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The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali
Bali
and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit. With some modifications, the script is also used to write the Sasak language, used in the neighboring island of Lombok.[1] The script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, and so has many similarities with the modern scripts of South and Southeast Asia. The Balinese script, along with the Javanese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
of Southeast Asia.[2] Though everyday use of the script has largely been supplanted by the Latin alphabet, the Balinese script
Balinese script
has significant prevalence in many of the island's traditional ceremonies and is strongly associated with the Hindu
Hindu
religion. The script is mainly used today for copying lontar or palm leaf manuscripts containing religious texts.[2][3]

Brahmic scripts

The Brahmic script and its descendants

Northern Brahmic

Gupta script

Bhaiksuki alphabet Tocharian alphabet Śāradā script

Laṇḍā scripts

Gurmukhī alphabet Khojki Khudabadi script Multani alphabet Mahajani

Devāśeṣa

Takri alphabet Dogra

Tibetan alphabet

'Phags-pa script Pungs-chen Pungs-chung Marchen Marchung Horizontal square script Meithei script Lepcha alphabet Limbu alphabet

Siddhaṃ script

Nepal script

Bhujimol Ranjana script

Soyombo alphabet

Prachalit Nepal script

Nāgarī script

Devanagari Nandinagari

Gujarati alphabet Modi alphabet Kaithi Sylheti Nagari

Gaudi

Assamese-Bengali Tirhuta Odia

Southern Brahmic

Tamil-Brahmi

Vatteluttu
Vatteluttu
alphabet

Kolezhuthu

Tamil script Grantha alphabet

Malayalam script Tigalari alphabet Sinhala alphabet Dhives Akuru

Thaana

Saurashtra alphabet Khmer alphabet

Lao alphabet Thai alphabet

Cham alphabet Ahom alphabet Kawi script

Balinese script Javanese script Baybayin Batak script Buhid alphabet Hanunó'o alphabet Tagbanwa alphabet Sundanese script Lontara script Makasar Rejang script Old Mon script Burmese script S'gaw Karen alphabet Chakma alphabet

Tai Tham alphabet

New Tai Lue alphabet

Tai Le alphabet Tai Viet alphabet

Bhattiprolu alphabet

Kadamba alphabet

Kannada alphabet Telugu script Pyu script

v t e

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Letters

2.1 Consonants

2.1.1 Hanacaraka
Hanacaraka
traditional order 2.1.2 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
order

2.2 Vowels 2.3 Gantungan and Gempelan

3 Diacritics

3.1 Pangangge suara 3.2 Pangangge tengenan 3.3 Pangangge aksara

4 Numerals 5 Other symbols 6 Orthography

6.1 Balinese Language

6.1.1 Assimilation 6.1.2 Liquid Consonant- Schwa
Schwa
Combination 6.1.3 Latin Script Transliteration

6.2 Sasak Language

7 Font 8 Unicode 9 Gallery 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Characteristics[edit] There are 47 letters in the Balinese script, each representing a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or /ə/ at the end of a sentence, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Pure Balinese can be written with 18 consonant letters and 9 vowel letters, while Sanskrit
Sanskrit
transliteration or loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese utilizes the full set. A set of modified letters are also used for writing the Sasak language. Each consonant has a conjunct form called gantungan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.[4][5] Punctuation includes a comma, period, colon, as well as marks to introduce and end section of a text. Musical notation uses letter-like symbols and diacritical marks in order to indicate metrical information. Text are written left to right without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).[1] There is also a set of "holy letters" called aksara modre which appears in religious texts and protective talismans. Most of them are constructed using diacritic ulu candra with corresponding characters. A number of additional characters, known to be used inline in text (as opposed to decoratively on drawings), remains under study and those characters are expected to be proposed as Balinese extensions in due course.[1] Letters[edit] A basic letter in Balinese is called aksara (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ), and each letter stands for a syllable with inherent vowel /a/. Consonants[edit] Consonants are called wianjana (ᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ) or aksara wianjana (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ). Balinese script
Balinese script
has 33 consonants, of which only 18 called wreṣāstra (ᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ) are used for writing basic vocabulary in Balinese language. The other 15, known as sualalita (ᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ), are mainly used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Kawi loanwords in Balinese language. The consonants can be arranged into Sanskrit
Sanskrit
order and hanacaraka traditional order. Hanacaraka
Hanacaraka
traditional order[edit] The consonants can be arranged in hanacaraka traditional order. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka. However, the hanacaraka sequence only has the 18 consonants of aksara wreṣāstra (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ) and exclude aksara sualalita (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ). However, this table below include aksara sualalita as the current romanization have no diacritics for the consonants.

ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ Aksara Wianjana Consonants

Poem First Line Second Line Third Line Fourth Line

IPA [ha] [na] [tʃa] [ra] [ka] [da] [ta] [sa] [wa] [la] [ma] [ga] [ba] [ŋa] [pa] [dʒa] [ja] [ɲa]

Aksara Latin Latin Transcription ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la ma ga ba nga pa ja ya nya

Aksara Wreṣāstra ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯᬺᬱᬵᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬭ ᬳ ᬦ ᬘ ᬭ ᬓ ᬤ ᬢ ᬲ ᬯ ᬮ ᬫ ᬕ ᬩ ᬗ ᬧ ᬚ ᬬ ᬜ

Aksara Sualalita ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬰ᭄ᬯᬮᬮᬶᬢ

ᬡ ᬙ

ᬔ ᬥ ᬟ ᬠ ᬣ ᬝ ᬞ ᬰ ᬱ

ᬖ ᬪ

ᬨ ᬛ

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
order[edit] As other Brahmic scripts, consonants in Balinese script
Balinese script
can be arranged into Tamil / Sanskrit
Sanskrit
order. Thus, Balinese script
Balinese script
had been influenced by Kalvi / Shiksha. The table below uses the order.

Aksara Wianjana ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ Consonants

Warga (Place of articulation) Pancawalimukha

Ardhasuara ᬅᬭ᭄ᬥᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ (Semivowels) Ūṣma ᬊᬱ᭄ᬫ (Fricatives) Wisarga ᬯᬶᬲᬭ᭄ᬕ (Glottal)

Unvoiced Voiced Anunāsika ᬅᬦᬸᬦᬲᬶᬓ Nasal

Alpaprāṇa ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ Unaspirated Mahāprāṇa ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ Aspirated Alpaprāṇa ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ Unaspirated Mahāprāṇa ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ Aspirated

Kaṇṭhya ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Guttural)

ᬓ [ka] ka Ka1

ᬔ [kʰa] kha Ka mahaprana

ᬕ [ga] ga Ga1

ᬖ [gʰa] gha Ga gora

ᬗ [ŋa] nga Nga1

ᬳ [ha] ha Ha12

Tālawya ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ (Palatal)

ᬘ [tʃa] ca Ca murca1

ᬙ [tʃʰa] cha Ca laca3

ᬚ [dʒa] ja Ja1

ᬛ [dʒʰa] jha Ja jera

ᬜ [ɲa] nya Nya1

ᬬ [ja] ya Ya1

ᬰ [ɕa] śa ça Sa saga

Mūrdhanya ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ (Retroflex)

ᬝ [ʈa] ṭa Ta latik

ᬞ [ʈʰa] ṭha Ta latik m.5

ᬟ [ɖa] ḍa Da murda a.4

ᬠ [ɖʰa] ḍha Da murda m.5

ᬡ [ɳa] ṇa Na rambat

ᬭ [ra] ra Ra1

ᬱ [ʂa] ṣa Sa sapa

Dantya ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ (Dental)

ᬢ [ta] ta Ta1

ᬣ [tʰa] tha Ta tawa

ᬤ [da] da Da lindung1

ᬥ [dʰa] dha Da madu

ᬦ [na] na Na kojong1

ᬮ [la] la La1

ᬲ [sa] sa Sa danti16

Oṣṭhya ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Labial)

ᬧ [pa] pa Pa1

ᬨ [pʰa] pha Pa kapal

ᬩ [ba] ba Ba1 or

ᬪ [bʰa] bha Ba kembang7

ᬫ [ma] ma Ma1

ᬯ [wa] wa Wa1

^1 Aksara wreṣāstra. They are, in traditional order: ha na ca ra ka / da ta sa wa la / ma ga ba nga / pa ja ya nya. ^2 The consonant ha is sometimes not pronounced. For example, ᬳᬸᬚᬦ᭄ hujan (lit. rain) is pronounced ujan.[6] ^3 The exact form of ca laca is unknown because only the appended (gantungan) form is left.[7] However, the independent form is included in Unicode.[8] ^4 alpaprana ^5 mahaprana ^6 Actually an alveolar consonant, but classified as dental by tradition ^7 The former of the two letter forms is more frequently used. Vowels[edit] Vowels, called suara (ᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ) or aksara suara (ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ), can be written as independent letters when vowels appear in initial position. They are described in the following list:

