuba and
became a popular cabaret dance during prohibition.Rumba is very
polyrhythmic and complex. It includes Cuban motions through
knee-strengthening, figure- eight hip rotation and swiveling foot
action. An important characteristic of rumba is the powerful and
direct lead achieved through the ball of the foot. Rumba is performed
for both International
The paso doble originated from France and its dramatic bullfights.
The dance is mostly performed only in competitions and rarely socially
due to many choreographic rules. The man plays the role of the matador
while the women take the role of the matador’s cape, the bull, or
even the matador too.The chassez cape refers to the man using the
woman to turn her as if she is the cape and the apel is when man
stomps his foot to get the bull's attention. Paso double is performed
as an International
The jive is part of the swing dance group and is a very lively
variation of the jitterbug. Jive originated from African American
clubs in the early 1940s. During World War II, American soldiers
introduced the jive in England where it was adapted to today's
competitive jive.In jive, the male leads the dance while the women
encourage the men to ask them to dance. It is danced to big band music
and some technique is taken from salsa, swing and tango. Jive is
performed as an International
EAST COAST SWING
Swing in 1927 was originally named the
Lindy Hop named by Shorty
George Snowden. There have been 40 different versions documented over
the years, most common is the East Coast swing which is performed in
American Smooth (or American Rhythm) only in the U.S. or Canada.
The East Coast swing was established by
The original version of bolero was created by Sebastian Cerezo in
Cadiz, Spain during the 18th century. However, the bolero performed
now was modified in Cuba a century later. The dance represents the
couple falling in love.
Mambo originated from Cuba but the name came from Haiti. Mambo music was first written in late 1930s by a Cuban composer. Eventually in the late 1940s, a musician named Perez Prado invented the dance mambo. Perez introduced the dance from Havana to Mexico, and making its way up to New York. Mambo is performed as an American Rhythm dance.
DANCE STYLE CLASSIFICATION
INTERNATIONAL STYLE COMPETITION DANCES
According to World Dance Council .
TANGO : 32 bars per minute, 2/4 time
VIENNESE WALTZ : 60 bars per minute, 3/4 time. On the European continent, the Viennese waltz is known simply as waltz, while the waltz is recognized as English waltz or Slow Waltz.
FOXTROT : 28 bars per minute, 4/4 time
QUICKSTEP : 50 bars per minute, 4/4 time
SAMBA : 48 bars per minute, 4/4 time
CHA-CHA-CHA : 30 bars per minute, 4/4 time
RUMBA : 24 bars per minute, 4/4 time
PASO DOBLE : 56 bars per minute, 2/4 time
JIVE : 42 bars per minute, 4/4 time
AMERICAN STYLE COMPETITION DANCES (ONLY IN THE U.S. ">
* ^ A B Franks A.H. 1963. Social dance: a short history. Routledge rev. ed. London: Stanley Paul. (1st edition: London: H. Jenkins, 1927) * ^ Richardson P.J S. 1948. The history of English ballroom dancing (1900–1945). London: Jenkins * ^ "History of Musical Film, by John Kenrick". Musicals101.com. 1996. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
* ^ "Review of "Swing Time" (1936)". rogerebert.com . 1998-02-15.
* ^ USDC
* ^ Certificate of Olympic recognition of WDSF Archived 2010-06-26
·Nott, James, Going to the Palais: a social and cultural history of dancing and dance halls in Britain, 1918-60 - Published 2015 OUP ISBN 9780199605194 https://global.oup.com/academic/product/going-to-the-palais-9780199605194?cc=gb&lang=en;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
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