Aksara suara ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ Vowels

Warga

(Place of articulation) Aksara suara hŗeşua ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭᬳᬺᬱ᭄ᬯ (Short vowels) Aksara suara dirgha ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬲ᭄ᬯᬭᬤᬷᬭ᭄ᬖ (Long vowels)

Balinese script Balinese script Latin Transliteration IPA Name Name Balinese script Balinese script Latin Transliteration IPA

Kaṇṭhya ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Guttural)

ᬅ a [a] A kara

ᬆ ā [ɑː]

Tālawya ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ (Palatal)

ᬇ i [i] I kara

ᬈ ī [iː]

Mūrdhanya ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ (Retroflex)

ᬋ ṛ [ɹ̩] Ra repa

ᬌ ṝ [ɹ̩ː]

Dantya ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ (Dental)

ᬍ ḷ [l̩] La lenga

ᬎ ḹ [l̩ː]

Oṣṭhya ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Labial)

ᬉ u [u] U kara

ᬊ ū [uː]

Kaṇṭha-Tālawya ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ (Palato-guttural)

ᬏ e [e] [ɛ] E kara Airsanya

ᬐ ai [aːi]

Kaṇṭha-Oṣṭhya ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Labio-guttural)

ᬑ o [o] [ɔ] O kara

ᬒ au [aːu]

Gantungan and Gempelan[edit] Gantungan (ᬕᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬗᬦ᭄) (appended letters) and gempelan (ᬕᬾ‌ᬾ‌ᬫ᭄ᬧᬮᬦ᭄) (attached letters) has to be used to represent consonant cluster as zero vowel sign (adeg-adeg) may not used in middle of sentence in general. Thus, as some Brahmic family (Javanese), consonant cluster is written in stack. Each consonant letter has a corresponding either gantungan or gempelan (for pa, pha, sa and ṣa only) form, and the presence of gantungan and gempelan eliminate the inherent vowel [a] of the letter it is appended to. For example, if the letter na (ᬦ) is appended with gantungan da (◌᭄ᬤ), the pronunciation becomes nda (ᬦ᭄ᬤ). Gantungan or gempelan can be applied with pangangge (diacritic) to a letter. However, attaching two or more gantungan to one letter is forbidden; this condition is known as tumpuk telu (three layers). Adeg-adeg may be used in the middle of a sentence to avoid such situation. For example, tamblang with consonant cluster mbl is written as ᬢᬫ᭄‌ᬩ᭄ᬮᬂ.[9] The forms of gantungan and gempelan are as follows:

Gantungan Gempelan ᬕᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬗᬦ᭄ ᬕᬾ‌ᬾ‌ᬫ᭄ᬧᬮᬦ᭄

Warga (Place of articulation) Pancawalimukha

Ardhasuara ᬅᬭ᭄ᬥᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ (Semivowels) Ūṣma ᬊᬱ᭄ᬫ (Fricatives) Wisarga ᬯᬶᬲᬭ᭄ᬕ (Glottal)

Unvoiced Voiced Anunāsika ᬅᬦᬸᬦᬲᬶᬓ Nasal

Alpaprāṇa ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ Unaspirated Mahāprāṇa ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ Aspirated Alpaprāṇa ᬅᬮ᭄ᬧᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ Unaspirated Mahāprāṇa ᬫᬵᬳᬵᬧ᭄ᬭᬵᬡ Aspirated

Kaṇṭhya ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Guttural)

◌᭄ᬓ Ka

◌᭄ᬔ Ka mahaprana

◌᭄ᬕ Ga

◌᭄ᬖ Ga gora

◌᭄ᬗ Nga

◌᭄ᬳ Ha

Tālawya ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ (Palatal)

◌᭄ᬘ Ca murca

◌᭄ᬙ Ca laca

◌᭄ᬚ Ja

◌᭄ᬛ Ja jera

◌᭄ᬜ Nya

◌᭄ᬬ Ya

◌᭄ᬰ Sa saga

Mūrdhanya ᬫᬹᬭ᭄ᬠᬜ (Retroflex)

◌᭄ᬝ Ta latik

◌᭄ᬞ Ta latik m.

◌᭄ᬟ Da madu a.

◌᭄ᬠ Da madu m.

◌᭄ᬡ Na rambat

◌᭄ᬭ Ra

◌᭄ᬱ Sa sapa

Dantya ᬤᬦ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬ (Dental)

◌᭄ᬢ Ta

◌᭄ᬣ Ta tawa

◌᭄ᬤ Da lindung

◌᭄ᬥ Da madu

◌᭄ᬦ Na kojong

◌᭄ᬮ La

◌᭄ᬲ Sa danti

Oṣṭhya ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Labial)

◌᭄ᬩ Ba

◌᭄ᬪ Ba kembang

◌᭄ᬧ Pa

◌᭄ᬨ Pa kapal

◌᭄ᬫ Ma

◌᭄ᬯ Wa

Diacritics[edit] Diacritics
Diacritics
(pangangge (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕ), pronounced /pəŋaŋɡe/, also known as sandhangan when referring to the Javanese script) are symbols that cannot stand by itself. When they are attached to the independent letters, they affect the pronunciation. The three types of diacritics are pangangge suara, pangangge tengenan (pronounced /t̪əŋənan/) and pangangge aksara. Pangangge suara[edit] Pangangge suara (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ) change inherited vowel of consonant letter. For example, the letter ᬦ (na) with ulu (◌ᬶ) becomes ni (ᬦᬶ); ka (ᬓ) with suku (◌ᬸ) becomes ku (ᬓᬸ). The diacritics in this category is summarized in the following list:

Pangangge suara ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬲ᭄ᬯᬭ

Warga

(Place of articulation) Balinese script Transliteration IPA Name

Kaṇṭhya ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Guttural)

◌ᭂ e / ê / ě 1 [ə] Pepet

◌ᬵ ā [ɑː] Tedung

Tālawya ᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ (Palatal)

◌ᬶ i [i] Ulu

◌ᬷ ī [iː] Ulu sari

Oṣṭhya ᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Labial)

◌ᬸ u [u] Suku

◌ᬹ ū [uː] Suku ilut

Kaṇṭha-Tālawya ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬢᬵᬮᬯ᭄ᬬ (Palato-guttural)

◌ᬾ e / é 1 [e] [ɛ] Taling

◌ᬿ ai [aːi] Taling detya

Kaṇṭha-Oṣṭhya ᬓᬡ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬᬑᬱ᭄ᬞ᭄ᬬ (Labio-guttural)

◌ᭀ o [o] [ɔ] Taling tedung

◌ᭁ au [aːu] Taling detya matedung

^1 As first romanization of Balinese Language was developed during Dutch Colonial Era, letter e represents sound [ə] and letter é represents sound [e] and [ɛ] as in Van Ophuijsen Indonesian and Dutch orthography. After 1957, sounds [ə], [e] and [ɛ] are represented with e as in current Indonesian orthography with exception for new learner and dictionary usage.[10][11] Many consonants can form ligatures with tedung:

Pangangge tengenan[edit] Pangangge tengenan (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬢᭂᬗᭂᬦᬦ᭄), except adeg-adeg, adds a final consonant to a syllable. It can be used together with pangangge suara. For example, the letter ᬦ (na) with bisah (◌ᬄ) becomes ᬦᬄ (nah); ᬓ (ka) with suku (◌ᬸ) and surang (◌ᬃ) becomes ᬓᬸᬃ (kur). Compared to Devanagari, bisah is analogous to visarga, cecek to anusvara, and adeg-adeg to virama. Adeg-adeg is zero vowel diacritics as in other Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
in Balinese script. Adeg-adeg, as virama in Devanagari, suppress the inherent vowel /a/ in the consonant letter. Adeg-adeg is used on impossibility of gantungan and gempelan usage such as succeeded by punctuation marks, attachment of two or more gantungan to one letter (tumpuk telu, lit. three layers), preservation of combination (watek ksatriya, ᬯᬢᭂᬓ᭄‌ᬓ᭄ᬱᬢ᭄ᬭᬶᬬ rather than ᬯᬢᭂᬓ᭄ᬓ᭄ᬱᬢ᭄ᬭᬶᬬ) and disambiguation.[10]

Pangangge tengenan ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬢᭂᬗᭂᬦᬦ᭄

Balinese script IPA Translit. Name

◌ᬄ [h] h Bisah

◌ᬃ [r] r Surang

◌ᬂ [ŋ] ng Cecek

◌᭄ [∅]

Adeg-adeg

Pangangge aksara[edit] Pangangge aksara (ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ) is appended below consonant letters. Pangangge aksara are the appended (gantungan) forms of the ardhasuara (semivowel) consonants. Guwung macelek is the appended form of the vowel ra repa (ᬋ).

Pangangge aksara ᬧᬗ᭢‌ᬗ᭄ᬕᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭ

Balinese script IPA Translit. Name

◌᭄ᬭ [ra] ra Cakra Guwung

◌ᬺ [rə] rě Guwung macelek

◌᭄ᬯ [ʋa] ua Suku kembung

◌᭄ᬬ [ja] ia Nania

Numerals[edit] Main article: Balinese numerals

Balinese numeral Balinese numeral Hindu
Hindu
numeral Name

Balinese numeral Balinese numeral Hindu
Hindu
numeral Name

᭐ 0 Bindu Windu

᭕ 5 Lima

᭑ 1 Siki Besik

᭖ 6 Nem

᭒ 2 Kalih Dua

᭗ 7 Pitu

᭓ 3 Tiga Telu

᭘ 8 Kutus

᭔ 4 Papat

᭙ 9 Sanga Sia

Balinese numerals
Balinese numerals
are written in the same manner as Hindu
Hindu
numerals. For example, 25 is written with the Balinese numbers 2 and 5. If the number is written in the middle of a text, carik has to be written before and after the number to differentiate it from the text. Below is an example of how a date is written using Balinese numerals
Balinese numerals
(date: 1 July 1982, location: Bali):

Balinese script Transliteration

ᬩᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭞ᬚᬸᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭙᭘᭒᭟ Bali, 1 Juli 1982.

Other symbols[edit] There are some special symbols in the Balinese script. Some of them are punctuation marks, and the others are religious symbols. The symbols are described in the following list:

Symbol Symbol Name Remarks

᭞ Carik Carik Siki. Written in the middle of a sentence, like a comma (,). Also, written surrounding numerals to differentiate them from the text.

᭟ Carik Kalih Carik Pareren Written at the end of a sentence, like a full stop (.).

᭝ Carik pamungkah Functions like a colon (:).

᭟᭜᭟ Pasalinan Used at the end of a prose, letter, or verse.

᭚ Panten or Panti Used at the beginning of a prose, letter, or verse.

᭛ Pamada Used at the beginning of religious texts. This symbol is a ligature of the letters ma, nga, ja, and pa, forming the word mangajapa, which roughly means "praying for safety".

ᬒᬁ Ongkara Sacred symbol of Hinduism. This symbol is pronounced "Ong" or "Om".

Orthography[edit] Balinese Language[edit] Assimilation[edit] Assimilation in Balinese occurs with-in the word. Balinese script represents assimilation occurred, however Latin script
Latin script
sometimes may not represent this. In general, alveolar consonants are assimilated into palatal, retroflex or labial. There are more specific descriptions in assimilation combination:[11]

ᬦ [n] assimilated into ᬜ [ɲ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster nc ᬜ᭄ᬘ and nj ᬜ᭄ᬚ. For example, word wianjana is written as ᬯ᭄ᬬᬜ᭄ᬚᬦ ([wyaɲdʒana]), not written as ᬯ᭄ᬬᬦ᭄ᬚᬦ ([wyandʒana]). ᬲ [s] assimilated into ᬰ [ɕ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster sc ᬰ᭄ᬘ. For example, word pascad is written as ᬧᬰ᭄ᬘᬤ᭄ ([paɕcad]), not written as ᬧᬲ᭄ᬘᬤ᭄ ([pascad]). ᬤ [d] assimilated into ᬚ [dʒ] if succeeded by palatal consonants, such as consonant cluster dny ᬚ᭄ᬜ. For example, word yadnya is written as ᬬᬚ᭄ᬜ ([jadʒɲa]), not written as ᬬᬤ᭄ᬜ ([jadɲa]). ᬦ [n] assimilated into ᬡ [ɳ] if preceded by retroflex consonants, such as consonant cluster rn ᬭ᭄ᬡ. For example, word karna is written as ᬓᬭ᭄ᬡ ([karɳa]), not written as ᬓᬭ᭄ᬦ ([karna]). ᬲ [s] assimilated into ᬱ [ʂ] if succeeded by retroflex consonants, such as consonant cluster st (ṣṭ) ᬱ᭄ᬝ and sn (ṣṇ) ᬱ᭄ᬡ. For example, word dusta (duṣṭa, lie) is written as ᬤᬸᬱ᭄ᬝ ([duʂʈa]), not written as ᬤᬸᬲ᭄ᬝ ([dusʈa]). ᬦ [n] assimilated into ᬫ [m] if succeeded by labial consonants. For example, word tanbara is written as ᬢᬫ᭄ᬪᬭ ([tambʰara]), not written as ᬢᬦ᭄ᬪᬭ ([tanbʰara]).

Liquid Consonant- Schwa
Schwa
Combination[edit] Liquid consonant, ᬭ [r] and ᬮ [l], may not be combined with ◌ᭂ (pepet, schwa) [ə] as ᬭᭂ and ᬮᭂ. These combination, rě [rə] and lě [lə], sholuld be written as ᬋ (re repa) and ᬍ (le lenga). Word kěrěng (lit. eat a lot) and lekad are written as ᬓᭂᬋᬂ and ᬍᬓᬤ᭄. While combination of ◌᭄ᬮ (gantungan [l]) and ◌ᭂ (pepet) is possible as in ᬩ᭄ᬮ‍ᭂᬕᬜ᭄ᬚᬸᬃ (bleganjur), combination of ◌᭄ᬭ (cakra or gantungan [r]) and ◌ᭂ pepet is not allowed. If the combination follows a word which ends in a consonant, ◌᭄ᬋ (gempelan re repa) may be used as in ᬧᬓ᭄ᬋᬋᬄ (Pak Rěrěh, Mr. Rěrěh). If the combination is in a word, ◌ᬺ (guwung macelek) may be used instead as in ᬓᬺᬱ᭄ᬡ (Krěsna, Krishna).[11][12] Latin Script Transliteration[edit] Latin script
Latin script
transliteration into Balinese script
Balinese script
is based on phonetics. As vocabulary expands, foreign sounds are introduced and have no equivalent on Balinese script. In general, transliteration of foreign sounds is shown as below.[13]

Foreign Sound Transliteration

IPA Foreign Sound Latin Script Balinese Language Example

Latin Script Balinese Script Foreign Word Balinese Language Meaning

Latin Script Balinese Script

[f] f p ᬧ telefon telepon ᬢᬾᬮᬾᬧᭀᬦ᭄ telephone

[v] v p ᬧ vitamin pitamin ᬧᬶᬢᬫᬶᬦ᭄ vitamine

[kw], [k], [q] q k ᬓ quantum kuantum ᬓ᭄ᬯᬦ᭄ᬢᬸᬫ᭄ quantum

[x] x kṣ ᬓ᭄ᬱ taxi taksi ᬢᬓ᭄ᬱᬶ taxi

[z] z j ᬚ

[z] z s ᬲ

Sasak Language[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2016)

Font[edit] There are some fonts for Balinese script
Balinese script
as of 2016. Bali
Bali
Simbar, JG Aksara Bali, Aksara Bali, Tantular Bali, Lilitan, Geguratan and Noto Sans Balinese are some fonts that included Balinese script. The fonts have different degree of compatibility each other. Bali
Bali
Simbar is first font for Balinese script
Balinese script
by I Made Suatjana Dipl Ing at 1999.[14] Bali
Bali
Simbar is not compatible for Mac-OS and Unicode.[14][15] JG Aksara Bali, was designed by Jason Glavy, has over 1400 Balinese glyphs, including a huge selection of precomposed glyph clusters.[15] The latest version of JG Aksara Bali
Bali
is released on 2003, thus has no compatibility with Unicode.[15] Bali
Bali
Simbar and JG Aksara Bali, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Balinese's extensive repertoire as Balinese script
Balinese script
was not included in Unicode
Unicode
at the creation time.[14][15] Aksara Bali
Bali
by Khoi Nguyen Viet is the first hacked Unicode
Unicode
Balinese font with a brute-force OpenType implementation. The results depend on how well other OpenType features are implemented in the renderer. The font has about 370 Balinese glyphs.[15] The team of Aditya Bayu Perdana, Ida Bagus Komang Sudarma, and Arif Budiarto has created a small series of Balinese fonts: Tantular Bali, Lilitan, and Geguratan, all using hacked Unicode
Unicode
and a brute-force OpenType implementation. Tantular has about 400 Balinese glyphs.[15] Due to the script's complexity, some fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws.[15] The other font is Noto Sans Balinese from Google.[16] Noto Sans Balinese is compatible with Unicode.[16] Due to the script's complexity, Noto Sans Balinese may exhibit several flaws.[15] Unicode[edit] Balinese script
Balinese script
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in July, 2006 with the release of version 5.0. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Balinese is U+1B00–U+1B7F:

Balinese[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+1B0x ᬀ ᬁ ᬂ ᬃ ᬄ ᬅ ᬆ ᬇ ᬈ ᬉ ᬊ ᬋ ᬌ ᬍ ᬎ ᬏ

U+1B1x ᬐ ᬑ ᬒ ᬓ ᬔ ᬕ ᬖ ᬗ ᬘ ᬙ ᬚ ᬛ ᬜ ᬝ ᬞ ᬟ

U+1B2x ᬠ ᬡ ᬢ ᬣ ᬤ ᬥ ᬦ ᬧ ᬨ ᬩ ᬪ ᬫ ᬬ ᬭ ᬮ ᬯ

U+1B3x ᬰ ᬱ ᬲ ᬳ ᬴ ᬵ ᬶ ᬷ ᬸ ᬹ ᬺ ᬻ ᬼ ᬽ ᬾ ᬿ

U+1B4x ᭀ ᭁ ᭂ ᭃ ᭄ ᭅ ᭆ ᭇ ᭈ ᭉ ᭊ ᭋ

U+1B5x ᭐ ᭑ ᭒ ᭓ ᭔ ᭕ ᭖ ᭗ ᭘ ᭙ ᭚ ᭛ ᭜ ᭝ ᭞ ᭟

U+1B6x ᭠ ᭡ ᭢ ᭣ ᭤ ᭥ ᭦ ᭧ ᭨ ᭩ ᭪ ᭫ ᭬ ᭭ ᭮ ᭯

U+1B7x ᭰ ᭱ ᭲ ᭳ ᭴ ᭵ ᭶ ᭷ ᭸ ᭹ ᭺ ᭻ ᭼

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Gallery[edit]

Page from a Bible
Bible
printed with Balinese script

Balinese palm-leaf manuscript

Sign at Pura Puseh Temple, Batuan, Bali

Street sign in Singaraja, written in Latin and Balinese script

Klungkung Regent's Office sign

References[edit]

^ a b c Everson, Michael; Suatjana, I Made (2005-01-23). "N2908: Proposal for encoding the Balinese script
Balinese script
in the UCS" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-09.  ^ a b Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ^ Fox, Richard (2013). Rival Styles of Writing, Rival Styles of Practical Reasoning. Heidelberg: Institut für Ehtnologie. ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali
Bali
Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013.  ^ Richard Ishida (2012). "Balinese Script Notes". Retrieved 22 May 2014.  ^ Tinggen, p. 16 ^ Tinggen, p. 23 ^ " Unicode
Unicode
Table" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-13.  ^ Tinggen, p. 27 ^ a b Tinggen, I Nengah (1994). Pedoman Perubahan Ejaan Bahasa Bali dengan Huruf Latin dan Huruf Bali. Singaraja: Rikha.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b c Pedoman Pasang Aksara Bali. Denpasar: Dinas Kebudayaan Provinsi Bali. 1997.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Ishida, Richard. " Balinese script
Balinese script
notes". Retrieved 24 March 2016.  ^ Tinggen, I Nengah (1994). Celah-Celah Kunci Aksara Bali
Bali
(1 ed.). Singaraja: Rhika.  ^ a b c "Aksara Bali". Bali
Bali
Galang Foundation. Retrieved 24 March 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Bringing Balinese to iOS". Norbert’s Corner. Retrieved 24 March 2016.  ^ a b "Noto Sans Balinese". Google Noto Font. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 

Sources[edit]

Surada, I Made. 2007. Kamus Sanskerta-Indonesia. Surabaya: Penerbit Paramitha. Simpen, I Wayan. Pasang Aksara Bali. Diterbitkan oleh Dinas Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Daerah Tingkat I Bali.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Balinese script.

Entry on Balinese at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing systems Computerization of Balinese Script http://unicode-table.com/en/sections/balinese/

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.